The reading from the above source has 2 different chapters which include cultural vitality and cultural shock. The majority of chapter 4 is interpreting the potential rules and regulations inside the Aboriginal community structure. The topic was raised from a very basic topic which is the decision making among families and communities in order to fulfil the “Reciprocity”.
The most critical argument in this chapter is “Various kinship networks had been argued as one of the biggest cause of ‘complex and intricate’”. This argument was based on the connection between family and community while the family has to make a decision maybe have negative influence on their family members. But these decisions were suggested by community. Such activities were identified as cultural vitality. Major components of cultural vitality in Aboriginal community include: spirituality and identity, national land right.
The issues have been identified in this part of the book include: reflections and struggles according to various examples of cultural vitality. Chapter 5 is defining the cultural shock and relevant processes and implications. The critical components in the content can be concluded as the explanation of signs and symptoms of cultural shock and interpretation of the shocks in Aboriginal hospitalisation. The appearance of cultural shocks was caused by the differences between the national culture and its subcultures. The major types of shocks were classified into four degrees which are discomfort, confusion, uncertainty and distress.
Furthermore, there are five different phases of emotional and psychosocial adjustments and adoptions can be used to interpret signs and symptoms of cultural shocks. These signs and symptoms might impact on six major stressors for Aboriginal hospitalisation which include mechanical differences, isolation, customs, attitude/beliefs, compliance, and communication. This chapter well explained the connection among the stressors and cross-cultural communities. Furthermore, the main arguments focus on interpreting how were they compounded and affected to Aboriginal hospitalisation. Aboriginal people were used to afraid of unknown.
In order to manage the confliction in communication, understanding the variety of communication principles, tolerances and boundaries were the most efficient ways to enhance the health care performance and reduce the awareness inside Aboriginal community. Critique: The purpose of these two chapters is defining the cultural vitality and cultural shock through several critical issues. They shared same issues which is the various terms of confliction in multicultural communication. The critical issues had been identified by author not only physical and mental factors but also potential regulations among Aboriginal community.
Furthermore, author indicated the various adjustments and stressors to realise the signs and symptoms of cultural shocks. The cause of cultural shocks had been initiated by trust issues, cross-cultural barriers and potential tolerances boundaries. The purpose of the second chapter can be concluded as ways of resolving confliction while communicating with people with different cultural background. In this case, professional health care provider can improve their service quality by enhance the partnership while cross-cultural relationship is the key to success.
Additionally, author examined the lifecycle of prejudice and find out an easy way to reduce cultural shock by simply add an Aboriginal colleague in the professional workforce. Reference: Papadopoulos, I. 2006, Transcultural Health and Social Care, 2nd edition, Elsevier, Sydney. Summary There are three major topics in chapter 2 which include: theriacal concepts of transcultural nursing, Papadopoulos, Tilki, and Taylor (PTT) model and cultural competence. In general, transcultural nursing represent culturally congruent, sensitive and competent nursing care to people from various cultures.
The PTT model was developed in 1998 by author and his colleagues to define the best practises of health care according to people’s rural beliefs, behaviours and actual needs. The purpose of adopting this model was developing cultural competence through multiple stages under a development cycle. This model started with cultural awareness, knowledge, sensitivity, and continuously refine the capacity in competence. In order to understand the capacity of competence, people must realise the synthesis and application of other three stages.
In this case, the most critical ability in this model is recognizing and challenging racism and other forms of discrimination and oppressive practice. Besides the PTT model, this chapter also indicate other two models (“Sunrise” model, and Purnell’s model) in other to identify the critical reflection on the culture-generic competencies and how to develop cultural-specific competencies. Critique: This chapter identified three major models for developing cultural competence in the best practice of health and social care.
The most impressive task in this chapter is author examined the arguments through a simple figure to help audience to understand the potential connections among four stages. Author also used other two models to support his argument in order to increase the strength of his arguments. The chapter not only focused on Aboriginal culture but also other subcultures in Australia. Author recommended the cultural based concepts to audience so they can always adopt the suitable models in their nursing practice and realise the important issues in mind to improve the culture-generic competencies.
Reference: Papadopoulos, I. 2006 “Transcultural Health and Social Care”, 2nd edition, Elsevier, Sydney. Summary: Chapter 18 defined a worldwide phenomenon: Multiculturalism. The appearance of this phenomenon implies the traditional ideologies are no longer efficient in dealing with health and social care in a frequently changing world. In this case, there will be various question need to be answered by healthcare provider such as opportunities, implications, and barriers.
The complexity of dealing with health and social care can be examined through Australian diversity and population trends and related policies. Since World War II, there are several waves of immigration and the nursing education and practice was the substantial gap between the policy and practice. In this case, people have to undermine the critique of policy’s “inclusiveness” and realise the importance of provide culture-specific nursing care congruent. In order to improve the nursing practice, the most important issues were achieving cost-effectiveness and transcultural nursing competencies.
Critique: This chapter started with defining a worldwide phenomenon to bring up the major issues in facing the transcultural nursing competencies. In order to explain the importance of various policies for reduce the confliction between Aboriginal communities and health and social care professionals, author adopted recent health statues and professional roles in the content of cross-cultural community to demonstrate the difficulties in achieving the best practice through opportunities and how to bypass the implications and barriers.
Meanwhile, he also listed the most critical issues in different stages of culture-generic competencies in order to improve the understanding of simular issues in diverse culture and identify the reasons for contributing the nursing knowledge and education to improve the health and social care outcome.