One of the trademarks of the American system of authorities is the separation of powers. The Congress performs the jurisprudence doing map of authorities. the executive. headed by the President. implements the Torahs. and the judiciary maps as the translator of the Torahs. Obviously. a watertight separation of powers between the different variety meats of authorities is unattainable. and if even it were accomplishable. it would be unwanted.
The maps of authorities are clearly defined amongst these variety meats of authorities.
the effectual and efficient working of authorities needfully demands cooperation and some convergences of duties. Consequently. the American system of authorities has been described by Richard Neustadt as “separated establishments sharing powers” ( quoted by Dickinson. n. d. . p. 455 ) .
This separation in institutional functions means that the President can non carry through much of his/her policies if he/she does non hold the backup or support of the Congress who will interpret those policies into a lawfully binding norm. The development of political parties in the political history of America is therefore closely linked to the demand for the President to hold congresswomans who were fellow party members.
and as such. on whom he could number for support in the Congress. ( Dickinson. n. d. ) Obviously. members of the opposing party who shared the same a common position with the President on an issues would besides impart their support to the President.
Consequently by holding party member in Congress and being able to tribunal the support of congresswomans and adult females from the opposing party. the President can act upon statute law in the Congress. This purchase to act upon Congress even becomes more powerful when the President’s party has a bulk in Congress. This state of affairs is peculiarly made evident in the presidential term of George W. Bush.
In his 2nd term in office. non merely did he win a resonant triumph in the presidential elections. but his Republican Party besides won more seats in the Senate. giving them a 55-44 bulk. Besides in the House of Representatives. the Republicans won three extra seats therefore giving them a 232-202 bulk over the Democratic Party. President Bush therefore had bulk of fellow Republicans in both houses of legislative assembly hence giving him an appreciably good purchase to act upon vote forms in Congress. ( Dickinson. n. d. )
In Bush’s first term though he had enjoyed Republican Majority in both houses of legislative assembly. these bulks were slimmer than they were during his 2nd term. Therefore though his 10 twelvemonth revenue enhancement decrease policy was passed by Congress in May of 2001. his deficiency of a significant bulk particularly in the Senate resulted in some political Equus caballus trading that finally cut down the Bush backed ?1. 65 trillion revenue enhancement decrease measure to ?1. 35 trillion. Obviously. the President’s influence in Congress through fellow Republican ( though a slender bulk ) gave him a triumph. ( Dickinson. n. d. )
Other measures backed by the President nevertheless did non do that well. Majority support from peculiarly the Senate could non be secured for programs to bore in environmentally sensitive countries. to supply federal grants to spiritual charities. and an hypertrophied missile defense mechanism system. Notably. some moderate Republicans in the Senate teamed up with Democrats to queer these policy options of the President and things even got murkier when Republican Senator Jeffords of Vermont defected to the Democrats taking to a Democrat controlled Senate.
The sensed refusal of Bush to follow a bi-partisan attack in his traffics with Congress resulted in a head-on hit with the Democrat controlled Senate who besides set themselves to prosecute a policy docket that was at discrepancy with Bush’s. the Senate for case kind to go through a more comprehensive patients measure of rights hence abandoning Bush’s initial watered down version. Having lost the important bulk in the Senate during his first term in office. Bush turned to the populace to earn support for his policies that had failed to win Democrat support in the Senate. He besides kind to utilize his resort to the public support as a manner of supercharging opposing Senators to toe his line. ( Dickinson. n. d. )
Against the background of hostility with the Democrat controlled Senate. Bush personally became involved in monolithic runs for Republican campaigners in the 2002 mid-term election which paid off with 51-48 Republican bulk in the Senate. It is therefore apparent that the control of Congress is important for the endurance of American Presidents as was typically made evident in the 1998-1999 congressional effort to impeach Bill Clinton.
The Congress has significant powers. the exercising of which a functioning president demands to tribunal in order to last. As discussed above. some of the powers the Congress has over the President has to make with the passing of executive initiated measures. particularly the blessing of the authoritiess budget. The Congress can besides impeach a President and accordingly take him/her from office. These powers of the Congress over the presidential term must nevertheless be seen as being critical in the procedure of cheques and balances that ensures the protection of democracy merely as the President power to veto measures passed by Congress.
Dickinson. M. J. ( n. d. ) ‘The President and Congress’ .
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