Even though education systems have continuously allocated more resources to technology ever since the mid-1980s, a few questions emerge: how is technology utilized as a part of schools? Is this utilization genuinely supporting the development of the learning environment that an information-based society requires? Figuring out how to ‘work’ technology is a critical method to comprehend and to realize what technology indeed implies. In education, this suggests a required change in teaching techniques and the outline of new connected teaching strategies to clarify the procedures bringing about the advancement of technology in the contemporary world. Clarifications of such processes are looked for and are educated as well as practiced in instructional settings that facilitate the teaching of problem-solving techniques.
Technology has greatly changed education in several vital ways. Initially, technology has increased the access to education, for instance; books were hardly accessible to everyone during medieval period and people had to visit centers of learning to acquire education unlike today where numerous amounts of information is available either in books, videos or audios is available at one’s fingertips via internet sources (Fahmy 8). Likewise, the limited collaboration efforts that were only available to students at same class traditionally have now been transformed and the walls of a classroom are no longer a limiting factor. Here students located in different classrooms and sometimes different localities are enabled to share what they are learning, collaborate in group tasks through technology-enabled collaboration and communication. Additionally, new models of education have taken over where the role of teachers and students has changed radically from the traditional one. Students are taking a great deal of responsibility in their learning due to enabling brought by technology to access more information, while teachers are acquiring a guide on the side role contrary to the traditional model in which teacher were viewed/acted as erudite on the stage. It is clear that technology has greatly transformed and supported education in various ways.
The instructor and learner are in charge of assuming the responsibility of their own learning. Innovation enables the chance to reexamine how instructing and learning is done in instructive facilities. “The incorporation of technology in learning and training creates an environment which empowers all students to develop their self-confidence as well as develop self-directing skills” (Zucker 13). At the point when utilized well, technology advances learning and improve instructing. It is an intense motivational tool for scholars and it expands the opportunities for students in the learning arena. It leads to the establishment of a student-focused model, in light of the individual needs of every learner encouraging students to go after various pathways of self-coordinated learning.
“There are three major revolutions that have occurred in the sector of education” (Fahmy 11). The first transformation took place around 2,500 years ago during which oral exchange that existed between students and teachers was supplemented by reading and writing. She explained that the stringencies of memorization were reinstated by written word followed by printed page which were stiffer. The second revolution that she presented happened to start at the phase when students and teachers shared facilities such as laboratories and libraries which introduced the concept of educational community. The educational community was seen to include students, teachers, technicians, staff and administrators. The third revolution revealed by Fahmy was “technological revolution that was characterized by telecommunication and computing” (15). This revolution transformed and has presented unavoidable change in the way education is imparted.
“Research indicate that technology has changed education models ranging from the rapid introduction of massive open online courses” (MOOCs), “to blended learning models that are structured as part bricks or part online” (Zucker 20). He further presented that, “among the rapid developing patterns at all echelons of education is the utilization of PCs, tablets and other cell phones, which facilitate MOOCs” (22). Unlike the past years, cell phones nowadays are used to substitute papers, pens, books and handouts in learning activities. Bartos (45) held that “innovation is turning around the manner in which schools teach and how students learn.” Learners’ are utilizing iPads within the learning facilities at youthful age; as a result, this opens up numerous doors for making recordings, carry out subject research, prepare and submit assignments and projects, record live discussions or rehearse verbal dialect abilities. Consequently, with few clicks, the students can access an abundance of data accessible utilizing the web. The increased use of iPads translates to the fact that technology can be incorporated into daily learning as opposed to having a single trek weekly to the computer lab. On the other hand, blended learning programs join on the web and face to face personal collaboration. Only one of such programs is the flipped classroom framework, in which learners acquire the content from online sources away from the classroom as homework, and after that apply this new information in discussions or rather responding to their group work. This kind of learning greatly economizes on costs, which makes it prominent in the contemporary society. “Prior research indicates that giving learners more control over how they acquire information can be more compelling compared to face-to-face or rather virtual learning” (Oztopcu and Digdem 333). Since mixed learning changes the role of the instructor to be more of a facilitator or a coach, there’s a developing utilization of Para-instructors who work close by educators to oversee internet learning and help with classroom exercises. Consequently, there are additionally spatial ramifications. Schools are drastically decreasing the measure of space allocated for classrooms, instead making wide open halls for self-coordinated learning.
