The Vroom Expectancy Theory of Motivation
The Vroom Expectancy Theory is “based on the premise that felt needs cause human behavior” and that motivation strength depends on an individual’s degree of desire to perform a behavior (Certo & Certo, 2008). As an individual recognizes a need, they will more than likely employ an action to satisfy that need. The motivational strength will also fluctuate correspondingly with their desire. If the desire increases, so will the motivation. The opposite is true as well.
In equation form, motivation strength equals the perceived result value of performing behavior multiplied by the perceived probability that the result will actually materialize (Certo & Certo, 2008). For example, consider anovice stockbroker in training who was has been given a one-month probationary period to earn a position and make $500 commission from any successful trades. Assuming they really want the job, the motivation strength, or desire would be calculated as their perception of the value of that position with the bonus in relation to their perception of the probability that they can successfully trade during the trial.
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As the stockbroker’s perceived value of the two rewards and perceived probability that they would be able to achieve increases, their motivation strength to obtain those rewards will also increase. To put it briefly, the key to the Vroom expectancy Expectancy tTheory is whether the individual perceives a positive relationship between effort, performance, and reward. The advantages and limitations of the Vroom Expectancy Theory can be expressed as follows (Expectancy Theory of Motivation): Advantages of the Expectancy Theory
•It is based on self-interest individuals who want to achieve maximum satisfaction and who want to minimize dissatisfaction. •This theory stresses upon the expectations and perception; what is real and actual is immaterial. •It emphasizes on rewards or pay-offs. •It focuses on psychological extravagance where final objective of individual is to attain maximum pleasure and least pain. Limitations of the Expectancy Theory •The expectancy theory seems to be idealistic because quite a few individuals perceive high degree correlation between performance and
rewards. •The application of this theory is limited, as reward is not directly correlated with performance in many organizations. It is related to other parameters also such as position, effort, responsibility, education, etc. InA Question of Motivationcase study, the Vroom Expectancy Theory relates to both workers. The theory suggests that individuals can be motivated if they believe that there is a positive correlation between efforts, performance, and rewards (Expectancy Theory of Motivation).
In the case of Alex, he is not motivated at all to perform his duties assigned by Dan due to the lack of rewards received for his efforts. He sarcastically stated,“I don’t even care anymore. What’s the point? If I stock more apples, or something meaningless like that, what does it get me-another sticker that says ‘good job’? ” His performance and efforts does not have a positive impact on the correlation to his rewards, which decreases his motivation strength.
Stephanie on the other hand has a different relationship with her boss Jonathon and appears very motivated by the reward he will offer for her good performance. When talking to Alex about the goal she set for next week, Stephanie illustrated her enthusiasm by saying “Iif I sell the oil Jonathon said that he’ll give me a $75 bonus,. Sso I’m definitely going to give it a shot. ” Her motivation strength is determined by her perception of the $75 bonus and probability that she can sell the oil to receive that reward.
As her perceived value of the $75 reward and perceived probability that she can successfully sell the oil increases, her motivation strength to sell 10 bottles of truffle oil next week also increases. In both situations, the Vroom Expectancy Theory illustrates how it “is all about the attractiveness or appeal of the potential reward to the individual”(Expectancy Theory of Motivation). Antoine, I think this is a great paper, however, the first two pages you are giving us a lot of information on what Vroom Theory is and not a lot of how it relates to the case study…again, it is a great paper though :