Acts And Theophilus Essay
1. Theophilus Lover of God, a Christian, probably a Roman, to whom Lukededicated both his Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles. Nothing beyond this isknown of him. From the fact that Luke applies to him the title “mostexcellent”, the same title Paul uses in addressing Felix and Festus, it hasbeen concluded that Theophilus was a person of rank, perhaps a Roman officer (Henneke).
2. John the Baptist John was Jesus cousin. He was to prepare a way for themessiah by baptizing people into repentance.
He is only mentioned in Acts inpassing. He had been murdered by King Herod years before. 3. Jesus He is thesuffering servant, the messiah. He is God in flesh. He is the main focal pointof the book of Acts. 4. Peter His name meant rock or stone. He was the brothermof Andrew. He was a fisherman called by Jesus into his early ministry. He iswell known by his 3 time denial. He was one of Jesus favorite disciples. Hebecame the leader of the chosen twelve.
He was one of the few to witness Jariusdaughters resurrection, and the transfiguration. After Pentecost, hisministry appeared in three stages: 1. Leader of activities in Jerusalem. 2. Heopened the door to gentiles with the conversion of Cornelius. 3. He and his wifestarted the Zenana missionary. 4. He became a martyr and was crucified upsidedown (Henneke). Peter was a quick, perceptive, and impulsive man, given tobursts of enthusiasm-and depression. He recognized his own unworthiness of hisLords faith in him. Peter was the first one to declare Jesus as Christ. Heraised Dorcus from the dead, and performed many other miracles. The transitionform Judaism to the full acceptance of Christs teaching was not easy ofPeter. He was strong and stubborn before the notion that Samaritans and Gentilescould be Christians without first becoming Jews and circumcised. A direct visionwas required to make him understand that the Lords saving work was performedfor all who would believe in him. Once convinced, however, he tried to standwith Paul on the question of admitting Gentiles to the church (Alexander). 5.
John He was the younger brother of James, and an apostle. He was known as thedisciple whom Jesus loved. He was a native of Galilee. His parents were cousinsof Jesus. He was a fisherman by trade. He was in the inner cabinet of three. Heis mentioned in Acts as at the appearance on Pentecost (Henneke). 6. James Jamesis best known as the brother of John. He and John were called the Sons ofThunder. He was a fisherman who left all to follow Christ. He became one ofChrist’s most beloved apostles. He was present at the transfiguration. Hismother asked that he be given a place of power in Christ’s kingdom. He went withChrist to the garden of Gethsemane before the crucifixion. He was present atChrist’s death. Jesus allowed only Peter, John, and James to be present at thehealing of Jarius’ daughter. He and John wanted fire from heaven to punish theSamaritans. James was one of the first to give his life for Christ (Henneke). 7.
Andrew Brother of Simon Peter and an apostle. He was a follower of John theBaptist. It is suggested that he became the patron-saint of Russia (Lockyer). 8.
Phillip He was an apostle but not much was known of him after that. 9. ThomasThe apostle who was given the name “the doubter” (Alexander). 10.
