The Health Board covers a population of approximately 00,000 people and has a budget of El . 3 billion. Around 16,500 people are employed by the Health Board, 70% of whom are involved in direct patient care. The Health Board has four acute hospitals providing a range of services; these are Singleton, Morristown, Neat Port Tallboy and Princess of Wales Hospitals. There are a number of smaller community hospitals primary care resource centers providing important clinical services to our residents outside of the four main acute hospital settings. The Health Board acts as the service provider for Wales and the South West of England in respect of Burns and Plastic Surgery. In addition, Forensic Mental Health services are provided to a wider community which extends across the whole of South Wales, while Learning Disability services are provided from Swansea to Cardiff. A range of community based services are also delivered in patients’ homes, via community hospitals, health centers and clinics.
The Health Board contracts with independent practitioners in respect of primary care services which are delivered by General Practitioners, Opticians, Pharmacists and Dentists. There are 77 General Practices across the Health Board. Our purpose is “To improve the health of our community and to deliver effective and efficient healthcare in which our patients and users feel cared for, safe and confident. ” work for the Medical Directors Department as a Clinical Audit & Effectiveness Co-ordination. The purpose of my role is to support the Clinical Audit & Effectiveness Manager in their role, to offer specialist knowledge and advice to individuals, clinical and multi-professional groups, and to offer supervision to the Clinical Audit & Effectiveness Assistants and Clerks.
I am responsible for the collation and analysis of data on mortality, providing a statistical base to support alnico audit, inform the research agenda and to aid the development of services. Produce monthly, quarterly, annual and specialist reports to the Medical Director and key individuals and forums across the Health Board e. G. Quality & Safety forum and Committee for information, discussion and action planning. Am liable for contributing data to the Health Board’s monthly Performance Report which is reported onwards to Welsh Government. My main duty is to analyses, correlate and interpret complex data, utilizing statistical knowledge to present findings and evidence to the best advantage for the purpose of reporting coal issues. Understand the factors that influence motivation levels in the workplace Motivation is the creation of stimuli, incentives and working environments that enable people to perform to the best of their ability.
The heart of motivation is to give people what they really want most from work. In return managers should expect more in the form of productivity, quality and service. In my opinion, motivation is giving encouragement and reason to successfully complete a task. It is the want or willpower to drive you to do something to achieve a goal. I agree with Abraham Mason’s Hierarchy of Needs (Figure 1), it is usually presented as a triangle, though Moscow himself did not present it in this way. Figure 1. Moscow proposed that individuals experience a range of needs, and will be motivated to fulfill whichever need is most powerful at the time. What he termed the lower-order needs are dominant until they are at least partially satisfied.
Normal individuals would then turn their attention to satisfying needs at the next level, so that higher-order needs would gradually become dominant. The physiological needs which Moscow refers o would include a basic salary and warmth. The safety needs require a safe working environment and job security. Followed by social needs, acceptance by the team and good working relationships with colleagues and management. Esteem needs can be satisfied by giving thanks and recognition. When self- actualization is reached opportunities for further personal development or more challenging responsibilities would satisfy.
Moscow did not claim that the hierarchy was a fixed or rigid scheme. His clinical experience suggested that most people had these needs in about this order, but e had seen exceptions – people for whom self-esteem was more important than love. For others creativity took precedence, in that they did not seek self- actualization after satisfying basic needs, but did so even when they were not being satisfied. Others had such low aspirations that they experienced life at a very basic level. (Body, 2012) Although I prefer Herrings Two Factor Theory of Motivation.
Frederick Herbage’s classic 1 959 study “The Motivation to Work” concluded that there were two types of motivation: Hygiene Factors: those that can denominate if hey are not present, and Motivation Factors: those that will motivate if they are present. In other words, satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work arise from different factors and are not simply opposite reactions to the same factors. Herrings work indicates that the commonly held view that money is a key motivating factor is not correct. There are bigger, more sustaining motivators.
