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Substrate On Rate Respiration In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Biology

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The purpose of this probe is to analyze what effects different substrates have on the respiration of barm. I will look into this by mensurating the sum of C dioxide evolved during anaerobiotic respiration. The volume of CO2 gas will be collected utilizing a gas syringe.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Yeast

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, besides known as barm, is a micro being that uses saprophytic digestion to interrupt down substrates. This is achieved through let go ofing specific enzymes to interrupt down specific substrates, but if yeast does non incorporate a certain types of enzyme so it can non interrupt down its substrate.

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The more the enzyme of a peculiar substrate, the faster the rate of dislocation and therefore the more CO2 is produced. This will assist me to prove how much CO2 each substrate produces. Yeast can besides respire aerobically and anerobically depending on the handiness of O2. If there is plentiful of O2 so yeast would respire aerobically with sugars, bring forthing H2O and CO2 as waste merchandises.

However, if no O is available so the agitation would happen which converts sugars into CO2 and ethyl alcohol.

Respiration

Respiration is the procedure by which energy is released energy from glucose in the presence of Oxygen, organizing C dioxide and H2O as waste merchandises. Glucose releases energy in a series of reactions that take topographic point inside constituents of the cell. The phases are briefly explained below:

Glycolysis

To acquire the sugar in a more reactive signifier it is produced to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate by the add-on 2 phosphate molecules. This procedure is a phosphorylation reaction. The fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is so broken down into 2 molecules of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate, which comprises of 3C each. The glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate converted into pyruvate via the oxidization procedure where each GAL3P molecule releases 2 H ions and 2 negatrons. The negatrons are so transferred to NAD to bring forth NADH ( reduced NAD ) and the energy is used to bring forth 4ATP from 4ADP and 4Pi. Finally there is a net output of 2 molecules of ATP, and 2 molecules of pyruvate which is used in the nexus reaction and 2 molecules of reduced NAD which carries on to the nexus reaction.

LINK REACTION

In the nexus reaction the 2 molecules of pyruvate leave the cytol of the cell and enter the mitochondrial matrix. This is an oxidization reaction where 2 NAD molecules oxidise 2 pyruvate molecules into 2 acerb molecules. These 2 molecules of acetic acid so travel on to unite with 2 coenzyme-A molecules to organize Acetyl Co enzyme A. in the terminal of this phase 2 molecules of decreased NAD signifier, 2 molecules of CO2 is lost and most significantly, Acetyl Co enzyme A is formed through the transition of pyruvate. This is so used in the following phase of respiration.

KREBS CYCLE

At the start Acetyl Coenzyme A, combines with Citrate Synthase an enzyme every bit good and a 4 C molecule called oxalacetate, organizing Citrate. Then, Citrate goes through the procedure of oxidative decarboxylation which forms a 5 C molecule called oxoglutarate.at this point NADH is produced and CO2 is removed. In the latter phases of the krebs rhythm, the oxoglutarate is changed into a 4 C oxalacetate molecule. NADH is made and 1 molecule ATP is besides made. The volume of CO2 that is produced in the krebs rhythm is of import as this is the dependent variable.

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

In this phase all of the NADH and FADH that has been produced in the old phases is converted into ATP. This takes topographic point in the cristae of the chondriosome. The NADH and FADH negatrons move. When the negatrons pass from one bearer to another, a series of decrease and oxidization reactions take topographic point which releases energy in the procedure. This energy is used to pump H+ ions from the matrix into the intermembrane infinite, therefore making a gradient where the concentration of the H+ ions in the intermembranal infinite is higher than it s in the matrix. The interior membrane contains enzymes called ATP Synthase and The H+ ions diffuse through these enzymes doing energy to be released which is used to synthesize ATP through phosphorylation. The procedure is called because the concluding terminus negatron acceptor is oxygen which picks up the negatrons from the concatenation and the H+ ion from the matrix to organize H20 as a waste merchandise. This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme Cytochrome Oxidase

For every NADH which enters the concatenation and is oxidised by NADH dehydrogenase, 3 ATP are produced. For each FADH that enters the concatenation, 2 molecules of ATP are made.

Enzyme

Enzymes are proteins that can efficaciously increase the rate of a reaction by take downing the needed energy ( activation energy ) needed in order for the reaction to happen. Enzymes have a third construction which decides the form of the active site. The substrate must be specific to the active site because if they were non complementary to each other, so the substrate can no longer adhere to the active site, therefore the enzyme substrate composite does non organize. The public presentation of enzymes can be affected in several ways some of which I have explained below.