Bartholomew He is one of the twelve. He was also known as Nathaniel and asuggested writer of a gospel (Alexander). 11. Matthew A tax collector before hebecame a disciple. He was also known as Levi (Smith). 12. James He was the sonof Alphaeus. He was known as the little or the less, probably because of hissmall stature, or because he was young. His brother was Joses. He was one of thetwelve (Lockyer). 13. Simon the Zealot One of the twelve. An interesting thingabout him was that even after he became a follower of Christ he did not ceasebeing known as a zealot (Smith). 14. Judas, son of James One of the twelve, notto be confused with Judas Iscariot. 15. Judas Son of Simon (John 6:71; 13:2,26), surnamed Iscariot. His name is uniformly the last in the list of theapostles, as given in the synoptic Gospels. The evil of his nature probablygradually unfolded itself till “Satan entered into him” (John 13:27),and he betrayed our Lord (18:3). Afterwards he owned his sin with “anexceeding bitter cry,” and cast the money he had received as the wages ofhis iniquity down on the floor of the sanctuary, and “departed and went andhanged himself” (Matt. 27:5). He perished in his guilt, and “went untohis own place” (Acts 1:25). The statement in Acts 1:18 that he “fellheadlong and burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out,” isin no way contrary to that in Matt. 27:5. The suicide first hanged himself,perhaps over the valley of Hinnom, “and the rope giving way, or the branchto which he hung breaking, he fell down headlong on his face, and was crushedand mangled on the rocky pavement below.” (Easton) 16. Barsabbas SurnamedJoseph; also called Justus. He was one of those who “companied with theapostles all the time that the Lord Jesus went out and in among them” , andwas one of the candidates for the place of Judas. (Lockyer) 17. Matthias Theapostles agreed that the vacancy in the number twelve created by Judassuicide should be filled. They decided, further, that one of those who had beenwith Jesus from the beginning should be chosen. Two men were nominated Barsabbasand Matthias. After prayers for guidance, lots were cast and the lot fell toMatthias who was then enrolled with the eleven. Nothing else is recorded abouthim, he is not mentioned again (Alexander). 18. Joel Mentioning of the OldTestament prophet. 19. David King David of the Old Testament. 20. Annas the HighPriest He was the high priest A.D. 7-14. In A.D. 25 Caiaphis, who had marriedthe daughter of Annas, was raised to that office, and probably Annas was nowmade president of the Sanhedrim, or deputy or coadjutor of the high priest, andthus was also called high priest along with Caiaphis. By the Mosaic law thehigh-priesthood was held for life (Num. 3:10); and although Annas had beendeposed by the Roman procurator, the Jews may still have regarded him as legallythe high priest. The Lord was first brought before Annas, and after a briefquestioning of him was sent to Caiaphis, when some members of the Sanhedrim hadmet, and the first trial of Jesus took place. This examination of Jesus beforeAnnas is recorded only by John. Annas was president of the Sanhedrim beforewhich Peter and John were brought (Easton). 21. Caiaphis He was the High Priestand was the son-in-law of Annas. 22. John He was a kinsman of Annas. 23.
Alexander A relative of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John wereexamined before the Sanhedrim. 24. Joseph, Levite form Cyprus Not much is knownabout him. 25. Barnabas His given name was Joses or Joseph. He was a Levite. Hewas from Cyprus. A cousin of John Mark. He was also referred to as an apostle.
His character is revealed in the name given to him by the apostles, Barnabas,”son of encouragement”. “When he came and had seen the grace ofGod, he was glad, and encouraged them all that with purpose of heart they shouldcontinue with the Lord” (Acts 11:23). “For he was a good man, full ofthe Holy Spirit and of faith” (Acts 11:24). When Christians in Jerusalemwere in need, he sold his land and brought the money to the apostles. When Paultried to join himself to the Jerusalem Christians, they were afraid of him.
Barnabas took Paul to the apostles so Paul could tell his story. He and Paulwere entrusted with the relief sent to the brethren in Judea during a famine. Herefused the worship of the people of Lystra. He was involved in hypocrisy alongwith Peter and others with respect to the treatment of the Gentiles in Antioch.
He contended with Paul over taking John Mark on a second journey. Thiscontention “became so sharp that they parted from one another” (Acts15:39). He was willing to preach the gospel without charge that he might not bea burden (1 Cor. 9:4-18) (Henneke) 26. Ananias Because of need, the discipleshad all things in common. Those who owned property sold it and brought theproceeds to the apostles for distribution (Acts 4:32-37). Ananias and his wife,Sapphira, sold a possession but kept back part of the proceeds. Peter confrontedAnanias, “Ananias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the HolySpirit and keep back part of the price of the land for yourself” (vs. 3)?Before Ananias sold the possession, it belonged to him. After he sold thepossession, the money belonged to him. In bringing a portion and implying thatit was all, he had lied to the Holy Spirit. Ananias fell down and died. carryyou out” (Henneke). 27. Gamaliel Gamaliel was a Pharisee, a member of theCouncil, who persuaded its members to take less drastic action toward theapostles with respect to their refusal to quit preaching the gospel He remindedthem of past seditions that had failed. He suggested that if these apostles wereteaching truth, they would be fighting against God. If it were not, the movementwould die out. As a result of this argument, the apostles were only beaten andthen released. When Paul was on trial, he testified that Gamaliel was histeacher. He was one of the most highly respected rabbis of the first century (Henneke).
