The Cellular Level of Organization

Essay's Score: C

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Table of Content

If Joseph’s heart stops, the loss of oxygen, blood glucose, and waste removal will impact the cellular processes and membrane functions.

Due to Joseph’s heart ceasing to function, there was a decrease in oxygen, glucose, and necessary ions needed for the heart’s pumping action. However, the cells were able to continue functioning by utilizing the available ATP supply at a fast rate. As a result, carbon dioxide accumulated within the cells, leading to a decrease in pH. Furthermore, the mitochondria lacked the necessary oxygen and glucose to produce ATP energy.

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In the end, the cell started to die as the active transport pumps in Joseph’s heart shut down its plasma membranes. This caused the cells to become leaky, with sodium slowly entering and potassium exiting. Due to the decreasing chemical gradients, Joseph’s heart experienced convulsive and uncontrolled spasms of arrhythmic electrical activity.

What impact would the disintegration of membranes in intracellular organelles have on the function of Joseph’s heart cells?

The intracellular organelles with membrane structures comprise the mitochondrion, Golgi complex, and endoplasmic reticulum. The mitochondrion is vital in generating the majority of ATP for the cell via aerobic cellular respiration reactions. Within the Golgi complex, proteins from the rough ER are received at its entry face, while its medial cisternae play a role in synthesizing glycoproteins, glycolipids, and lipoproteins.

The exit face of the endoplasmic reticulum modifies molecules and prepares them for transportation. The rough ER manufactures glycoproteins and phospholipids, which are then transported to different organelles or can be exocytosed or incorporated into the plasma membrane. On the other hand, the smooth ER synthesizes fatty acids and steroids, deactivates drugs, removes phosphate from glucose 6-phosphate, and stores and releases calcium ions in muscle cells.

Both the instructions for Joseph’s body to repair itself and his predisposition for vascular disease are contained within the same cell structure.

The plasma membrane, proteasome, and nucleus make up the structures.

Joseph’s heart attack caused a change in the way his cells functioned. Which proteins in the cell membrane contributed to the imbalances of his heart cells?

ATP influences the pumping into the membrane by opening ion channels, while ATPases have the opposite effect because without ATPases, ATP would not be removed.

It was crucial to restore oxygen flow to Joseph’s body. Absence of oxygen can hinder several processes.

ATP is crucial for the body’s production and regulation, impacting cell mitosis and homeostasis.

Discuss how Joseph’s heart failure can be attributed to what has been learned about the function of cells within the human body.

Joseph’s heart failure stemmed from his smoking habit and hypertension background, along with risk factors like a family history of heart disease, hypertension, and an unhealthy diet. Over time, his heart’s pumping action decelerated due to a combination of increased stress and extended working hours.

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The Cellular Level of Organization. (2017, Mar 25). Retrieved from

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