Temperature

An addition in temperature will do an addition in the rate of reaction because both the enzyme atoms and substrate atoms have gained kinetic energy. This will ensue in the atoms to travel faster, therefore increasing hit frequence and the Numberss of successful hits as the atoms have the needed activation energy. If the temperature rises above the optimal temperature so the enzymes can go denaturized. This happens because the enzyme molecule vibrates more doing the weak H bonds ( keeping the 3D construction of the enzyme together ) to interrupt. This finally leads to the form of the active site being altered. Consequently, the substrate will non be able to adhere with the substrate as the form of the active site is no longer complementary so the substrate enzyme composite can non organize. This is of import in my experiment because if the barm ( enzyme ) was to go denaturized so it would non be able to adhere with the substrate ( e.g. glucose ) and the reaction would non be catalysed, forestalling any CO2 from being formed. I must guarantee that temperature is kept changeless throughout.

Ph

Another factor which can impact enzymes is pH. Enzymes besides have an optimum pH which is pH enzymes work best at. Changing the pH can alter the third construction due to the figure of H+ ion in an acid or the OH- ions in an base. These ions disrupt the H and ionic bonds between -NH2 and -COOH. This will do the third construction to interrupt down and altering the active site in the procedure. Once once more, the substrate will no longer be able to adhere with the active site, therefore no substrate enzyme composite will organize. I intend to utilize a buffer solution which will defy any alterations in pH.

SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION

Increasing substrate concentration additions enzyme activity as they are more molecules to busy the active site, therefore a faster reaction. If more enzyme substrate composite signifiers so more CO2 will be produced. However this is occurs merely for a certain period until all the active sites are saturated with substrates. Therefore an addition in substrate concentration will non ensue in a addition in the rate of reaction.

Planning

THE DEPENDANT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

The dependent variable will be the volume of C02 produced during respiration and the independent variable will be the substrates that I decide to utilize in the experiment. These are Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, Lactose and Sucrose.

NULL HYPOTHESIS

The substrates will hold no consequence on the volume of CO2 produced during the respiration of barm.

Hypothesis

As the substrates are changed, the volume of CO2 formed during the respiration of barm will besides alter

Prediction

I predict that of all my substrates, maltose will bring forth the greatest volume of CO2 when added to yeast in a fixed sum of clip. Mentioning to my background cognition, I know that glucose and fruit sugar monosaccharoses which can be straight absorbed by the barm as no enzymes are required to interrupt them down. This will let for glycolysis to take topographic point quicker. However I think that glucose will bring forth CO2 quicker than fructose because glucose is the chief nutrient source/ respiratory substrate for barm, therefore there will more glucose bearer proteins present in barm. If more bearers are present so will enable soaking up to happen quicker, hence respiration will go on quicker. So I believe glucose will bring forth more CO2 than fructose within a given clip period.

However in footings of volume of C02, I believe maltose will transcend both of these monosaccharoses. Maltose is a disaccharide that consists of two glucose molecules held together by a glycosidic bond. Once this bond is broken down by maltase, there will be twice every bit many glucose molecules available in the same volume of other substrates such as glucose. More sugars can so be provided for respiration, therefore more CO2 produced in 45 proceedingss. One point that must be taken into to account is that malt sugar ca n’t be used straight, so it could take clip before the glucose can be used. In add-on, as glucose is a polar molecule it must be transported via facilitated diffusion. This could be a confining factor if all the bearers become occupied, which would decelerate down the respiration procedure as a consequence.

After fructose, I predict sucrose will be the 4th substrate to bring forth the most CO2. Sucrose is besides a disaccharide which consists of a glucose and fructose molecule. This substrate besides requires enzymes to interrupt it down and this could be a clip devouring procedure as there is a limited sum of clip. Furthermore, there are n’t as many fructose bearer proteins present in barm cell membrane compared to glucose.

Finally I predict lactose will bring forth the least sum of CO2 strictly because barm does n’t incorporate the enzyme Lactaid to digest lactose. This means that its monomers galactose and glucose can non be used in respiration, therefore no CO2 will be produced as a byproduct.

Apparatus

The undermentioned setup will be used when carry oning the experiment:

Clamp and stand

Gas syringe – accurate to 0.5cm?/mol

Water bath – heated to 400C

Dry Yeast

Thermometer

Boiling tubings

Safety goggles

Universal index

Distilled H2O

Buffer solution ( somewhat acidic )

Substrates

Electronic weighing balance ( 2 d.p )

Stop ticker

Rubber spile and gum elastic tubing

Pipette ( 15cm3 )

funnel

Measuring cylinders ( 250cm3 )

Stiring rod

Conic Flask

Beakers ( 250cm3, 20cm3 )

METHOD OF INVESTIGATION

Stairss

Accuracy

Reason for method

1. Clean all the setup used to incorporate sugars or barm utilizing distilled H2O. Set up H2O bath at a temperature of 40 & A ; deg ; C.

N/A

Cleaning with distilled H2O ensures that all the equipment to be used in the experiment is clean and is free from drosss that could perchance interfere with CO2 collection.The H2O bath will be set to 400C because this is the temperature that I have decided to utilize in my experiments.