28. Judas the Galielan A Jew of Damascus, to whose house Ananias was sent. Thestreet called “Straight” in which it was situated is identified withthe modern “street of bazaars,” where is still pointed out theso-called “house of Judas.” (Easton) 29. Philip He was one of the sevenset apart as deacons. He is named after Stephen. He preached in Samaria. It washis work which was completed here after his departure by Peter and John, whowent down from Jerusalem to bestow the Holy Spirit upon them by the laying on ofhands. He converted an Ethiopian Eunuch. He had four unmarried daughters whoprophesied (Alexander). 30. Procurus He was one of the seven chosen. 31. NicanorHe was one of the seven deacons appointed in the apostolic church. Nothingfurther is known of him (Alexander). 32. Timon He was one of the seven deaconsappointed in the apostolic church. Nothing further is known of him (Alexander).
33. Parmenas He was one of the seven deacons appointed in the apostolic church.
Nothing further is known of him (Alexander). 34. Nicolas He was a proselyte ofAntioch, one of the seven deacons. Nothing further is known of him (Alexander).
35. Stephen He was one of the seven deacons, who became a preacher of thegospel. He was the first Christian martyr. His personal character and historyare recorded in Acts “He fell asleep” with a prayer for hispersecutors on his lips. A devout men carried him to his grave. It was at thefeet of the young Pharisee, Saul of Tarsus that those who stoned him laid theirclothes before they began their cruel work. The scene which Saul then witnessedand the words he heard appear to have made a deep and lasting impression on hismind. The speech of Stephen before the Jewish ruler is the first apology for theuniversalism of the gospel as a message to the Gentiles as well as the Jews. Itis the longest speech contained in the Acts, a place of prominence being givento it as a defense (Easton). 36. Abraham Mentioned from Old Testament to showhow God has worked outside of Jewish Boundaries. He was the father of all Jews.
37. Isaac Mentioned from Old Testament to show how God has worked outside ofJewish Boundaries. He was a son of Abraham 38. Jacob Mentioned from OldTestament to show how God has worked outside of Jewish Boundaries. He was a sonof Abraham 39. Joseph Mentioned from Old Testament to show how God has workedoutside of Jewish Boundaries. He was the son of Jacob, and second in charge inEgypt. 40. Pharaoh Mentioned from Old Testament to show how God has workedoutside of Jewish Boundaries. He was the ruler during Josephs time 41. MosesMentioned from Old Testament to show how God has worked outside of JewishBoundaries. He was the leader of the exiled Jews in Egypt. 42. Pharaoh Mentionedfrom Old Testament to show how God has worked outside of Jewish Boundaries. Hewas ruler during Moses time. 43. Joshua Mentioned from Old Testament to showhow God has worked outside of Jewish Boundaries. He took over after Moses passedaway. 44. Solomon Mentioned from Old Testament to show how God has workedoutside of Jewish Boundaries. He was the wise son of King David. 45. Saul (Paul)Nearly all the original materials for the life of Paul are contained in the Actsof the Apostles and in the Pauline epistles. Paul was born in Tarsus, a city ofCilicia. (It is not improbable that he was born between A.D. 0 and A.D. 5.) Upto the time of his going forth as an avowed preacher of Christ to the Gentiles,the apostle was known by the name of Saul. This was the Jewish name which hereceived from his Jewish parents. But though a Hebrew of the Hebrews, he wasborn in a Gentile city. Of his parents we know nothing, except that his fatherwas of the tribe of Benjamin, (Philippians 3:5;) and a Pharisee, that Paul hadacquired by some means the Roman franchise (“I was free born,” andthat he was settled in Tarsus. At Tarsus he must have learned to use the Greeklanguage with freedom and mastery in both speaking and writing. At Tarsus alsohe learned that trade of “tent-maker,” at which he afterwardoccasionally wrought with his own hands. There was a goat’s- hair cloth calledcilicium manufactured in Cilicia, and largely used for tents, Saul’s trade wasprobably that of making tents of this hair cloth. When St. Paul makes hisdefense before his countrymen at Jerusalem… he tells them that, though born inTarsus he had been “brought up” in Jerusalem. He must therefore, havebeen yet a boy when was removed, in all probability for the sake of hiseducation, to the holy city of his fathers. He learned, he says, at the feet ofGamaliel.” He who was to resist so stoutly the usurpation of the law hadfor his teacher one of the most eminent of all the doctors of the law. Saul wasyet “a young man,” when the Church experienced that sudden expansionwhich was connected with the ordaining of the seven appointed to serve tables,and with the special power and inspiration of Stephen. Among those who disputedwith Stephen were some “of them of Cilicia.” We naturally think ofSaul as having been one of these, when we find him afterward keeping the clothesof those suborned witnesses who, according to the law, (Deuteronomy 17:7) werethe first to cast stones at Stephen. “Saul,” says the sacred writersignificantly “was consenting unto his death.” Saul’s conversion. A.D.