To truly motivate staff, management must not only provide hygiene factors to avoid dissatisfaction, but must also provide factors intrinsic motivation and that is a continuous management process. The hygiene factors can be related roughly to Measles lower-level needs and the motivators to Mason’s higher-level needs. To motivate workers to give of their best, the manager must give proper attention to the motivators or growth factors. Herbert emphasizes that hygiene factors are not a ‘second-class citizen system’. They are as important as the motivators, but for different reasons.
Hygiene factors are necessary to avoid unpleasantness at work to deny unfair treatment. ‘Management should never deny people proper treatment at work. ‘ They are the variables which actually motivate people. The work of Herbert indicates that it is more likely good performance leads to job satisfaction rather than the reverse. According to Grainer and Darlene Herbage’s work has had a considerable effect on the rewards and remuneration packages offered by corporations. Increasingly, there is a trend towards ‘cafeteria’ benefits in which people can choose from a range of options.
In effect, they can select the elements they recognize as providing their own motivation to work. Similarly, the current emphasis on self-development, career management and self-managed learning an be seen as having evolved from Herbage’s insights. There are many factors that affect motivation factors in the workplace. For example, morale. From my experience I think low morale is contagious, if morale is low for one team member then they come across negative, which then affects close-working colleagues and often can result in the team having a negative outlook.
When morale is low, staff are less productive and work slower and less efficiently. Sickness is another individual difference which can affect a person’s motivation levels. If someone is feeling unwell, whether cause is a short-term illness or long-standing problem they are likely to lack concentration, energy and the want to complete a task and are struggling to fully commit themselves. Pay is also an individual difference which affects the motivation of an individual.
I have velvetiness frustration at work when colleagues compare their salary with another person with (in their opinion) a lesser workload, resulting in them feeling denominating at the thought of someone earning a higher salary for undertaking less work than themselves. If a staff member is experiencing difficulties or is unhappy outside work it is likely to affect their performance also. When morale is low, staff are less productive and work slower and less efficiently. Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured against its intended output (goals and objectives).
Within the Health board we have a monthly performance report which is distributed on a monthly basis to most senior directorate managers. Performance is also measured and reported at ‘Changing for the better’, ‘1000 lives campaign’ and other forums. It enables us as an organization to identify areas for improvement and leads to investigation of why performance is corded as being high/low. In areas where employee motivation levels are low, it is expected that the performance report would reflect this by having poor performance figures. For example, Mortality Review compliance figures are my contribution to the performance report.
Recently, due to all the issues surrounding In-hospital mortality in the media my job was extremely busy for quite a period of time, my priorities were changing by the hour and was in high demand to attend multiple meetings and it was rather denominating as it was impossible to complete all tasks expected of me, this was reflected in he performance report by a slight decrease in compliance likely to be due to a decrease in communication and feedback to the clinical teams. If there is a drop in compliance for a month period then the Medical Director requires an explanation as to why this has happened.
There are a few reasons why this could be, it could be that my team and I are not communicating effectively with the clinical staff responsible for completing the reviews, and informing the appropriate persons. It may be caused as there are new junior doctors in post who are unaware of the process or are not confident to complete the forms. It is an expectation of Welsh Government that all In-hospital deaths are reviewed and it is not acceptable to have non-compliant deaths, however this is a process which has major improved over recent months after many pilot phases over recent years and improvements are on-going.
For myself, it is denominating when there is a vast decline in compliance to the previous month. When >90% compliance was first achieved I was over-the-moon and was very proud. It was a sense of relief that all the effort and hard work had paid off and we had overcome all the difficulties we had experienced, although this was not reflect and there would still need to be improvements we had come along way. However, the following month there was a vast decline in compliance which had a negative impact on myself and the team.
It is a great difficulty to maintain high motivation levels when the effort input is not indicated in the output, the compliance or performance figures. Understand how a theory of motivation can be used to improve performance levels Victor H. Broom’s developed the Expectancy Theory in his 1964 book ‘Work and Motivation’. He was the first person to propose an expectancy theory aimed specifically at work motivation. The underlying basis of expectancy theory is that people are influenced by the expected results of their actions.