2. Fill up a 1 liter beaker exactly up to the 1litre grade with distilled H2O. Then add a buffer tablet into the beaker and stir exhaustively with a stirring rod

Make sure the distilled H2O has been filled up precisely to the 1L grade.

This is the measure on how to bring forth a buffer solution. A buffer solution is required as it dissolves the barm and substrate together. Leting hit of the barm and the substrate is critical otherwise a reaction would non happen

3. Weigh 30g of dry barm utilizing an electronic balance and reassign it into a beaker.

The graduated table will be accurate to 2 d.p. to let consistence. If a solution contains more barm, so more hits may be involved between the enzymes and substrate, therefore a greater rate of respiration, and more CO2 being produced than there should be.

30g of barm will supply a stock solution for all 15 experiments, therefore each experiment will utilize 2g of barm. Excess yeast cells in the solution, will do a big volume of CO2 production as more respiration will happen so 2g is a suited sum. Keeping a changeless concentration of barm will guarantee that my trial is just because an addition in yeast concentration will increase the sum of cells respiring therefore the volume of CO2 will increase

4. Topographic point 250cm3 of buffer solution into a 300cm3 beaker incorporating dry barm. Stir exhaustively

Ensure that the volume is read from the underside of the semilunar cartilage degree. The volume must be read at oculus degree

I have decided to utilize a majority buffer solution because it keeps the concentration of barm invariable. Mistakes are more likely to happen if I had to weigh 2g of barm and 15cm3 of buffer solution before each experiment. I have besides taken into history of any spillages that may happen so I have ensured that I have prepared more than the needed sum.

5. Accurately weigh the sum of substrate needed utilizing the electronic balance and topographic point into a 20cm3 beaker. Then, utilizing a pipette, collect 15cm3 of buffer solution into a measurement cylinder and add it to the substrate beaker. The solution should be stirred and the beaker should so be placed in the H2O bath.

Before utilizing the balance confirm that it has been adjusted to 0. The mensurating cylinder will be accurate to 0.1cm3. Again, guarantee that the reading is taken from the underside of the semilunar cartilage and at oculus degree.

I must weigh the right sum of substrate so that the concentration remains changeless throughout the experiment ( 1M )

6. I will Fix the conelike flasks and attach the gum elastic tube ( connected to the gum elastic spile ) to the gas syringe. I will carefully mensurate 15cm3 of yeast solution with the assistance of a pipette and reassign it into a conelike flask. This will so be stirred exhaustively and placed back into the H2O bath.

Pipette is accurate to 0.5cm3.

The barm has to be measured really accurately otherwise this would impact my consequences. For illustration if excessively much barm is added, so there would be increase in sum of enzymes available and so there would be increase in successful hits ensuing in a faster rate of reaction with more CO2 being produced per unit clip. The solution has to be agitated to guarantee that the barm molecules are equally dispersed and do non settle to the underside of the boiling tubing – so that the opportunities of hits additions.

The H2O bath will keep the temperature of the yeast solution. This will forestall the enzymes from being affected by a alteration in temperature.

7. Use a thermometer to mensurate the temperature of both the H2O bath and yeast solution to guarantee they are both 400C. Equally shortly as the substrate is poured into the conelike flask incorporating the barm, instantly attach the spile onto the flask. This should be followed by clocking utilizing the halt ticker.

The halt ticker is accurate to 0.01seconds. I have considered the trouble faced when using the gum elastic spile and get downing the halt ticker. I must do certain that I start the halt ticker every bit shortly as the spile is placed in postion and I intend to maintain this the same for my other experiments.

A gum elastic spile and the gum elastic tubing will be attached immediately as respiration can happen instantly. The CO2 produced will be collected in the gas syringe. It is of import that does non get away. if this did go on so a smaller volume of CO2 would be collected by the syringe, therefore the consequences obtained would non be precise.The stop clock will necessitate to be started instantly to guarantee all the experiments go on for precisely the same sum of clip, if one experiment was to travel on for longer more CO2 would be produced and therefore I would acquire anomalousnesss in my consequences. To avoid this, the clock needs to be started every bit shortly as the experiment begins.

8. Take readings after 5 proceedingss of the carbon dioxide collected into the gas syringe with the assistance of a stop ticker. This measure should be repeated until the 45th minute for each experiment. The temperature of the solution must besides be taken, which should stay changeless at 400C.

The readings must be taken directly after each interval. For illustration, I would take the reading merely before the 5th minute interval. The Stop ticker is accurate to 0.01seconds.

The intent of this measure is to detect how much CO2 each substrate produces as clip base on ballss.

9. Using a cosmopolitan index I will mensurate the PH after proving each substrate. The PH should constant throughout but if non, so it should still be recorded. The beakers, conelike flask and mensurating cylinders should be rinsed with distilled H2O after each experiment

Sodium

It is of import to command PH as it could impact the sum of CO2. I will speak about this in greater item in controlled variables. Rinsing removes any residue that may hold been left over in the equipment

CONTROLLED Variables

Controlled Variable

How I will command it

Why I will command it

Temperature

This variable will be controlled utilizing a H2O bath which will be set to 40 & A ; deg ; C throughout the experiment.