37. –The persecutor was to be converted. Having undertaken to follow up thebelievers “unto strange cities.” Saul naturally turned his thoughts toDamascus. What befell him as he journeyed thither is related in detail threetimes in the Acts, first by the historian in his own person, then in the twoaddresses made by St. Paul at Jerusalem and before Agrippa. St. Luke’s statementis to be read in where, however, the words “it is hard for thee to kickagainst the pricks,” included in the English version, ought to be omitted(as is done in the Revised Version). The sudden light from heaven, the voice ofJesus speaking with authority to his persecutor. Saul struck to the ground,blinded, overcome; the three-days suspense; the coming of Ananias as a messengerof the Lord and Saul’s baptism, –these were the leading features at the greatevent, and in these we must look for the chief significance of the conversion.
It was in Damascus that he was received into the church by Ananias, and here tothe astonishment of all his hearers, he proclaimed Jesus in the synagogues,declaring him to be the Son of God. The narrative in the Acts tells us simplythat he was occupied in this work, with increasing vigor, for “manydays,” up to the time when imminent danger drove him from Damascus. Fromthe Epistle to the Galatians, (Galatians 1:17,18) we learn that the many dayswere at least a good part of “three years.” A.D. 37- 40, and thatSaul, not thinking it necessary to procure authority to teach from the apostlesthat were before him, went after his conversion to Arabia, and returned fromthence to us. We know nothing whatever of this visit to Arabia; but upon hisdeparture from Damascus we are again on a historical ground, and have the doubleevidence of St. Luke in the Acts of the apostle in his Second Epistle theCorinthians. According to the former, the Jews lay in wait for Saul, intendingto kill him, and watched the gates of the city that he might not escape fromthem. Knowing this, the disciples took him by night and let him down in a basketfrom the wall. Having escaped from Damascus, Saul betook himself to Jerusalem(A.D. 40), and there “assayed to join himself to the disciples; but theywere all afraid of him, and believed not he was a disciple.” Barnabas’introduction removed the fears of the apostles, and Saul “was with themcoming in and going out at Jerusalem.” But it is not strange that theformer persecutor was soon singled out from the other believers as the object ofa murderous hostility. He was, therefore, again urged to flee; and by way ofCaesarea betook himself to his native city, Tarsus. Barnabas was sent on aspecial mission to Antioch. As the work grew under his hands, he felt the needof help, went himself to Tarsus to seek Saul, and succeeded in bringing him toAntioch. There they labored together unremittingly for a whole year.” Allthis time Saul was subordinate to Barnabas. Antioch was in constantcommunication with Cilicia, with Cyprus, with all the neighboring countries. TheChurch was pregnant with a great movement, and time of her delivery was at hand.