Educators are utilizing technology to supplant old models of traditional, repetition learning and make more customized, self-coordinated education for learners. “There’s more multi-gadget synchronization with software that facilitates virtual discussions, both inside and outside a classroom” (Lobato and Amy 310). Furthermore, more learners and instructors are making own digital substance, such as animations and videos. A significant part of the information that was available at instructors’ disposal is currently accessible to learners on the web, and the role played by educators is evolving. Rather than utilizing class time to give every detail to students, technology is helping them use their chance with learners to propel critical thinking, correspondence, and collaboration among them. To an ever-increasing extent, classrooms are getting to be places where information is made versus devoured by students. “As students acquire more control over what they use to enable them to learn, they require spaces that help them to be more creative” (Niess 509).
According to Christensen (411), “expanded execution of technology builds learners understanding of content and advancement of abilities in such areas as investigative thinking, critical thinking, data assessment, and imaginative reasoning.” Additionally, though utilization of technology makes a conducive environ facilitative of learning. “This approach shifts learning from the traditional path which does not take into consideration learner’s quest for comprehension towards more profound essential procedures that enable students to look for a genuine understanding of the focal principles, subjects, and utilization of any given scope of the study” (Christensen 415). Moreover, utilizing technology bolsters the dynamic learning of students in an instructive domain intended to enable them to accomplish important learning which, thus, could bring about positive, continuous picks-up in learning results.
It is relevant to carry out an assessment, based on the mega-studies evaluated on this study; on how educational systems are dealing with technology incorporation in education mainly regarding putting in place models that enhance teaching and learning and skills and competencies equipped on students to meet development and changing social needs. Two issues present themselves from the studies under consideration, i.e. the changing needs of economic and social growth which calls for a full range of skills and competencies; secondly, the establishment of a match between learning experiences and expected knowledge in the society. Skills and competencies that technology equips on learners and the matching of such abilities with the social requirements on capabilities and skills clearly shows how effectual technology impact on education.
Skills and Competencies Students Learn vs Technology
The ever-changing requirements of economic and social advancement necessitate a broad scope of new abilities and capabilities, known as the 21st-century competencies. These are viewed as crucial empowering agents of dependable citizenship in an information-based and innovation plagued economy. For example, the proposal of the European Parliament and the Council on critical capabilities for deep-rooted learning characterizes a structure of eight competencies thought about vital to the knowledge society. Digital competence is featured as one of the eight fundamental skills. In 2007 the Council distinguished a structure of 16 centre pointers for observing advancement in the field of education. Technology aptitudes are a centre pointer in this structure. Technology is consequently anticipated to assume an expanding role in advancing knowledge.
Numerous organizations have examined the distinctive learning results appropriate for industrial and information-based society. “In the USA, The Association for 21st-century skills is an association set up to advance the improvement of such aptitudes” (“U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology” 87). These aptitudes can be termed as process-oriented instead of ‘subject-situated’. Nevertheless, it is a mix-up to see these abilities as being autonomous of the subject or theme areas in which they should be utilized. For example, critical thinking in the engineering requires information of material science, maths and auxiliary characteristics of materials, for instance, while critical thinking in medication needs learning of other substance territories, for example, life structures, physiology, and so forth. (There is generous research that demonstrates that abilities don’t naturally exchange starting with one substance area then onto the next). The essential issue here for education is that skills should be aligned with a subject or information area. Subsequently, there is the need for setting educational module (what is to be instructed), showing strategy (how it is taught or learned), and appraisal (what is analyzed).
Matching Learning Experiences and Expected Knowledge in the Society
There is the burning issue of whether the present teaching and learning knowledge in schools matches what could be prevailing from an information society. The question isn’t which technology results in expanded efficiency in education, but which new technology upheld procedures enhance learners’ performance over conventional ones if any whatsoever, and which other factors intercede. Past calls have just been made keeping in mind the end goal to investigate the express connections among technology, instructional methodology, psycho-intelligent procedures and logical elements. The relatively endless exhibit of likely methodological outcomes makes this sort of examination considerably troublesome, however not impossible, given that there are adequate efforts dedicated to the gathering and dispersal of the subsequent knowledge. “Such an effort may seem tiresome, especially as the technology platform is continually evolving” (Niess 512). Despite that, it is justified regardless of the shot.
Technology assumes a vital piece in enabling erudition. It allows numerous successful edifying strategies, for example, self-coordinated, independent, and shared learning. It can interface persons isolated by plans and area, which somehow may not have the chance to gain from one another. Besides, it can give the opportunity of getting prompt input and review, influencing learning to show up precisely more practicable than it would without constant feedback.