The temperature must be controlled because the temperature will impact the rate of respiration of the barm. If the temperature is changed, for illustration, excessively high so this may denature the enzymes used by barm to digest substrates.

pH

The intent of a buffer solution is to defy any alterations in pH, therefore I will command the pH by add the barm and substrate to a buffer solution.

When CO2 is released, it would disassociate, organizing H ions and H carbonate. These will do the pH to diminish and go more acidic. A lessening in pH would impact enzyme activity as this disrupts the charges ( H+ and OH- ) on the enzymes. This will ensue in alterations in the ionic and hydrogen bonds keeping the enzyme together. The enzyme would denature, therefore the substrate will no longer fit and so an enzyme-substrate composite will non organize.

Concentration of barm used

I will fix stock solution of barm ( 30g ) incorporating 250cm3 of buffer solution. This variable can be controlled by merely maintaining the sum of barm ( 15cm3 ) used changeless throughout the experiments.

A stock solution will automatically extinguish any alterations to the concentration of barm since I will be taking the same sum of barm from the same solution so it will ever stay the same. Keeping the concentration ensures that the same surface country is exposed by the barm over which enzymes are released for excess cellular digestion to take topographic point.

Concentration of the substrate

15cm3 of a 1M substrate solution will be used invariably.

If more substrate is added so more C02 would be produced. This is because there is more substrate available for the barm to digest for respiration, therefore bring forthing larger volumes of C02 than it should. If this variable is non controlled so it I would non be able to find if an addition in CO2 is due to the type of substrate addition in concentration.

Timing

I will clip the experiment utilizing a stop ticker in all of my experiments. I will invariably clip the experiment for a sum of 45 proceedingss, guaranting that the reading is taken instantly after each 5 minute interval.

I have to command this factor because if the barm is left in the substrate for a longer clip period for one experiment so this will let more respiration to happen. The barm will digest the substrate to bring forth more CO2 so hence all solutions must be left to respire for precisely the same sum of clip in order to obtain dependable consequences.

Culture of barm

Use the same trade name of barm in all experiments.

Different types of barm may do different consequences as the figure of bearer proteins may change for a peculiar substrate. Using the same barm will guarantee that the size of the barm in each experiment remains the same.

CALCULATING SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION

In order to maintain the substrate concentration the same I will hold to cipher the mass of each of my substrates. First, I will utilize the undermentioned equation:

Gram molecules = Molarity x Volume

1000

The substrate concentration I will be utilizing will be 0.5M and the volume will be 25cm3. In order to find the mass from the figure of moles I shall so utilize:

Mass = Moles x Mr

CALCULATIONS FOR GLUCOSE AND FRUCTOSE

1000 0.5 X 25 = 0.0125mol

Fructose and Glucose has the same Mr of 180

0.0125 X 180 = 2.25g

I need add 2.25 of each substrate into 25cm3 of buffer solution. I will bring forth a stock solution which will assist keep the concentration of the substrates throughout. I will be transporting out 2 experiments for Glucose or Fructose so I will necessitate 4.5g of each ( 2 X 2.25 = 4.5g ) .

Calculation FOR MALTOSE, SUCROSE AND LACTOSE

10000.5 X 25 = 0.0125mol

Maltose, Sucrose and Lactose have the same Mr of 342

Maltose, Sucrose and Lactose are isomers dwelling of two monosaccharoses linked together by a glycosidic bond. I have taken into history that when a condensation recaction occurs to organize this disaccharide so a H2O molecule is removed so I must substract the Mr of a H2O molecule from the Mr of the disaccharide. 360-18= 342

0.0125 X 342 = 4.28g

So I will add 4.28g of Maltose, Sucrose and Lactose with 25cm3 of buffer solution. I will besides bring forth a stock solution which will let me to transport out the needed sum of experiments. Therefore, I need to mensurate 8.56g ( 2 X 4.28g = 8.56g ) of each substrate which will so be dissolved into buffer solution.

CONTROLLED Experiments

I have decided to transport out 6 controlled experiments for each of the 5 substrate in concurrence with the normal experiments. I will carry on these experiments in order to show and turn out that the procedure of respiration can non happen without the presence of the respiratory substrate every bit good as the barm. The first experiment will affecting a boiling tubing incorporating merely the 25cm3 of yeast solution. After puting the boiling tubing in the H2O bath ( 400C ) , I will so enter how much CO2 is produced. This would be conducted in the same manner as my method where I would take readings after every 5 proceedingss until the 45th minute has been reached. The other 5 control experiments will merely dwell of the substrates. I will mensurate 15cm3 of each substrate into separate boiling tubings. These will besides be placed in a H2O bath and the volume of CO2 produced will be recorded at every 5 minute intervals for 45 proceedingss. No CO2 being produced will corroborate that the barm can non bring forth CO2 with the presence of a substrate and a substrate can non respire on its ain.

