Romanticism officially began in 1798, when William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge anonymously published Lyrical Ballads. This work marked the official beginning of a literary period which had already begun many old ages before 1798. A work is defined to be of a certain period by its features, hence to be considered a Romantic work, the work must incorporate facets which are termed “Romantic.” A few typical “Romantic” facets are: love of the yesteryear; understanding to the kid’s head; religion in the interior goodness of adult male; facets of nature holding spiritual, mysterious, and symbolic significance; and rapprochement of contrasting thoughts to do a point. Wordsworth flourished in these thoughts in a verse form called Independence and Resolution. In this verse form Wordsworth shows the reader what he thinks his life is like and what he wants it to be like.
In its kernel, Resolution and Independence is an unfastened book to what Wordsworth feels his life is like. It is about the yesteryear, nowadays, and future Wordsworth. Wordsworth feels that his life is like a “traveler” on the Moors . He feels that in the yesteryear he has ever been like a little “male child,” who ne’er “heard” or “saw” the beauties of nature . As a kid, Wordsworth ne’er understood life, because he ne’er looked to nature for inspiration or counsel. Soon, Wordsworth feels he that he is “a happy Child of Earth,” because he walks “far from the universe. . . far from all attention” .
He begins a hunt to happen a manner to populate in harmoniousness with himself, God, and nature. During his hunt, he finds an old adult male, the leech-gatherer, who is one with himself, God, and nature. Upon seeing this adult male, Wordsworth is instantly amazed by the bearing of this old adult male. Wordsworth admires this adult male’s insight on life, that Wordsworth decides that he wants to go the same manner. Therefore, in Wordsworth’s hunt for his topographic point in infinity in nature, he finds an illustration that he wants to duplicate.Resolution and Independence includes many dogmas of Romanticism including a love of the yesteryear. Wordsworth loves the storm of the old dark and the “rain-drops” on the Moors that it leaves behind . Wordsworth loves the old adult male, because the old adult male has so much cognition from his past experiences. The poet enjoys reminiscing on past experiences: I was a Traveler so upon the Moor I saw the hare that raced about with joy; I heard the forests and distant Waterss roar; Or heard them non, every bit happy as a male child; The pleasant season did my bosom employ; My old recollections went from me entirely; And all the ways of work forces, so conceited and melancholyA Second major Romantic feature is “wind” . Wind is symbolic of the verve of the poetic spirit. When air current is mentioned, the reader can presume that the following spot of the work is traveling to be lively, because the writer feels his poetic spirit has been rejuvenated.Rain, or H2O, is another Romantic property mentioned: “the rain came in heavy inundations” .
Rain is symbolic of life, because H2O is the beginning and upholder of all living things. Rain is besides symbolic of poetic inspiration. The rain of the past eventide’s ramp inspires Wordsworth to compose this verse form. The reminders observed in nature and memories stirred in his head impulse him to go on on. The reminders in nature include the “rain-drops” and the “mist” that the hare kicks up . In Resolution and Independence, the pools represent the poetic memory, or the verse form itself. Wordsworth admires the old adult male, because he interacts with other poets memories, or verse forms. The act of the old adult male wading through Wordsworth’s pool is symbolic the old adult male “reading a book,” or one of Wordsworth’s works .
The old adult male inspires Wordsworth by stirring the H2O in Wordsworth’s pool. This action allows Wordsworth’s past inspirations to resurface.Another Romantic dogma is the rapprochement of differences to do a point. Wordsworth wanted to emphasize his “dejection” by authorship: And frights and illusions thick upon me came; Dim sadness-blind idea, I knew non, nor could call. (Thought makes a Romantic poet happy ( which is another dogma of Romanticism ) , and a unsighted adult male can non separate between any two degrees of duskiness. Hence, the use of these contrasting points helps convert the reader that Wordsworth is ill at easiness. His point is made and good understood, therefore doing this a good literary technique.
In decision, the poet is enduring from dejection without a cause. Wordsworth is queerly non at easiness. He searches nature for an reply, but nature does non convey rapprochement to his overwrought emotions. The poet has an overpowering feeling of angst. Upon seeing the old adult male, Wordsworth is given a new hope for a manner to derive the interior peace that he has been looking for. The old adult male serves as a function theoretical account for Wordsworth. Resolution and Independence1There was a boom in the air current all nightThe rain came in heavy inundations; But now the Sun is lifting composures and bright; The birds are singing in the distant forests; Over his ain sweet voice the Stock-dove broods; The Jay makes reply as the Magpie yaks; And all the air is filled with pleasant noise of waters. All things that love the Sun are out of doors; The sky rejoices in the forenoon’s birth; The grass is bright with rain-drops; -on the moorsThe hare is running races in her hilarity; And with her pess she from the plashy earthRaises a mist; that, glit tering in the sun,Runs with her all the way, wherever she doth run.3I was a Traveller then upon the moorI saw the hare that raced about with joy;I heard the woods and distant waters roar;Or heard them not, as happy as a boy;The pleasant season did my heart employ;My old remembrances went from me wholly;And all the ways of men, so vain and melancholy4But, as it sometimes chanceth, from the might.
