White blood cells are classified into granulocytes and agranulocytes. Granulocytes have a multi-lobed karyon and a ‘grainy ‘ visual aspect. They can be farther classified into basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils. Agranulocytes have a individual, big karyon which covers about 75 % of the cell and can be farther classified into monocytes and lymph cells ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) .
Deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA are both nucleic acids and they are made up of polynucleotides. A nucleotide consists of nitrogen-bearing base, a pentose sugar and a phosphate unit. Genes of all beings are made up of DNA except for some viruses which are made up of RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid is found in the karyon and chondriosome whereas RNA is located in the nucleole of the karyon and the cytol. Deoxyribonucleic acid is a double-stranded spiral while RNA is individual stranded. Figure 1 shows the difference in construction for DNA and RNA. Table 1 compares the difference between DNA and RNA. Table 3 shows a comparing between the hypothesis and consequences of the experiment, demoing that the hypothesis is the same as the consequences obtained.
The green discolorations seen under the microscope indicated that DNA was present while the rose-red discolorations indicated that RNA was present.
The consequences obtained were non really desirable as the sum of DNA and RNA observed was really small. The sum of DNA and RNA was determined by the strength of the green and rose-red color. The higher the strength of the rose-red and green color observed under the microscope, the higher the concentration of RNA and DNA severally.
One of the possible grounds for the low concentration of DNA and RNA could be because of the waterlessness of the blood sample. The blood sample might non be wholly dry during the air dry procedure, ensuing in some of the blood sample coming off when the slides were placed in solutions such as distilled H2O and ethyl alcohol.
In order to rush up the air-drying procedure of the blood vilifications, hair drier was used. The usage of hair drier might ensue in clefts due to the high heat produced by the hair drier. The heat produced by the hair drier might besides damage the cells, therefore impacting the concluding consequence.
Merely 95 % ethyl alcohol is used to desiccate the slide to forestall bacterial decay. However, it is recommended to utilize a series of increasing intoxicant concentrations as more H2O would be drawn out of the cells. The full desiccation procedure starts off with 50 % ethyl alcohol, followed by 75 % ethyl alcohol, and so 90 % ethyl alcohol, followed by 95 % ethyl alcohol and in conclusion absolute ( 100 % ) intoxicant.
Carnoy fixative is a somewhat xanthous liquid with trichloromethane smell that is used to quickly perforate the cell membrane and halt all its supermolecules to continue the form and construction of the cell. Other fixative that could be used includes formol and acetic acid. Carnoy fixative contains ethanol, trichloromethane and glacial acetic acid in the ratio 6:3:1. Carnoy fixative is flammable due to the presence of intoxicant. The Coplin jar that contained Carnoy fixative was wrapped in aluminum foil as Carnoy fixative is sensitive to visible radiation.
Harmonizing to Wikipedia ( 2010 ) , xylene is a clear, colorless, odoriferous liquid that could besides be used in the experiment to do a transparent background for cells to be seen more clearly. However, the usage of xylol is non recommended because xylol is carcinogenic.
The bed of blood spread onto the slides might be uneven, particularly at the terminal of the vilification as all the extra blood will garner to the terminal of the slide. This will ensue in uneven waterlessness of the blood vilifications when the vilifications are dried utilizing the hair drier and might even ensue in clefts in parts where the bed of blood is thin. Therefore, excess attention should be taken when air drying the blood vilifications to guarantee that no clefts were formed on the blood vilifications.
The control for the experiment is the slide treated with RNase + MGP. The DNase + MGP treated slide was non prepared for the experiment as merely one control slide was needed. The RNase + MGP treated slide could besides be replaced with a DNase + MGP treated slide depending on one ‘s penchant.
Mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic acid are found in the chondriosome which are situated in the cytol. However, green discolorations were non seen in the cytol when both slides were viewed under the microscope. This is because of the minute sum of DNA nowadays in the chondriosome which were excessively little to be seen under a microscope. Deoxyribonucleic acid is besides located in the chloroplasts which are found in the cytol of the cell. However, since we are looking at animate beings cells, no chloroplasts are present because chloroplasts are merely found in works cells.
RNA is besides located in the nucleole of the cell ; nevertheless, no rose-red discoloration was seen in the karyon when viewed under the microscope. This could be due to the little sum of RNA nowadays in the nucleole that is excessively small to be seen under the microscope. A microscope of higher magnification power is required to see the minute sum of RNA nowadays in the karyon.
In decision, two types of white blood cells were identified-granulocytes and agranulocytes. The blood vilifications were prepared successfully and the staining had shown the location of DNA and RNA in the cells. The consequences proved that RNase degrades merely RNA as the RNase + MGP treated slide was stained green merely. The karyon was stained green and the cytol was stained rose-red by MGP for the MGP treated slide. The hypothesis was the same as the consequences of the experiment. Precautions were taken when managing blood during the experiment.
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