DATA ANALYSIS

Below is an example tabular array which will be used to analyze the consequences

produced in the experiment

Table demoing the sum of CO2 produced for a each substrate

Time ( proceedingss )

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Temperature of H2O bath ( & A ; deg ; C )

pH

glucose

Average

malt sugar

Average

fruit sugar

Average

saccharose

Average

Lactose

Average

barm merely

Average

This tabular array will assist me to cipher the norm of the CO2 produced in each of the experiments after every 5 proceedingss. I will bring forth line graphs utilizing the norms of CO2, which will enable me to compare the norms of the different substrates. From this, I can find if digestion for polyoses and disaccharides effects how much CO2 is produced. This is how I will show the norm of CO2 production for each substrate:

Graph demoing the volume of CO2 produced against the clip taken

Average CO2 Production ( cm3 )

Time ( mins )

A t- trial is a statistical trial that takes a expression the sum of informations, if there is a difference between the agencies of two sets of informations and besides the spread of the information. A t-test is relevant as I will be utilizing a big sample of consequences which will dwell of consequences from other members in thousand category and including mine. The expression for the t-test is:

I have decided to build a histogram for each substrate as this will let me to compare my informations easy after plotting frequence against experiments. A histogram will demo if there any important convergence between two substrates. Consequently, this can assist me to do a determination of whether or non a t-test must be carried out. The below histogram would necessitate a t-test:

Glucose

Maltose

Alteration

I will utilize an upside-down burette for mensurating the volume of CO2 produced alternatively of a gas syringe. When transporting out my preliminary experiments I found that the gas syringe did n’t travel swimmingly, hence I was unable to accurately read how much CO2 was being produced. Therefore I will utilize an upside-down burette which has an inaccuracy of 0.1cm3

Unfortunately, no buffer solution is available to command the pH of solution. In order to corroborate that the pH has n’t changed, I will mensurate the pH at the start and terminal of each experiment. This will accomplish utilizing a cosmopolitan index.

I have changed the point at which I will take the reading. Initially I chose to take a reading jus before twirling the flask but I have now realised that this is wrong. It would be incorrect to make it this manner because I want all the CO2 to get away from the flask before each reading is taken. So I will now take reading after twirling the conelike flask.

Consequence

Time ( proceedingss )

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Temperature of H2O bath ( & A ; deg ; C )

pH

glucose

7.0

10.1

12.3

14.7

17.1

19.3

21.2

23.4

23.9

40

7

6.8

10.3

12.1

14.9

17.2

19.4

21.6

23.5

24.3

40

7

Average

6.9

10.2

12.2

14.8

17.15

19.35

21.4

22.5

24.1

39

7

malt sugar

0.0

3.1

5.7

6.6

9.2

10.4

10.6

11.9

12.8

38

7

3.6

6.3

9.8

12.2

12.9

14.6

17.0

18.4

19.1

40

7

Average

1.8

4.7

7.75

9.4

11.05

12.5

13.8

15.15

15.95

40

7

fruit sugar

2.2

5.3

7.8

9.4

11.1

12.8

13.9

14.5

16.9

41

7

2.2

4.5

7.9

9.8

10.8

13.0

14.1

15.5

17.1

41

7

Average

2.2

4.9

7.85

9.6

10.95

12.9

14

15

17

40

7

saccharose

8.0

11.6

12.9

14.2

15.0

16.7

18.7

19.3

19.3

40

7

7.8

10.7

12.7

15.1

16.6

17.2

19.1

19.8

20.2

40

7

Average

7.9

11.15

12.8

14.65

15.8

16.95

18.9

19.55

19.75

40

7

Lactose

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.2

39

7

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.4

2.4

38

7

Average

0

0

0

0

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.8

1.3

40

7

barm merely

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

40

7

1.6

2.8

3.1

3.9

4.4

4.9

5.1

6.2

6.7

40

7

Average

0.8

1.4

1.6

2.05

2.3

2.55

2.7

3.25

3.5

39

7

POOLED Consequence

Fructose

Volume of CO2 produced ( cm3 )