There are three main components in expectancy theory, valence, instrumentality and expectancy. Broom summed up his model in the equation M= ? (E x V). That is: Motivation = ? (Expectancy x Valence). This formula can be used to indicate and predict such things as job satisfaction, occupational choice, the likelihood of staying in a job and the effort a person might apply at work. Expectancy -. People develop a perception of the degree of probability that the hooch of a particular action will actually lead to the desired outcome. Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing. Instrumentality – The perception of employees whether they will actually get what they desire even if it has been promised by a manager. Valence – Valence refers to the emotional tendencies people hold with respect to outcomes/rewards. It is the depth of the want of that person for extrinsic rewards such as money and promotion or purely satisfaction.
Two beliefs will influence that motivation, the expectation that making more f an effort will lead to increased performance and that the higher level performance will result in a better outcome or reward. In order to successfully use this theory in the workplace the management must discover what employees’ value, find out what resources, training or supervision employees need and ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that employees are aware of that. Knowledge of motivational theories can improve performance in the workplace as they provide managers with a greater insight of employees’ needs and expectations, but also what they themselves can do to assist that errors to perform better. You don’t motivate individuals. You provide them with an environment to be self-motivated. It is a personal decision, but it’s management’s job to provide the right environment. Theories of motivation help demonstrate the many motives that influence people’s behavior and performance at work.
They provide a framework within which to direct attention for how best to motivate and reward staff to work willingly and effectively. It is because of the complexity of motivation and the fact there is no ready-made solution or single answer to motivates people to ark well that the different theories are important to the manager. It is up to the manager to identify when the different theories are relevant and apply them effectively in particular work situations. Performance levels are higher when staff are happy and motivated. It is not the manager’s job to motivate employees but to provide a happy work environment (usually when all the hygiene factors are present) in which the employee would be naturally motivated. It is important to maintain the hygiene factors, referring to Herbage’s two factor theory. At BAM University Health Board we are awarded an annual pay increment until the highest possible point is reached within that pay band.
This could be associated with maintaining the hygiene factor regarding pay. It is also important to maintain a good working relationship with fellow colleagues, team- building exercises, team meetings and regular communication including social interaction with all team members are good ways in which good relationships can develop. Victor Broom’s work on expectancy theory supports the concept that employees must know what action they are expected to take and that it will yield the desired performance. Your employees should understand what they are expected to do, how they are expected to do it, and how they will be judged on it.
It is important that the employee has a goal/aim, and whenever possible provide them with a statistical base on which their performance can be monitored/measured. For example, recently within my department we measured how many patient’s medical notes were retrieved each week by the clinical audit clerks and plotted these figures on a graph, this enabled other staff to be aware of how busy they had been and also to get recognition from management for their efforts. Feedback is another very important aspect which will help motivate to improve performance. It is essential that you inform the employee how their actions affect the organization.
It makes the employee feel good about themselves, can help boost confidence in their work and they are more likely to apply these strengths to their next project or task. If your staff do something good, tell them. And then tell them again. And again. Keep it up. Put it in writing. Send them a memo – something they can keep. Put it in the company newsletter. Add a note to their file. Whatever, but make it widely known they did good. This a quick and cheap method of raising and motivating your team and it lets everyone know you are monitoring, praising, motivating.
Within my organization they regularly publish articles praising colleagues on the BUM intranet page. Engaging with colleagues can increase motivation levels. I have informal 1: Is with my colleagues on a regular basis to discuss workload, any issues/problems that have arisen and to give them opportunity to speak out about anything they wish whether it be positive or negative. I encourage them to discuss any ideas or suggestions they have and reassure them that they always have my support as some of my Taft work at different locations to myself I think they require more reassurance as I am not often there in person.
As an organization it is compulsory that each employee undergoes an annual PDP (Personal Development Review) with their line manager. This is a more formal 1:1 with structured questions and outcomes recorded. I am also going to introduce a bi-monthly team meeting for the staff that support me in the Mortality Review process, as we are spread across four sites, and although regularly attend all sites and have discussions with all team members, I think it may prove useful to hold a meeting where they can also issues the problems, workload etc with each other and share experiences.