The Garden City Movement Essay

THE GARDEN CITY MOVEMENT

The Garden City Movement was invented by Sir Ebenezer Howard ( 1850-1928 ) ( Couch, 2014 ) . It was first described in his book Garden Cities of To-morrow, published in 1902 ( Ebenezer Howard, 2014 ) . The Garden City Model introduced the application of some basic planning rules which are still in usage today. It consists of self-sufficing communities surrounded by greenwaies with planned proportionate countries in agribusiness, lodging, commercialism and industry ( Audiopedia, 2014 ) . This essay discusses the creative activity and development of the theoretical and be aftering rules of the Garden City Model and its success in work outing economic and societal jobs of dumbly populated metropoliss in UK. It besides discusses the alteration of these rules and their applications in modern planning theories.

We will write a custom essay sample on
The Garden City Movement
specifically for you for only $13.9/page
Order now

The hunt for an ideal metropolis was due to the intense industrialisation and ensuing urbanisation of major UK metropoliss about the late 19Thursdaycentury. There were many societal, economic and commercial activities in big metropoliss, thereby doing high degrees of migration from less developed parts in the UK towards these metropoliss. This inordinate in-migration resulted in issues like ; overpopulation, lodging deficit, high rents, air pollution, urban slums and deficiency of sunshine and unfastened infinites ( Howard, 1902 ) . Harmonizing to ( Fishman, 1982 ) , Howard perceived the economic system to be corrupt, inhumane, inefficient and unhealthy( see Fig 1,2 ).

Fig. 1 Hine ( 1912 ) Fig. 2 Industrial Cities ( n.d. )

Analyzing the issues developed by the rapid urbanisation, Howard noticed a contrasting phenomenon in the

countryside. The countryside suffered from ; depopulation, deficiency of amusement, deficiency of society, capital and labor.

The town had all that the state was missing and vice-versa. Howard so sort to unite the best facets of

the town and the state in formation of the garden metropolis ( Ebenezer Howard, 2014 ) .

Fig. 3 The Three Magnets. ( 1902 )

Redefining the town and countryside as magnets, the people as acerate leafs, and man’s socio-economic desires

as attractive force, Howard realized the theory of The Three Magnets, presenting the 3rd option ; the Town-Country Magnet ( Howard, 1902 ) .The Town- Country offers ; high rewards, societal chances, and topographic points of amusements, healthy life conditions, low rents, and big Parkss ( Howard, 1902 ) . Howard believed that the Town-Country would heighten the enjoyment of human society and the beauty of nature at the same time ( Fishman, 1982 ) .

In order to accomplish the socio-economic facets of the Town-Country, the ideal metropolis would run by communal land ownership, whereby, the rent would be the chief beginning of gross, employed by municipality ( regulating organic structure ) in the creative activity and care of public comfortss, old age pensions, and accident insurance ( Howard, 1902 ) . The Garden City was to be built from abrasion on agricultural land, which had low ecological value, thereby increasing the value of the land, so that it could bring forth important gross through rent for municipality ( Howard, 1902 ) .

Fig. 4 Garden-City. ( 1902 ) . Fig. 5 Ward and Centre Garden-City. ( 1902 ) . The spacial program of a sector of the metropolis

Although the Garden City Model is really descriptive, it is non a morphological but instead socio-economic illustration of rules ( Butcher, 2010 ) . Planned in a homocentric form, with six radial avenues, on a site of 6000 estates, the Garden City would hold a population of 32,000 people ( Audiopedia, 2014 ) . In the Centre of the metropolis lies a public garden, surrounded by the populace edifices which includes ; infirmary, library, museum, picture-gallery, town hall, concert hall and theater ( John, 2014 ) . The wining infinite is the cardinal park for recreational activities. These big Parkss are more of state characteristics, but they perform much better in the town-country because of the increase in population. Beyond the cardinal park is the crystal castle a round glass arcade, for commercial activities ( John, 2014 ) . Placement of the crystal castle beside the cardinal park shows Howard’s purposes of linking human activities with nature. Before the innovation of Howard’s rules, commercial zones in the metropoliss seldom had Parkss and unfastened infinites, because of the high value of land. It is now a common planning pattern today to hold unfastened infinites in commercial countries. Beyond the crystal castle are houses with tree lined streets, extra Parkss occupied by public schools, resort areas and churches ( John, 2014 ) . On the outskirts of the metropolis are industries with direct entree to the railroad, salvaging cost of packaging and carting and transit of goods from the train to and fro mills ( John, 2014 ) . The remainder of town beyond the railroad is utilised as agricultural land held by assorted persons and organisations and besides supplying alternate farm occupation chances to the working category without dividing them from the metropolis ( Howard, 1902 ) . This agricultural land besides serves as a barrier to urban conurbation, as it can non be built on. As shown in Figure 6, the usage of green belts to command urban conurbation is still apparent in UK metropoliss today.