5 min

10 min

15 min

20 min

25 min

30 min

35 min

40 min

45 min

1

6.1

8.0

8.6

9.4

10.4

11.1

11.9

12.6

13.1

2

6.5

8.2

8.9

9.8

10.6

11.5

12.3

12.9

13.4

3

6.3

8.2

9.1

10.1

11.0

11.8

12.5

13.0

13.5

4

3.0

4.2

8.8

14.0

16.8

19.5

22.1

24.3

25.7

5

3.2

4.4

9.1

14.3

17.0

19.7

22.5

24.2

25.8

6

3.9

5.8

6.7

8.4

11.1

12.3

13.8

14.8

15.6

7

4.5

5.7

6.5

8.9

10.1

11.8

13.4

16.0

17.3

8

1.1

2.8

4.8

6.7

8.6

10.3

12.1

13.7

15.2

9

2.0

3.8

5.5

7.1

9.2

11.1

12.7

14.4

16.2

10

1.7

7.7

10.6

15.4

20.7

22.3

25.0

28.2

32.8

11

1.5

6.3

15.1

21.4

24.8

26.7

30.3

32.0

33.1

12

9.4

10.8

13.3

18.2

22.3

25.4

28.6

34.8

38.1

13

5.5

9.1

12.3

13.8

19.6

22.9

26.5

32.8

36.2

14

6.7

8.4

9.3

10.3

11.8

12.4

14.5

16.8

18.7

15

3.7

4.5

6.5

8.7

10.9

13.8

16.2

18.3

18.6

16

0.9

2.3

3.7

5.6

8.9

12.0

14.7

18.6

19.3

17

1.1

2.2

3.5

5.4

8.9

13.0

13.9

16.9

19.1

18

6.7

7.1

8.3

8.7

10.7

11.9

13.4

14.8

15.6

19

7.3

7.7

9.7

10.9

11.4

12.8

14.6

15.3

17.9

20

0.9

1.3

2.7

4.2

4.9

6.3

7.8

9.1

10.5

21

0.9

2.4

3.8

5.9

8.9

12.1

14.7

17.4

19.9

22

10.3

10.3

11.7

13.3

14.0

15.2

17.4

18.1

18.9

23

3.1

4.1

9.1

15.4

17.1

17.8

18.3

18.7

19.1

24

2.2

5.3

7.8

9.4

11.1

12.8

13.9

14.5

16.9

25

2.2

4.5

7.9

9.8

10.8

13.0

14.1

15.5

17.1

26

3.1

4.3

8.9

15.2

17.3

17.9

18.2

18.3

18.5

27

2.9

3.9

8.7

14.4

16.9

17.7

18.1

18.3

18.6

28

10.3

10.3

11.7

13.3

14.0

14.0

15.5

16.3

17.2

29

2.5

3.9

4.7

7.8

10.1

12.0

14.7

16.8

18.3

Glucose

Volume of CO2 produced ( cm3 )

5 min

10 min

15 min

20 min

25 min

30 min

35 min

40 min

45 min

1

7.0

9.9

12.5

14.8

17.0

19.1

21.0

23.0

25.0

2

7.1

10.0

12.5

14.7

16.9

19.0

21.0

23.0

24.9

3

6.9

9.8

12.3

14.6

16.7

18.9

21.0

23.0

24.8

4

1.9

4.1

6.4

9.1

11.5

14.0

15.9

17.5

18.9

5

2.3

5.0

7.4

9.3

11.0

12.4

14.4

16.5

18.4

6

11.7

12.7

18.2

19.1

19.5

20.5

21.2

21.9

22.0

7

4.6

7.7

10.4

12.2

14.7

15.6

19.3

20.6

21.2

8

4.6

5.1

7.1

14.4

15.7

20.0

22.3

24.6

30.5

9

1.4

4.4

11.2

17.7

22.4

28.3

31.7

32.9

34.5

10

8.3

10.9

14.5

16.4

19.6

23.1

26.5

27.8

28.6

11

8.5

11.0

14.5

17.0

19.9

23.5

26.8

27.5

28.4

12

4.5

6.4

9.1

13.9

17.9

21.2

25.3

31.4

35.3

13

2.0

5.6

9.7

15.0

17.1

20.9

29.1

33.4

37.2

14

8.1

12.4

14.5

15.8

19.5

20.0

22.3

24.9

25.6

15

7.6

11.9

14.4

16.0

19.7

21.3

22.8

24.7

26.6

16

5.4

6.9

7.6

8.2

10.9

12.5

13.1

18.0

19.0

17

6.0

6.0

6.9

8.9

11.1

12.0

13.7

17.6

20.7

18

6.8

10.5

11.4

16.9

20.7

23.0

26.8

27.1

31.5

19

7.8

11.7

13.9

17.0

19.9

22.4

24.3

27.0

33.4

20

2.2

6.1

7.1

8.1

9.1

9.6

11.1

12.8

14.4

21

5.7

6.5

8.1

8.9

9.5

10.5

11.2

12.5

13.6

22

7.9

10.5

13.7

15.9

19.0

22.5

25.8

28.4

31.2

23

4.7

5.7

6.1

7.3

8.1

9.0

11.3

16.2

17.7

24

7.0

10.1

12.3

14.7

17.1

19.3

21.2

23.4

23.9

25

6.8

10.3

12.1

14.9

17.2

19.4

21.6

23.5

24.3

26

7.9

10.5

13.7

15.9

19.1

22.2

25.8

27.5

29.7

27

6.6

10.1

14.1

15.9

19.4

22.0

27.3

28.6

29.7

28

8.4

12.0

14.4

17.3

20.3

21.3

24.0

24.0

25.0

29

7.9

10.5

13.7

15.9

19.0

22.2

25.8

25.8

26.4

Maltose

Volume of CO2 produced ( cm3 )