Something of direct expectation seems to be implied in what is said of theleaders of the Church at Antioch, that they were “ministering to the Lordand fasting,” when the Holy Ghost spoke to them: “Separate me Barnabasand Saul for the work whereunto I have called them.” Everything was donewith orderly gravity in the sending forth of the two missionaries. Theirbrethren after fasting and prayer laid their hands on them, and so theydeparted. The first missionary journey. A.D. 45- As soon as Barnabas and Saulreached Cyprus they began to “announce the word of God,” but at firstthey delivered their message in the synagogues of the Jews only. When they hadgone through the island, from Salamis to Paphos, they were called upon toexplain their doctrine to an eminent Gentile, Sergius Paulus, the proconsul, whowas converted. Saul’s name was now changed to Paul, and he began to takeprecedence of Barnabas. From Paphos “Paul and his company” set sailfor the mainland, and arrived at Perga in Pamphylia. Here the heart of theircompanion John failed him, and he returned to Jerusalem. From Perga theytraveled on to a place obscure in secular history, but most memorable in thehistory of the Kingdom of Christ –Antioch in Pisidia. Rejected by the Jews,they became bold and outspoken, and turned from them to the Gentiles. At Antiochnow, as in every city afterward, the unbelieving Jews used their influence withtheir own adherents among the Gentiles to persuade the authorities or thepopulace to persecute the apostles and to drive them from the place. Paul andBarnabas now traveled on to Iconium where the occurrences at Antioch wererepeated, and from thence to the Lycaonian country which contained the citiesLystra and Derbe. Here they had to deal with uncivilized heathen. At Lystra thehealing of a cripple took place. Thereupon these pagans took the apostles forgods, calling Barnabas, who was of the more imposing presence, Jupiter, andPaul, who was the chief speaker, Mercurius. Although the people of Lystra hadbeen so ready to worship Paul and Barnabas, the repulse of their idolatrousinstincts appears to have provoked them, and they allowed themselves to bepersuaded into hostility be Jews who came from Antioch and Iconium, so that theyattacked Paul with stones, and thought they had killed him. He recovered,however as the disciples were standing around him, and went again into the city.
The next day he left it with Barnabas, and went to Derbe, and thence theyreturned once more to Lystra, and so to Iconium and Antioch. In order toestablish the churches after their departure they solemnly appointed”elders” in every city. Then they came down to the coast, and fromAttalia, they sailed; home to Antioch in Syria, where they related the successeswhich had been granted to them, and especially the opening of the door of faithto the Gentiles.” And so the first missionary journey ended. The council atJerusalem. –Upon that missionary journey follows most naturally the nextimportant scene which the historian sets before us –the council held atJerusalem to determine the relations of Gentile believers to the law of Moses.
Second missionary journey. A.D. 50-54. –The most resolute courage, indeed, wasrequired for the work to which St. Paul was now publicly pledged. He would notassociate with himself in that work one who had already shown a want ofconstancy. This was the occasion of what must have been a most painfuldifference between him and his comrade in the faith and in past perils,Barnabas. Silas, or Silvanus, becomes now a chief companion of the apostle. Thetwo went together through Syria and Cilicia, visiting the churches, and so cameto Derbe and Lystra. Here they find Timotheus, who had become a disciple on theformer visit of the apostle. Him St. Paul took and circumcised. St. Luke nowsteps rapidly over a considerable space of the apostle’s life and labors.
“They went throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia.” At this timeSt. Paul was founding “the churches of Galatia.” He himself gives somehints of the circumstances of his preaching in that region, of the reception hemet with, and of the ardent though unstable character of the people. (Galatians4:13-15) Having gone through Phrygia and Galatia, he intended to visit, thewestern coast; but “they were forbidden by the Holy Ghost to preach the”word” there. Then, being on the borders of Mysia, they thought ofgoing back to the northeast into Bithynia; but again the Spirit of Jesus”suffered them not,” so they passed by Mysia and came down to Troas.