Fig. 7 Group of Slumless Smokeless Cities. ( 1902 ) .

Sing the fact that town state community is bound to make its population capacity due to its socio-economic advantages, Howard envisioned as series of garden metropoliss, separated by green belts and connected by roads and railroads, with the cardinal metropolis holding a population of 58000( see Fig.7 ) .The debut of these series besides controls the inordinate migration to metropoliss with more attractive forces.

Fig. 8Letchworth-1925 Poster. ( n.d. ) Fig. 9 Original program of first Garden City, Letchworth 1904. ( n.d. )

Leslie howards Garden metropolis theoretical account was straight experimented on two towns ; Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City. Letchworth was the first Garden City of all time built ( Ebenezer Howard, 2014 ) . It lies on a train line, 35 stat mis from London, located in Herdfordshire, England, and it covers an country of 5,500 estates, which used to function as agricultural land with small or no value ( Ebenezer Howard, 2014 ) . Although Letchworth was non designed in a regular concentric form, it follows the districting rules of the Garden City Model. In other to construct Letchworth, Howard needed support, but he did non acquire any fiscal support from the authorities. I suppose it was because the development of his ideal metropolis had no positive consequence on the preexistent metropoliss, which have been invested to a great extent upon. The thought of destructing or disregarding preexistent metropoliss to reconstruct perfect 1s was besides the footing of many other revolutionaries in work outing the industrial crisis. This attack displays the deficiency of consideration of the fiscal demands in the realisation of ideal metropoliss. Harmonizing to Audiopedia ( 2014 ) , Howard got fiscal support merely from private investors who were concerned with their personal net incomes, instead than the communal growing of Letchworth City. As a consequence, Howard forwent the thought of communal land ownership with no landlords ( Audiopedia, 2014 ) .

Fig. 9 Aerial exposure of Letchworth Garden City ( n.d. ) Fig. 10 Howard Park ( n.d. ) Fig. 11 Broadway Gardens ( n.d. )

Letchworth was environmentally successful, with tonss of unfastened infinites and public Parkss healthy life conditions and beautiful tree-lined streets, most of which remain today ( Letchworth Garden City Heritage Foundation, 2014 ) . The metropolis attracted houses because of the inexpensive rent and excess infinite, ensuing from its earlier usage as agricultural land. It besides attracted occupants, as the life conditions were favourable. Due to the fact that the execution of communal land ownership was ignored, the rents were non inexpensive, they could merely be afforded by skilled white collar workers ( Audiopedia, 2014 ) . Letchworth failed partly as an independent community because of the improved transit system which made it easier to link to London. Welwyn, the 2nd Garden City, 20 stat mis from London, performed merely every bit good as Letchworth, but it lacked public, commercial and industrial edifices, which caused it to depend to a great extent on London for socio-economic activities.

Due to the physical success of Letchworth, the rules of the Garden metropolis were applied to assorted developments worldwide and in most instances it has been misconceived as the development of suburbs. The New Towns Act 1946, implement by the authorities after World War II. was inspired by the Garden City Movement ( Audiopedia, 2014 ) . The Act, involved the appellation of land for the development of garden suburbs in U.K ( New Towns Act 1946, 2014 ) . The development of ne towns meant the suburbanization of metropoliss, which was the antithesis to Howard’s theory ( Audiopedia, 2014 ) . Despite it’s contradiction Howard thoery, the New towns succeeded in offering healthy life conditions, and keeping the population denseness, but they were non economically independent.

Fig. 12 Uxcester Garden City. ( 2014 ) Fig – new suburbs in bluish, preexistent metropolis in Grey.