Of joy in minds that can no further go, As high as we have mounted in delight. In our dejection do we sink as low;To me that morning did happen so; And fears and fancies thick upon me came; Dim sadness-blind thought, I knew not, nor could name.5I heard the sky-lark warbling in the sky; And I bethought me of the playful hare;Even such a happy Child of earth am I ;Even as these blissful creatures do I fare; Far from the world I walk, and from all care;But there may come another day to me-Solitude, pain of heart, distress, and poverty.6My whole life I have lived in pleasant thought,As if life’s business were a summer mood; As if all needful things would come unsought.
To genial faith, still rich in genial good; But how can He expect that others shouldBuild for him, sow for him, and at his callLove him, who for himself will take no heed at all. I thought of Chatterton, the marvellous Boy, The sleepless Soul that perished in his pride;Of him who walked in glory and in joy. Following his plough, along the mountain-side;By our own spirits we are deified; We Poets in our youth begin in gladness; But thereof come in the end despondency and madness.8Now, whether it were by peculiar grace,A leading from above, a something given,Yet it befel, that, in this lonely place, When I with these untoward thoughts had striven,Beside a pool bare to the eye of heavenI saw a Man before me unawares:The oldest man he seemed that ever wore grey hairs.9As a huge stone is sometimes seen to lieCouched on the bald top of an eminence;
Wonder to all who do the same espy,By what means it could thither come, and whence;So that it seems a thing endued with sense:Like a sea-beast crawled forth, that on a shelfOf rock or sand reposeth, there to sun itself;10Such seemed this Man. Not all alive nor dead,Nor all asleep-in his extreme old age:His body was bent double, feet and headComing together in life’s pilgrimage;As if some dire constraint of pain, or rageOf sickness felt by him in times long past,A more than human weight upon his frame had cast.11Himself he propped, limbs, body, and a pale face,Upon a long gray staff of shaven wood:And, still as I drew near with gentle pace,Upon the margin of that moorish floodMotionless as a cloud the old Man stoodThat heareth not the loud winds when they call;And moveth all together, if it move at all12At length, himself unsettling, he the pondStirred with his staff, and fixedly did lookUpon the muddy water, which he conned,As if he had been reading a book:And now a stranger’s privilege I took;And drawing to his side, to him I did say,”This morning gives us promise of a glorious day.”13A gentle answer did the old Man make,In courteous speech which forth he slowly drew: And him with further words I thus bespake”What occupation do you there pursue?
This is a lonesome place for one like you.”Ere he replied, a flash of mild surpriseBroke from the sable orbs of his yet-vivid eyes.14His words came feebly, from a feeble chest,But each in solemn order followed each,With something of a lofty utterance drest-Choice word and measured phrase, above the reachOf ordinary men; a stately speech;Such as grave Livers do in Scotland use,Religious men, who give to God and man their dues.15He told, that to these waters he had comeTo gather leeches, being old and poor;Employment hazardous and wearisome!And he had many hardships to endure:From pond to pond he roamed from moor to moor;Housing with God’s good help, by choice or by chance;And in this way he gained honest maintenance.16The old Man still stood talking by my side; But now his voice to me was like a streamScarce heard; nor word from word could I divide; And the whole body of the man did seemLike one whom I had met with in a dream;Or like a man from some far region sent, To give me human strength by apt admonishment.17My Former thoughts returned: the fear that kills;And hope that is unwilling to be fed; Cold, pain, and labor, and all fleshy ills;
And mighty Poets in their misery dead.Perplexed, and longing to be comforted, My question eagerly did I renew,”How is it that you live,and what is it you do?”18He with a smile did then his words repeat;And said, that, gathering leeches, far and wideHe traveled; stirring thus about his feetThe waters of the pools where they abide.”Once I could meet with them on every side;But they have dwindled long by slow decay;Yet still preserve, and find them where they may.”While he was talking thus, the lonely place,The old Man’s shape, and speech-all troubled me:In my mind’s eye I seemed to see him paceAbout the weary moors continually,Wandering about alone and silently.While I these thoughts within myself pursued,He, having made a pause, the same discourse renewed.20And soon with this he other matter blended,Cheerfully uttered, with demeanor kind,But stately in the main; and when he ended,I could have laughed myself to scorn to findIn that decrepit Man so firm a mind.”God,” said I, “be my help and stay secure;I’ll think of the leech-gatherer on the lonely moor!”