By what means can the existing schools be transformed to end up being environments of instructing and learning that makes persons deep-rooted students and set them up for the 21st Century? The responses to this question may not originate from existing educational frameworks. In responding to this inquiry, educational pioneers are persuaded to rethink what 21st-century learning may entail, and also the learning environment to facilitate it. For these reconstructed learning environments, meeting this point inalienably implies utilizing innovation to do as such. Along these lines, technology isn’t used as a lever to create changes, incredible or little. But, the learning environment is precisely aligned to produce the required components and at last create the expected results, and innovation is regularly found as one of the empowering agents for that reality.
“The Partnership for 21st-century skills identifies the particular skills that make 21st-century competencies: inventiveness, joint effort, basic reasoning, and correspondence” (US Department of Education 107). With a specific end goal to help our learners build up these aptitudes to high states, modalities such be integrated that are in line with present society, e.g. interpersonal interaction, phones technology, electronic processing and furthermore engage in the learners with education systems that encourage learning projects, group collaborations. Learners need to be placed at the focal point of the learning and enable them to make their particular reasoning from experiences.
“Numerous researches demonstrate that learners obtain the scope of abilities and capabilities through the utilization of technology in learning these include; advanced, correspondence, dialect, social and intellectual aptitudes” (Assessing the Effects of ICT in Education Indicators, Criteria and Benchmarks). Moreover, the studies propose that technology positively affects learners participation, conduct, inspiration, states of mind and commitment, and that guided, continuous and enquiry-based undertakings with innovation are especially persuading and that change empowers better separation and personalization. Educators additionally felt emphatically that technology is a method for going about low-inspiration, social and non-commitment. The incorporation of technology into learning and instructing makes situations which empower all students to develop self-confidence and become self-coordinated students. At the point when utilized well, technology advances learning and upgrades teaching. It is a ground-breaking motivational instrument for learners, and it broadens the scope and open doors for students in the information era. This presents a student-focused model, given the specific preconditions and needs of every learner encouraging students to run with various pathways of self-coordinated learning. Work and information in the quickly changing 21st-century demands for self-coordinated students with higher caliber thinking and Information Literacy aptitudes to look for the irreplaceable essentials of the new learning time to be grounded citizens.
It is more essential for schools to give students an exposure to the information technology that will set them up for active maneuvering in to, and flourishing professions in, the present day work. Keeping in mind the end goal to do this, educators should be familiarized with a wide assortment of technologies, although numerous schools in the nation and across the world are being slow to acknowledge and grasp this critical range of capabilities. The basics of reading math, and so forth, entirely stand out to be the first; however, technology abilities are currently a fundamental piece of the overall blend. While expanding the technology infrastructure which can catalyze the paradigmatic move in self-directed learning, it is vital to creating information proficiency abilities of learners since it is a necessary scholastic part which prompts higher level reasoning that thusly ends up long-lasting knowledge, transferable over every single discipline and applies to all roads of life. Information know-how is a fundamental necessity and a necessary aptitude for the advanced academicians. Without such, the so-called academicians will be left-out in the ever aggressive environment.
- Assessing the Effects of ICT in Education Indicators, Criteria and Benchmarks. N.p., 2009.
- Bartos, Judeen. What Is The Role Of Technology In Education?. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2013. Print.
- Christensen, Rhonda. “Effects of Technology Integration Education on the Attitudes of Teachers and Students.” Journal of Research on Technology in Education 34.4 (2002): 411–433. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Web.
- Fahmy, Mohammed F. ‘Thinking About Technology Effects on Higher Education.’ The Journal of Technology Studies 30.1 (2004): n. pag. Print.
- Lobato, Joanne, and Amy Burns Ellis. ‘The focusing effect of technology: implications for teacher education.’ Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 10, no. 2, 2002, p. 297-314.
- Niess, M. L. “Preparing Teachers to Teach Science and Mathematics with Technology: Developing a Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge.” Teaching and Teacher Education 21.5 (2005): 509–523. Teaching and Teacher Education. Web.
- Oztopcu, Asli, and Digdem Enerem. ‘The Role Of Technological Teaching Methods Used In Education On The Development.’ European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies 6.2 (2017): 333. Print.
- U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology. “Transforming American Education : Learning Powered by Technology : National Education Technology Plan 2010.” Learning 000 (2010): 87. Learning. Web.
- US Department of Education. “Reimagining the Role of Technology in Education: 2017 National Education Technology Plan Update.” Office of Educational Technology 2017: 107. Office of Educational Technology. Web.
- Zucker, Andrew A. Transforming Schools With Technology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Education Press, 2008. Print.