Recently, the Uxcester Garden City ; an fanciful metropolis, inspired by the Garden City Model, was announced the victor of the 2014 Wolfsons Economic award ( Sweet, 2014 ) . It was initiated as a solution to the current U.K lodging deficit crisis. It is a combination of the planning rules of the Garden City and the suburbanization strategy of the New Towns. Unlike, the Garden City, it is non built from abrasion, but instead bit by bit incorporated into preexistent metropoliss. The strategy involves the development of residential communities on agricultural green belts, which are soon considered to hold low ecological value ( Sweet, 2014 ) .

Fig. 13 Uxcester Garden City. ( 2014 ) . Organic representation of Uxcester.

Each community is planned to hold half it’s country designated to ; woods, public Parkss and lakes ( Sweet, 2014 ) . These new residential communities would necessitate dependable transit systems, associating them to the metropolis Centre, which provides the most societal activities. On the other manus, the new suburbs will regenerate the metropolis Centre by imparting new demand for what is on offer there ( Sweet, 2014 ) . Although the strategy involves suburbanization of metropoliss, it observes the Garden City aims, which includes the proviso of healthy life conditions to ordinary people and socio-economic independency.

The Garden City Model inspired the New Towns Act and Uxcester Garden City. It has had a major consequence on town planning, which has a direct consequence on human behaviour. Howard’s rules have late been adopted in the development of Uxcester Garden City strategy for work outing lodging deficit job U.K is confronting today. Although the consequence Uxcester will hold on U.K. lodging has non been decided, I think the farther development of suburbs would either increase the deficiency of occupation chances or increase the volume of commercial edifices in the metropolis Centre. It will so be up to designers to guarantee healthy working conditions in these metropolis Centres.

Mentions

Aerial exposure of Letchworth Garden City. ( n.d. ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.letchworth.com/heritage-foundation/news-and-blog/media-enquiries [ Accessed 6 Jan. 2015 ] .

Audiopedia. ( 2014 ) .Garden metropolis motion. [ Online Video ] . 13 November. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=I_MacpHZ-Bk. [ Accessed: 03 January 2015 ] .

Broadway Gardens. ( n.d. ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.letchworth.com/heritage-foundation/news-and-blog/media-enquiries [ Accessed 6 Jan. 2015 ] .

Butcher, L. , 2010. ARCHITECTURE + URBANISM. [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //architectureandurbanism.blogspot.co.uk/2010/10/ebenezer-howard-garden-cities-of-to.html [ Accessed 03 01 2015 ] .

Couch, A. ( 2014 ) Arch 221 Urban Studies Week 4 Lecture: Note taking accomplishments from talks and readings, Liverpool: School of Architecture.

Fishman, R. , 1982. Urban Utopias in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Garden-City. ( 1902 ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //longstreet.typepad.com/thesciencebookstore/2008/09/history-of-the.html [ Accessed 1 Jan. 2015 ] .

Group of Slumless Smokeless Cities. ( 1902 ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //socialethicsoundideasandfreedom.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/garden-city.png [ Accessed 3 Jan. 2015 ] .

Hawkes, J. ( n.d. ) .Houses, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire. [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //stock.jasonhawkes.com/media/8d181e48-3248-11e1-900f-1127b07b6f75-houses-welwyn-garden-city-hertfordshire [ Accessed 6 Jan. 2015 ] .

Hine, L. ( 1912 ) .New York: Tenements. [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.allposters.com/-sp/New-York-Tenements-1912-Posters_i8677584_.htm [ Accessed 6 Jan. 2015 ] .

Howard, E. , 1902. Garden Cities of To-morrow. [ ONLINE ] Second Edition erectile dysfunction. s.l. : Sonnenschein & A ; Co. , Ltd. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/h/howard/ebenezer/garden_cities_of_to-morrow/complete.html # chapter7. [ Accessed 01 January 2015 ] .

Howard Park. ( n.d. ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.letchworth.com/heritage-foundation/news-and-blog/media-enquiries [ Accessed 6 Jan. 2015 ] .

Industrial Cities. ( n.d. ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //johnsonschneider.weebly.com/ [ Accessed 6 Jan. 2015 ] .