5 min

10 min

15 min

20 min

25 min

30 min

35 min

40 min

45 min

1

7.6

9.3

10.6

11.7

12.9

14.0

16.4

20.0

23.9

2

9.0

12.0

14.1

15.5

16.0

11.7

19.8

22.1

24.7

3

7.8

9.9

11.2

12.2

13.1

14.6

16.1

20.4

24.0

4

1.7

2.3

7.7

10.3

12.2

14.0

16.0

17.3

18.8

5

2.5

4.4

5.9

8.1

11.8

14.3

16.2

17.9

19.4

6

3.8

7.1

9.8

12.2

14.3

17.1

19.1

21.9

25.2

7

3.2

6.0

8.0

9.3

12.2

15.1

17.4

20.9

24.9

8

5.6

8.1

9.3

10.0

11.9

12.0

12.1

12.3

12.3

9

5.5

7.8

9.5

10.1

12.0

12.1

12.2

12.2

12.2

10

5.6

7.8

8.7

9.5

11.9

12.4

12.4

13.3

13.8

11

6.3

8.4

9.2

9.7

11.3

11.9

12.5

12.9

13.6

12

0.4

2.5

3.3

5.4

5.8

8.9

11.6

12.1

14.2

13

0.6

1.5

3.9

4.5

5.9

7.6

9.2

12.7

13.9

14

7.1

11.4

13.5

13.8

18.5

19.1

21.3

23.9

24.1

15

6.8

10.2

12.8

16.5

17.3

18.1

21.1

22.7

23.2

16

2.8

3.0

3.5

4.4

4.4

5.7

7.6

7.9

8.4

17

6.9

7.5

9.6

10.7

12.1

13.8

14.3

15.6

17.5

18

1.4

3.5

4.7

5.4

6.2

8.1

11.3

12.8

13.1

19

1.6

2.5

3.9

4.4

5.6

7.2

10.5

12.2

13.9

20

8.9

10.5

11.6

13.0

14.5

15.0

16.3

17.5

19.9

21

7.9

9.6

10.5

12.2

13.4

14.3

15.4

16.6

18.7

22

10.8

13.1

14.2

16.4

16.8

17.0

18.0

19.5

19.6

23

5.5

8.2

9.0

9.7

12.0

12.1

12.1

12.4

12.7

24

0.0

3.1

5.7

6.6

9.2

10.4

10.6

11.9

12.8

25

3.6

6.3

9.8

12.2

12.9

14.6

17.0

18.4

19.1

26

0.0

3.0

5.8

6.9

10.1

10.3

10.5

11.9

12.8

27

0.1

4.0

6.1

7.3

11.1

11.4

12.5

12.7

12.9

28

5.5

8.2

9.0

9.7

12.0

12.1

12.1

12.1

12.5

29

0.0

3.0

5.9

6.7

7.8

10.3

10.3

10.3

11.0

Lactose

Volume of CO2 produced ( cm3 )

5 min

10 min

15 min

20 min

25 min

30 min

35 min

40 min

45 min

1

5.3

5.9

6.3

6.5

7.0

7.2

7.6

7.6

7.6

2

5.4

6.0

6.4

7.1

7.7

7.7

7.7

7.7

7.7

3

6.0

7.0

7.4

7.4

7.5

7.8

7.8

7.8

7.8

4

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.4

5

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.6

6

2.9

2.9

2.9

3.1

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

7

2.7

2.7

2.8

2.9

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

8

1.2

3.6

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

9

0.7

5.1

5.1

5.4

5.4

5.4

5.4

5.4

5.4

10

0.1

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

11

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

12

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

13

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.4

14

2.3

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.2

3.5

4.0

4.0

4.0

15

2.6

2.8

3.1

3.8

4.2

4.4

4.4

4.4

4.4

16

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

17

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

18

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

19

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

20

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

21

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

22

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

23

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

24

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.2

25

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.2

1.2

1.2

1.4

2.4

26

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

27

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

28

2.1

3.9

7.3

7.3

11.2

11.2

11.2

11.2

11.2

29

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

3.3

Sucrose

Volume of CO2 produced ( cm3 )