St. Paul saw in a vision a man, of Macedonia, who besought him, saying,”Come over into Macedonia and help us.” The vision was at onceaccepted as a heavenly intimation; the help wanted, by the Macedonians wasbelieved to be the preaching of the gospel. It is at this point that thehistorian, speaking of St. Paul’s company, substitutes “we” for”they.” He says nothing of himself we can only infer that St. Luke, towhatever country he belonged, became a companion of St. Paul at Troas. The partythus reinforced, immediately set sail from Troas, touched at Samothrace, thenlanded on the continent at Neapolis, and thence journeyed to Philippi. The firstconvert in Macedonia was Lydia, an Asiatic woman, at Philippi. At Philippi Pauland Silas were arrested, beaten and put in prison, having cast out the spirit ofdivination from a female slave who had brought her masters much gain by herpower. This cruel wrong was to be the occasion of a signal appearance of the Godof righteousness and deliverance. The narrative tells of the earthquake, thejailer’s terror, his conversion and baptism. In the morning the magistrates sentword to the prison that the men might be let go; but Paul denounced plainlytheir unlawful acts, informing them moreover that those whom they had beaten andimprisoned without trial; were Roman citizens. The magistrates, in great alarm,saw the necessity of humbling themselves. They came and begged them to leave thecity. Paul and Silas consented to do so, and, after paying a visit to “thebrethren” in the house of Lydia, they departed. Leaving Luke and perhapsTimothy for a short time at Philippi, Paul and Silas traveled through Amphipolisand Apollonia and stopped again at Thessalonica. Here again, as in PisidianAntioch, the envy of the Jews was excited, and the mob assaulted the house ofJason with whom Paul and Silas were staying as guests, and, not finding them,dragged Jason himself and some other brethren before the magistrates. Afterthese signs of danger the brethren immediately sent away Paul and Silas bynight. They next came to Berea. Here they found the Jews more noble than thoseat Thessalonica had been. Accordingly they gained many converts, both Jews andGreeks; but the Jews of Thessalonica, hearing of it, sent emissaries to stir upthe people, and it was thought best that Paul should himself leave the citywhilst Silas and Timothy remained-behind. Some of the brethren went with St.
Paul as far as Athens, where they left him carrying back a request to Silas andTimothy that they would speedily join him. Here the apostle delivered thatwonderful discourse reported in He gained but few converts at Athens, and soontook his departure and went to Corinth. He was testifying with unusual effortand anxiety when Silas and Timothy came from Macedonia and joined him. Theirarrival was the occasion of the writing of the First Epistle to theThessalonians. The two epistles to the Thessalonians–and these alone–belong tothe present missionary journey. They were written from Corinth A.D. 52, 53. WhenSilas and Timotheus came to Corinth, St. Paul was testifying to the Jews withgreat earnestness, but with little success. Corinth was the chief city of theprovince of Achaia, and the residence of the proconsul. During St. Paul stay theproconsul office was held by Gallio, a brother of the philosopher Seneca. Beforehim the apostle was summoned by his Jewish enemies, who hoped to bring the Romanauthority to bear upon him as an innovator in religion. But Gallio perceived atonce, before Paul could “open his mouth” to defend himself, that themovement was due to Jewish prejudice, and refused to go into the question. Thena singular scene occurred. The Corinthian spectators, either favoring Paul oractuated only by anger against the Jews, seized on the principal person of thosewho had brought the charge, and beat him before the judgment-seat. Gallio leftthese religious quarrels to settle themselves. The apostle therefore, was notallowed to be “hurt,” and remained some time longer at Corinthunmolested. Having been the instrument of accomplishing this work, Paul departedfor Jerusalem, wishing to attend a festival there. Before leaving Greece, he cutoff his hair at Cenchreae, in fulfillment of a vow. Paul paid a visit to thesynagogue at Ephesus, but would not stay. Leaving Ephesus, he sailed toCaesarea, and from thence went up to Jerusalem, spring, A.D. 54, and”saluted the church.” It is argued, from considerations founded on thesuspension of navigation during the winter months, that the festival wasprobably the Pentecost. From Jerusalem the apostle went almost immediately downto Antioch, thus returning to the same place from which he had started withSilas. Third missionary journey, including the stay at Ephesus. A.D. 54-58. Thegreat epistles which belong to this period, those to the Galatians, Corinthiansand Romans, show how the “Judaizing” question exercised at this timethe apostle’s mind. St. Paul “spent some time” at Antioch, and duringthis stay as we are inclined to believe, his collision with St. Peter (Galatians2:11-14) took place. When he left Antioch, he “went over all the country ofGalatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples,” and givingorders concerning the collection for the saints. (1 Corinthians 18:1) It isprobable that the Epistle to the Galatians was written soon after this visit–A.D.