John W. Reps, . 2014.Garden Cities Of Tomorrow. [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //urbanplanning.library.cornell.edu/DOCS/howard.htm [ Accessed 02 January 15 ] .

Letchworth-1925 Poster. ( n.d. ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/11/11.001j/f01/lectureimages/6/image31.html [ Accessed 5 Jan. 2015 ] .

Letchworth Garden City Heritage Foundation, ( 2014 ) .Letchworth Garden City. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.letchworth.com/heritage-foundation/letchworth-garden-city/quick-facts [ Accessed 5 Jan. 2015 ] .

Louis de Soissons, Welwyn Garden City town program. ( 1921 ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //cashewnut.me.uk/WGCbooks/web-WGC-books-1975-1.php [ Accessed 6 Jan. 2015 ] .

Sdoutz, F. ( 2015 ) .a-± GARDEN CITIES Howard, Unwin & A ; Parker, Lutyens, de Soissons – Linkss. [ on-line ] ARCHITECTURETHEORY.NET. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mediaarchitecture.at/architekturtheorie/garden_cities/2011_garden_cities_links_en.shtml [ Accessed 5 Jan. 2015 ] .

Lucey, N. ( 1973 ) .The Effect of Sir Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City Movement on Twentieth Century Town Planning. 1st erectile dysfunction. [ ebook ] Hertfordshire: Norman Lucey. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.rickmansworthherts.freeserve.co.uk/howard1.htm # snd [ Accessed 5 Jan. 2015 ] .

New Towns Act 1946. ( 2014 ) .Wikipedia. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=New_Towns_Act_1946 & A ; oldid=621188191 [ Accessed 6 Jan. 2015 ] .

Sdoutz, F. ( 2015 ) .a-± GARDEN CITIES Howard, Unwin & A ; Parker, Lutyens, de Soissons – Linkss. [ on-line ] ARCHITECTURETHEORY.NET. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mediaarchitecture.at/architekturtheorie/garden_cities/2011_garden_cities_links_en.shtml [ Accessed 5 Jan. 2015 ] .

Sweet, R. ( 2014 ) . Welcome to Uxcester, the fanciful metropolis that has British contrivers in a flap. Global Construction Review. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.globalconreview.com/sectors/welcome-uxcester-imaginary-city-has36392725british/ [ Accessed 6 Jan. 2015 ] .

The Three Magnets. ( 1902 ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //longstreet.typepad.com/thesciencebookstore/2008/09/history-of-the.html [ Accessed 1 Jan. 2015 ] .

U.K. Green Belts. ( 2014 ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.estatesgazette.com/blogs/london-residential-research/2014/02/green-belt-fit-21st-century/ [ Accessed 6 Jan. 2015 ] .

Uxcester Garden City. ( 2014 ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.archdaily.com/545656/urbed-s-bold-proposal-to-reinvigorate-the-garden-city-movement/ [ Accessed 6 Jan. 2015 ] .

Original program of first Garden City, Letchworth 1904. ( n.d. ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //lunaprod.library.cornell.edu/images/RMC/Size4/RMC0129/RMC2011_0602.jpg? userid=10 & A ; username=administrator & A ; resolution=4 & A ; servertype=JVA & A ; cid=10 & A ; iid=CORNELL & A ; vcid=NA & A ; usergroup=Faculty & A ; profileid=2 [ Accessed 5 Jan. 2015 ] .

Ward and Centre Garden-City. ( 1902 ) . [ image ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //longstreet.typepad.com/thesciencebookstore/2008/09/history-of-the.html [ Accessed 2 Jan. 2015 ] .

Ebenezer Howard. ( 2014 ) .Wikipedia. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebenezer_Howard [ Accessed 5 Jan. 2015 ] .

Welwyn Garden City. ( 2014 ) .Wikipedia. [ on-line ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welwyn_Garden_City [ Accessed 5 Jan. 2015 ] .

Choose Type of service

Choose writer quality

Page count

1 page 275 words

Deadline

Order Creative Sample Now

Haven’t Found A Paper?

Let us create the best one for you! What is your topic?

By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails.

Eric from Graduateway Hi there, would you like to get an essay? What is your topic? Let me help you

logo

Haven't found the Essay You Want?

Get your custom essay sample

For Only $13.90/page