Transatlantic Trade Of Crops

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Many notable tribes were very different because they were very regionally based. Even though they all originated from asia the tribes developed very differently according to their geographic location, the resources provided to them and the weather. They did not have a shared language nor culture. They all had different types of structures like the Many pre-columbian tribes had big complex and sophisticated civilizations, like the incas, Mayans and the aztecs. Many crops they grew, like maize, allowed many tribes to prosper because it allowed for a bigger population. In the upper east coast many tribes started what is called three sister agriculture. Other tribes like the iroquois confederacy practiced matrilinealism. A conquistador is a spanish soldier or explorer who took part in the conquering of the new world (the Americas). They had three major motivations also known as the three g’s, God, gold and glory. Many went to the new world in order to bring their religion, mainly christianity to the natives. They believed god would reward them for this. The second reason was gold, many explorers believed that they would become rich with the gold they find in the americas.

The explorers also believed that is the conquered more land it would lead to more glory making them rich. One of the best examples of this would be Hernan Cortez who conquered the aztecs in central mexico. The columbian exchange was the transatlantic trade of crops, culture and diseases between the new and old world. There were many positive and negative impacts. One positive for both the new and old world was introduction of crops like sugarcane and tobacco. The introduction of tobacco in the old world allowed for economic prosperity and the the introduction of sugarcane allowed the growth in population in the caribbean. One of the most significant negative impacts was the diseases brought over from the colonizers of the old world. Diseases like smallpox decimated the native american population and the existing cultures. The economy in the spanish colonies was based off of mining and agricultural. The search for gold fueled the economy. The social structure was dependent off of intermarriage like the mestizo. religion also played a big role in the social structure , like forcing religion on the indians which then resulted in pope’s rebellion. This also occurred with the mission indians who were forced to adapt their religion. Political structure was apparent when the treaty of tordesillas happened, the pope split land between the spanish and portuguese to keep from having a big war. This shows how in addition to the spanish colonies being controlled by the crown, religion also played a big role in politics too. There where both positive and negative impacts of spanish colonization in the new world.

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One obvious negative impact would be the erasing of the existing cultures of the native americans but along with that came mestizo, maroon and zambo culture which was the intermarriage between people of different cultures which in turn created new cultures. Another negative would be the mistreatment of the native americans and things like the encomienda system which led to the demonization of spain using the black legend. Another positive would be the introduction of certain goods that were not here before like the introduction of certain livestock. Chapter 2 Objectives The english began to colonize the New World mainly because of the English protestant reformation, when king henry VIII broke with the roman catholic church. After that there was religious conflict between protestant england and catholic spain which led to competition of who can establish more colonies. England colonized later than the spanish because they had little interest in colonizing overseas as they were spain’s allies for the first half of the century. Many people died in the settlement of jamestown, Virginia because they had starved of hunger due to them being ill prepared, bringing more tools and things for finding gold instead of foodstuffs this was also known as the starving time. They were also crippled with diseases that killed a significant amount of people. The three saviors where john smith, john rolfe, and Lord De La Warr. john smith helped enforce a strict work ethic, saying those who do not work shall not eat he also helped with creating an alliance with the surrounding native americans. John rolfe brought tobacco to the settlement which made it profitable and he married pocahontas, daughter of the powhatan chief, to create temporary peace between them. Lastly Lord De La Warr used harsh irish tactics to subdue the native people which caused them to never threaten the colony again The tensions between the indians and the european settlers began to grow due to many factors. The english in the colony were starving due to being ill prepared, they began to raid the natives food supplies.

Tensions also rose due to de la warr’s aggressive military tactics against the indians like burning houses and torching cornfields which led to powhatan wars. The year 1619 was important in the development of the virginia colony because it introduced the house of burgesses, the first women come to the colony, and the introduction of slaves. The house of burgesses was the first representative democracy, it was the first of mini parliaments to flourish in america. The introduction of women allowed for a natural population growth and sooner lead to women having more control. The introduction of slaves ( not clear weather they came for indentured servitude or where lifelong slaves) planted the seeds of the american slave system. The motivation for the settlement of virginia was to find gold and a strong desire to find a route through America to the indies. Maryland was founded by Lord baltimore, he wanted to reap financial profits and to find a safe haven for english catholics who were being persecuted in protestant england.

The carolinas were created in 1670 after the founders hoped to grow foodstuffs to provision the sugar plantations that were being grown in the caribbean. It was also to export products that were not english like wine and silk. Georgia was founded in 1733 and its soul purpose was to serve as a buffer. It was to protect from the spaniards in florida and The french in louisiana. Vocab: Soil butchery- the depletion of the soil caused by excessive tobacco growing Barbados Slave codes- gave the slave owners complete control over their slaves Primogeniture- only the eldest son would receive or inherit land and the younger sons had a better chance in the Americas Yeoman- a free middle class farmer who owned small estate and cultivated own land Joint stock company- group of investors/shareholders who each contribute money and receives some share of the company’s profits and debts

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