56-57. This letter was in all probability sent from Ephesus. This was the goalof the apostle’s journeyings through Asia Minor. He came down to Ephesus fromthe upper districts of Phrygia. Here he entered upon his usual work. He wentinto the synagogue, and for three months he spoke openly, disputing andpersuading concerning “the kingdom of God.” At the end of this timethe obstinacy and opposition of some of the Jews led him to give up frequentingthe synagogue and he established the believers as a separate society meeting”in the school of Tyrannus.” This continued for two years. During thistime many things occurred of which the historian of the Acts chooses twoexamples, the triumph over magical arts and the great disturbance raised by thesilversmiths who made shrines Diana –among which we are to note further thewriting of the First Epistle to the Corinth A.D. 57. Before leaving Ephesus Paulwent into Macedonia, where he met Titus, who brought him news of the state ofthe Corinthian church. Thereupon he wrote the Second Epistle to the Corinthians,A.D. 57, and sent it by the hands of Titus and two other brethren to Corinth.
After writing this epistle, St. Paul traveled throughout Macedonia, perhaps tothe borders of Illyricum, (Romans 15:19) and then went to Corinth. The narrativein the Acts tells us that “when he had gone over those parts (Macedonia),and had given them much exhortation he came into Greece, and there abode threemonths.” There is only one incident which we can connect with this visit toGreece, but that is a very important one–the writing of his Epistle to theRomans, A.D. 58. That this was written at this time from Corinth appears frompassages in the epistle itself and has never been doubted. The letter is asubstitute for the personal visit which he had longed “for many years”to pay. Before his departure from Corinth, St. Paul was joined again by St.
Luke, as we infer from the change in the narrative from the third to the firstperson. He was bent on making a journey to Jerusalem, for a special purpose andwithin a limited time. With this view he was intending to go by sea to Syria.
But he was made aware of some plot of the Jews for his destruction, to becarried out through this voyage; and he determined to evade their malice bychanging his route. Several brethren were associated with him in thisexpedition, the bearers no doubt, of the collections made in all the churchesfor the poor at Jerusalem. These were sent on by sea, and probably the moneywith them, to Troas, where they were to await Paul. He, accompanied by Luke,went northward through Macedonia. Whilst the vessel which conveyed the rest ofthe party sailed from Troas to Assos, Paul gained some time by making thejourney by land. At Assos he went on board again. Coasting along by Mitylene,Chios, Samos and Trogyllium, they arrived at Miletus. At Miletus, however therewas time to send to Ephesus, and the elders of the church were invited to comedown to him there. This meeting is made the occasion for recording anothercharacteristic and representative address of St. Paul. The course of the voyagefrom Miletas was by Coos and Rhodes to Patara, and from Patara in another vesselpast Cyprus to Tyre. Here Paul and his company spent seven days. From Tyre theysailed to Ptolemais, where they spent one day, and from Ptolemais proceeded,apparently by land, to Caesarea. They now “tarried many days” atCaesarea. During this interval the prophet Agabus, came down from Jerusalem, andcrowned the previous intimations of danger with a prediction expressivelydelivered. At this stage a final effort was made to dissuade Paul from going upto Jerusalem, by the Christians of Caesarea and by his travelling companions.
