Vietnam War Research Paper

From the 1880s until World War II, France governed Vietnam as portion of Gallic Indochina, which besides included Cambodia and Laos. The state was under the control of an emperor, Bao Dai. In 1940 Nipponese military personnels invaded and occupied Gallic Indochina. In December of that twelvemonth, Vietnamese patriots established the League for the Independence of Vietnam, or Viet Minh, seeing the convulsion of the war as an chance for opposition to French colonial regulation.

The United States demanded that Japan leave Indochina, warning of military action. The Viet Minh began guerrilla warfare against Japan and entered an effectual confederation with the United States. When the Nipponeses signed their formal resignation on September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh used the juncture to declare the independency of Vietnam, which he called the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Emperor Bao Dai abdicated the throne.

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The Gallic, nevertheless, refused to admit Vietnam’s independency, and subsequently that twelvemonth drove the Viet Minh into the North of the state. Ho Chi Minh wrote eight letters to U.S. president Harry Truman, beging him to acknowledge Vietnam’s independency. But, the foreign policy of the United States during the Cold War was driven by a fright of the spread of Communism. Eastern Europe had fallen under the domination of the Communist USSR, and China was ruled by Communists. United States policymakers felt they could non afford to lose Southeast Asia every bit good to the Communists.

The United States hence condemned Ho Chi Minh as an agent of international Communism and offered to help the Gallic in recapturing Vietnam. In May 1954, the Viet Minh mounted a monolithic assault on the Gallic fortress at ? ien Bi? N, in northwesterly Vietnam. The Battle of Dien Bien Phu resulted in possibly the most demeaning licking in Gallic military history. Already tired of the war, the Gallic public forced their authorities to make a peace understanding at the Geneva Conference.

France asked the other universe powers to assist pull up a program for Gallic backdown from the part and for the hereafter of Vietnam. Meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, from May 8 to July 21, 1954, diplomats from France, Great Britain, the USSR, China, and the United States, every bit good as representatives from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, drafted a set of understandings called the Geneva Accords. These understandings provided for the backdown of Gallic military personnels to the South of Vietnam until they could be safely removed from the state. Viet Minh forces moved into the North.

Vietnam was temporarily divided at the 17th analogue to let for a cooling-off period and for warring cabals among the Vietnamese to return to their native parts. Ho Chi Minh maintained control of North Vietnam, while Emperor Bao Dai remained caput of South Vietnam. Besides in 1955, the United States picked Ngo Dinh Diem to replace Bao Dai as caput of the anti-Communist government in South Vietnam. With U.S. encouragement, Diem refused to take part in the planned national elections, which Ho Chi Minh and the Lao Dong, or Workers? Party, were favored to win. Alternatively, Diem held elections merely in South Vietnam, an action that violated the Geneva Accords. This led to the start of the war.

The United States became involved in Vietnam because it believed that if all of the state fell under a Communist authorities, Communism would distribute throughout Southeast Asia and beyond. This belief was known as the? Domino theory. The U.S. authorities, hence, supported the South Vietnamese authorities. When some of the soldiers of the U.S. 9th Marine Regiment landed in? ? Nang in March 1965, their orders were to protect the U.S. air base, but the mission was rapidly escalated to include search-and-destroy patrols of the country around the base. This corresponded in illumination to the larger scheme of General William Westmoreland.

Westmoreland, who took over the Military Assistance Command in Vietnam in 1964, advocated set uping a big American force and so unleashing it in large expanses. His scheme was that of abrasion? extinguishing or have oning down the enemy by bring downing the highest decease toll possible. There were 80,000 U.S. military personnels in Vietnam by the terminal of 1965 ; by 1969 a extremum of 543,000 military personnels would be reached.

In 1967 North Vietnam and the NLF decided the clip had come to mount an full-scale offense aimed at bring downing serious losingss on both the ARVN and U.S. forces. They planned the Tet Offensive with the hope that this would significantly impact the populace temper in the United States. In December 1967 North Vietnamese military personnels attacked and surrounded the U.S. Marine base at Khe Sanh, puting it under besieging. Westmoreland ordered the outpost held at all costs.

To forestall the Communists from infesting the base, approximately 50,000 U.S. Marines and Army military personnels were called into the country, therefore weakening places further south. This concentration of American military personnels in one topographic point was precisely what North Vietnam strategians had hoped would go on. The chief push of the Tet Offensive so began on January 31, 1968, at the start of Tet, or the Vietnamese lunar new twelvemonth jubilation, when a letup in contending traditionally took topographic point. Most ARVN military personnels had gone place on leave, and U.S. military personnels were on stand-down in many countries.

Over 85,000 NLF soldiers at the same time struck at about every major metropolis and provincial capital across South Vietnam, directing their guardians staggering. The U.S. Embassy in Saigon, antecedently thought to be invulnerable, was taken over by the NLF, and held for eight hours before U.S. forces could recapture the composite. The Tet Offensive as a whole lasted into the autumn of 1968, and when it was over the North Vietnamese and the NLF had suffered acute losingss.

The U.S. Department of Defense estimated that a sum of 45,000 North Vietnamese and NLF soldiers had been killed, most of them NLF combatants. Having no religion that the Paris pact would be implemented, the North Vietnamese set 1975 as the twelvemonth to mount their concluding offense. They believed it would take at least two old ages ; the rapid prostration of the ARVN was hence a surprise even to them. After the initial onslaught by the North Vietnamese in the Central Highlands nor’-east of Saigon on January 7, the ARVN instantly began to fall apart.

On March 25 the ancient imperial metropolis of Hue fell ; so on March 29, Da Nang, the former U.S. Marine central offices, was overtaken. On April 20 Thieu resigned, impeaching the United States of treachery. His replacement was Duong Van Minh, who had been among those who overthrew Diem in 1963. On April 30 Minh issued his unconditioned resignation to the PRG. Almost 30 old ages after Ho Chi Minh’s declaration of independency, Vietnam was eventually unified.

In 1965 the United States sent in military personnels to forestall the South Vietnamese authorities from fall ining. Ultimately, the United States failed to accomplish its end, and in 1975 Vietnam was reunified under Communist control ; in 1976 it officially became the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. During the struggle, about 3 to 4 million Vietnamese on both sides were killed, in add-on to another 1.5 to 2 million Laotians and Cambodians who were drawn into the war. More than 58,000 Americans lost their lives.

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Vietnam War Research Paper. (2018, May 10). Retrieved from