5 min

10 min

15 min

20 min

25 min

30 min

35 min

40 min

45 min

1

1.1

2.1

4.7

8.8

10.5

14.0

17.5

21.6

26.6

2

2.0

2.9

4.7

8.6

10.4

13.3

17.0

21.5

26.4

3

1.5

2.4

4.6

8.7

10.5

13.9

17.6

21.9

26.8

4

6.7

7.9

8.7

11.6

14.5

16.2

18.4

20.2

21.3

5

4.5

7.3

9.8

12.7

16.6

18.3

21.2

22.4

23.5

6

4.0

6.1

10.6

16.4

21.3

25.6

26.1

27.4

28.7

7

4.2

6.2

10.7

15.9

21.1

25.7

26.4

27.4

28.3

8

10.7

11.3

11.6

12.1

13.0

13.0

13.7

14.0

14.7

9

11.6

11.7

12.9

13.6

18.8

15.5

17.6

18.1

20.0

10

0.3

1.2

3.9

5.2

6.3

8.4

9.3

11.2

12.1

11

0.4

2.3

3.9

5.2

6.6

9.4

8.8

10.2

11.9

12

3.1

6.3

10.4

14.5

17.7

22.1

26.2

30.8

35.0

13

13.0

19.6

21.7

23.2

25.6

27.9

31.0

34.4

38.2

14

7.8

10.1

14.3

18.9

19.9

21.2

22.1

23.8

24.7

15

5.4

8.5

13.5

16.5

19.8

21.5

22.6

23.6

24.9

16

1.9

2.2

3.1

4.0

5.4

6.8

7.9

10.6

11.9

17

0.8

1.9

2.2

3.4

4.6

5.8

6.9

8.6

10.2

18

1.1

2.1

4.7

8.8

10.5

14.0

17.5

21.6

26.6

19

2.0

2.9

4.7

8.6

10.4

13.3

17.0

21.5

26.4

20

1.9

2.4

3.3

4.2

5.4

6.7

7.5

9.1

10.5

21

1.2

1.9

2.6

3.5

4.9

5.7

6.9

7.9

9.7

22

4.1

6.3

10.9

16.5

21.5

25.9

27.3

29.1

31.8

23

11.0

11.3

12.0

13.5

14.0

15.0

16.1

17.9

19.3

24

8.0

11.6

12.9

14.2

15.0

16.7

18.7

19.3

19.3

25

7.8

10.7

12.7

15.1

16.6

17.2

19.1

19.8

20.2

26

10.0

11.7

13.6

16.2

20.6

24.3

27.5

29.1

31.1

27

5.5

6.9

18.1

23.4

24.9

26.2

27.6

28.3

29.9

28

4.1

6.3

10.9

16.5

21.5

25.9

29.6

33.3

37.1

29

10.0

11.6

13.6

16.1

20.5

23.0

25.4

27.8

30.2

Yeast Merely

Volume of CO2 produced ( cm3 )

5 min

10 min

15 min

20 min

25 min

30 min

35 min

40 min

45 min

1

7.1

8.3

9.4

10.2

10.6

10.9

11.3

11.7

12.0

2

6.8

7.3

7.9

8.4

8.6

8.9

9.0

9.3

9.3

3

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.4

4

0.1

0.3

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.6

5

5.4

8.0

8.5

8.9

9.4

9.5

9.7

9.9

10.3

6

5.8

6.6

7.5

8.3

8.7

9.1

9.6

9.8

9.9

7

5.3

6.0

6.5

6.7

6.9

7.4

7.6

7.8

7.8

8

6.5

7.9

8.1

8.4

8.7

8.9

9.2

9.2

9.2

9

0.2

0.6

1.0

1.5

1.7

2.1

2.3

2.6

2.9

10

1.2

1.4

1.4

1.9

2.2

2.2

2.4

2.6

2.6

11

0.4

0.5

0.8

1.1

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.6

12

1.2

1.7

1.9

2.3

2.6

2.9

3.3

3.8

4.2

13

0.3

0.4

0.7

1.0

1.5

1.8

2.3

2.6

3.1

14

1.6

2.5

3.0

3.5

3.8

4.3

4.7

5.0

5.4

15

0.4

0.9

1.3

1.5

1.9

2.3

2.7

2.9

3.1

16

0.5

0.7

1.1

1.4

1.8

2.0

2.3

2.5

2.7

17

2.7

2.7

2.8

2.9

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

3.1

18

1.2

3.6

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

4.1

19

0.2

0.5

0.9

1.3

1.6

1.9

2.3

2.4

2.5

20

0.5

0.9

1.5

2.1

2.6

3.4

3.9

4.4

4.9

21

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

22

1.6

2.8

3.1

3.9

4.4

4.9

5.1

6.2

6.7

23

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.4

24

0.5

0.7

1.1

1.4

1.8

2.0

2.4

2.5

2.6

25

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.3

26

1.3

2.1

2.9

3.5

4.3

5.0

5.7

6.2

7.4

27

0.6

1.8

2.1

2.9

3.4

3.9

4.1

5.2

5.7

28

0.5

1.2

1.9

2.4

2.7

3.1

3.6

4.0

4.5

29

0.2

0.5

0.9

1.2

1.6

1.9

2.1

2.5

2.7

Note: The experiments highlighted in ruddy are mine

Cite this Substrate On Rate Respiration In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Biology

Substrate On Rate Respiration In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Biology. (2017, Jul 18). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/substrate-on-rate-respiration-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-biology-essay/

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