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Short Notes About Histopathology

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Screening test for cervical cancer invented by George Phonically(Father of Eschatology)when he found out that cells in the cervix change before they become cancerous. Recommended starting 21 y/o to 65 y/o Speculum – instrument used in the test Importance/Clinical Significance: For early detection of small tumors or pre-malignant cells in the cervix that may lead to cervical cancer.

Specimen: cells in the cervix; the doctor or nurse starts by inserting a speculum into the patient’s vagina, spreading it open so that access to the Ervin is possible and collects a sample of cells.

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CINE – cervical antithetically neoplasm; pre-malignant transformation and abnormal growth of exogamous cells in the cervix. TWO METHODS: 1. Liquid – Based Cytology This method uses an arrow-shaped brush and the sample is deposited into a small bottle of preservative liquid rather than putting it in a microscope slide. Involves Thinners- it preserves the cells and minimizes cell overlap, blood, mucus and inflammation. . Conventional Pap Smear This method uses a spatula to collect the sample and the cells are transferred into a gyroscope slide that can cause uneven layering, crowding and overlapping of cells making a correct diagnosis difficult under a microscope in the laboratory.

Cells collected can be obscured by blood, mucus and inflammation.

But it is one of the best cancer prevention tool. Pregnancy tests are designed to tell if your urine or bloodstains a hormone ladled human chronic contradiction (hug). Margaret Crane is/was a US scientist that created the first at home pregnancy test (listed inventor on US Patent care -rest (POCK) HUMAN CHRONIC CONTRADICTION (hug) Short Notes About Histology’s By dissimilarities Produced during pregnancy. It is made by cells that form the placenta Levels can first be detected by : blood test- 11 days after conception urine test- 12 – 14 days after conception hug levels will double every 72 hours.

The level will reach its peak in the first 8- 11 weeks of pregnancy WHAT DOES A HIGH hug LEVEL INDICATE? . Miscalculation of pregnancy dating 2. Molar pregnancy- happens when tissue that normally becomes a fetus instead becomes an abnormal growth in your uterus 3. Multiple pregnancy- more than one fetus is carried to term in a single pregnancy WHAT DOES A Logic LEVEL INDICATE? 2. Octopi pregnancy- the fertilized egg stays in your fallopian tube. 3.

Miscarriage or Blighted Ovum- the loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy TYPES OF PREGNANCY TESTS URINE TESTS -3 FORMATS: (1) Strip/Dipstick Format, (2) Cassette Format, (3) Midstream Format – done home or in a doctor’s office private and convenient -can detect hug levels after 12-14 days after ovulation-for accurate results: (a)wait a week after you miss your period, (b) do it first thing in the morning, where your urine is most concentrated 0 BLOOD TESTS -can detect hug levels after 11 days after ovulation (earlier than urine tests) -done at the doctor’s office -2 TYPES: (1) QUALITATIVE hug TEST- Simply checks if hug present (“yes” or “no”) (2) QUANTITATIVE hug TEST- (beta hug) measures the exact amount of hug in your blood; and may be helpful in tracking pregnancy problems An Introduction to Routine and Special Staining

In the histology’s laboratory, the term “routine staining” refers to the homoeopathy and eosin stain (H) that is used “routinely’ with all tissue specimens to reveal the underlying tissue structures and conditions. The term “special stains” has long been used to refer to a large number of alternative staining techniques that are used when the H&E does not provide all the information the pathologist or researcher needs. Preparing Tissue for Staining FROZEN SECTION 1 . Tissue is quickly frozen to preserve and harden it. 2. The frozen tissue is sectioned in cryostat (a sectioning microcosm in a freezing hammer) and placed on a microscope slide for staining. 3.

The section is fixed immediately before it begins to decay and is then stained. PARAFFIN SECTION 1 . Fixation preserves the tissue (typically using a formaldehyde- based solution). 2. Grossing isolates the particular area of tissue to be sectioned. 3. Tissue processing uses a sequence of reagents to replace an aqueous (water-based) environment with a hydrophobic one enabling tissue elements to be infiltrated with paraffin wax. 4. Embedding allows specimen orientation and secures the specimen in a block of wax for section cutting and storage. 5. Sectioning is done on a microcosm that cuts very fine sections which are floated-out on a water bath then picked up and placed on microscope slides. 6.

The slides are then dried in an oven or on a hot plate to remove moisture and help the tissue adhere to the slide. 7. The tissue on the slide is now ready for staining. 8. The first staining step is De-waxing which uses a solvent to remove the wax from the slide prior to staining. This is always done as part of the staining process. When a stain is complete the section is covered with a coverall’s that makes the preparation permanent. Why H&E Staining is Routine Homoeopathy and Eosin (H&E) staining is used routinely in histology’s laboratories as it provides the pathologist/researcher a very detailed view of the tissue. It achieves this by clearly staining cell structures including the cytoplasm, nucleus, and organelles and extra-cellular components.

This information is often sufficient to allow a disease diagnosis based on the organization (or disorientation) of the cells and also shows any abnormalities or particular indicators in the actual cells (such as nuclear changes typically seen in cancer). H&E Chemistry – Homoeopathy reacts like a basic dye with a purplish blue color. It stains acidic, or basophilic, structure including the cell nucleolus (which contains DNA and nucleotide), and organelles that contain RNA such as ribosome and the rough endoplasmic reticulum. – Eosin is an acidic dye that is typically reddish or pink. It stains basic, or acidophilic, structures which includes the cytoplasm, cell walls, and extracurricular fibers. Dye origins – Homoeopathy is extracted from the Lockwood tree and purified.

It is then oxidized and combined with a mordant (typically aluminum) to allow it to bind to the cell structures – Eosin is formed by a reaction between bromine and fluorescent. Cell Block Preparation Cell blocks are routinely utilized in cytological diagnosis of fine needle aspiration biopsies (FANS) and body fluids (pelvic, pleural, pericardia, and ascetics) which either contain tissue fragments or are very cellular. It is generally an ancillary procedures and may add additional information about the specimen, supplementing the smear. The prepared cell blocks are processed in Histology where H&E and/or special stains are applied to the mounted specimen. Importance and Significance Useful for categorization of tumors that are otherwise may not be possible from smear themselves.

Advantages Pattern and architectural recognition of tumor possible Simple, reproducible, and readily available in routine laboratory No necessity of biopsy Storage of cell blocks is easier than unstained slides Traditional Cell Block Preparation Histories Centrifugation Procedure Specimens Used Fine Needle Aspiration (FAN) material Sputum Effusion fluid Urine sediments Various washings and laves Sample integrity Unfixed specimens are refrigerated until processed Fixed specimens may be stored at room temperature indefinitely Reference Range Normal value is not applicable. TISSUE PROCESSING The process of preparing the tissue by embedding it in a sulfonamide that is firm enough to support it and give sufficient rigidity SIGNIFICANCE -used to give or produce substantial microscopic information -helps in the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease of a patient (ex. Cancer) STEPS 1.

Specimen Labeling It is very important that the tissue be properly labeled so as to avoid any confusion regarding duplication of same name or giving a wrong diagnosis to the patient. 2. Fixation – process in which a specimen is treated by exposing it to a fixative for a particular period of time in order to facilitate the succeeding steps . Dehydration and Clearing – tissue is embedded in a solid matrix to support the tissue during sectioning (most commonly used solid support: paraffin) -tissue must be dehydrated in order to properly embed it (usually done with ethanol) -tissue is usually passed through a series of baths of increasing concentrations of ethanol then ends in several baths of 100% ethanol -after dehydration, alcohol must be cleared from the tissue (done with an organic solvent such as Selene) 4.

Embedding It is done by transferring the tissue which has been cleared of the alcohol to a mould filled with molten wax & is allowed to cool & solidify. . Sectioning – paraffin block containing the tissue is sliced or sectioned using a device called microcosm: equipped with a knife sharp enough to routinely slice the paraffin block into sections as thin as 5 micrometers -thickness of a typical tissue section is 7 – 10 micrometers -after sectioning, the paraffin sections are floated on a water bath then mounted on glass slides 6. Staining Staining of the section is done to bring out the particular details in the tissue under study. The most commonly used stain in routine practice is Hamiltonian & eosin stain. Result : The nucleus stains Blue The cytoplasm stains pink.

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Short Notes About Histopathology. (2017, Jul 21). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/short-notes-about-histopathology-5465/

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