After a while they went up to Jerusalem and were gladly received by thebrethren. This is St. Paul’s fifth an last visit to Jerusalem. St. Paul’simprisonment: Jerusalem. Spring, A.D. 58. –He who was thus conducted intoJerusalem by a company of anxious friends had become by this time a man ofconsiderable fame among his countrymen. He was widely known as one who hadtaught with pre-eminent boldness that a way into God’s favor was opened to theGentiles, and that this way did not lie through the door of the Jewish law. Hehad thus roused against himself the bitter enmity of that unfathomable Jewishpride which was almost us strong in some of those who had professed the faith ofJesus as in their unconverted brethren. He was now approaching a crisis in thelong struggle, and the shadow of it has been made to rest upon his mindthroughout his journey to Jerusalem. He came “ready to die for the name ofthe Lord Jesus,” but he came expressly to prove himself a faithful Jew andthis purpose is shown at every point of the history. Certain Jews from”Asia,” who had come up for the Pentecostal feast, and who had apersonal knowledge of Paul, saw him in the temple. They set upon him at once,and stirred up the people against him. There was instantly a great commotion;Paul was dragged out of the temple, the doors of which were immediately shut,and the people having him in their hands, were going to kill him. Paul wasrescued from the violence of the multitude by the Roman officer, who made himhis own prisoner, causing him to be chained to two soldiers, and then proceededto inquire who he was and what he had done. The inquiry only elicited confusedoutcries, and the “chief captain” seems to have imagined that theapostle might perhaps be a certain Egyptian pretender who recently stirred up aconsiderable rising of the people. The account In the tells us with graphictouches how St. Paul obtained leave and opportunity to address the people in adiscourse which is related at length. Until the hated word of a mission to theGentiles had been spoken, the Jews had listened to the speaker. “Away withsuch a fellow from the earth,” the multitude now shouted; “it is notfit that he should live.” The Roman commander seeing the tumult that arosemight well conclude that St. Paul had committed some heinous offence; andcarrying him off, he gave orders that he should be forced by scourging toconfess his crime. Again the apostle took advantage of his Roman citizenship toprotect himself from such an outrage. The chief captain set him free from bonds,but on the next day called together the chief priests and the Sanhedrin, andbrought Paul as a prisoner before them. On the next day a conspiracy was formedwhich the historian relates with a singular fullness of detail. More than fortyof the Jews bound themselves under a curse neither to eat nor drink until theyhad killed Paul. The plot was discovered, and St. Paul was hurried away fromJerusalem. The chief captain, Claudius Lysias determined to send him to Caesareato Felix, the governor or procurator of Judea. He therefor put him in charge ofa strong guard of soldiers, who took him by night as far as Antipatris. Fromthence a smaller detachment conveyed him to Caesarea, where they delivered uptheir prisoner into the hands of the governor. Imprisonment at Caesarea. A.D.
58-60. –St. Paul was henceforth to the end of the period embraced in the Acts,if not to the end of his life, in Roman custody. This custody was in fact aprotection to him, without which he would have fallen a victim to the animosityof the Jews. He seems to have been treated throughout with humanity andconsideration. The governor before whom he was now to be tried, according toTacitus and Josephus, was a mean and dissolute tyrant. After hearing St, Paul’saccusers and the apostle’s defense, Felix made an excuse for putting off thematter, and gave orders that the prisoner should be treated with indulgence andthat his friends should be allowed free access to him. After a while he heardhim again. St. Paul remained in custody until Felix left the province. Theunprincipled governor had good reason to seek to ingratiate himself with theJews; and to please them, be handed over Paul, as an untried prisoner, to hissuccessor, Festus. Upon his arrival in the province, Festus went up withoutdelay from Caesarea to Jerusalem, and the leading Jews seized the opportunity ofasking that Paul might be brought up there for trial intending to assassinatehim by the way. But Festus would not comply with their request, He invited themto follow him on his speedy return to Caesarea, and a trial took place there,closely resembling that before Felix. “They had certain questions againsthim,” Festus says to Agrippa, “of their own superstition (orreligion), and of one Jesus, who was dead, whom Paul affirmed to be alive. Andbeing puzzled for my part as to such inquiries, I asked him whether he would goto Jerusalem to be tried there.” This proposal, not a very likely one to beaccepted, was the occasion of St. Paul’s appeal to Caesar. The appeal havingbeen allowed, Festus reflected that he must send with the prisoner a report of”the crimes laid against him.” He therefore took advantage of anopportunity which offered itself in a few days to seek some help in the matter.
The Jewish prince Agrippa arrived with his sister Bernice on a visit to the newgovernor. To him Festus communicated his perplexity. Agrippa expressed a desireto hear Paul himself. Accordingly Paul conducted his defense before the king;and when it was concluded Festus and Agrippa, and their companions, consultedtogether, and came to the conclusion that the accused was guilty of nothing thatdeserved death or imprisonment. “Agrippa’s final answer to the inquiry ofFestus was, “This man might have been set at liberty, if he had notappealed unto Caesar.” The voyage to Rome and shipwreck. Autumn, A.D. 60.
–No formal trial of St. Paul had yet taken place. After a while arrangementswere made to carry “Paul and certain other prisoners,” in the custodyof a centurion named Julius, into Italy; and amongst the company, whether byfavor or from any other reason, we find the historian of the Acts, who inchapters 27 and 28 gives a graphic description of the voyage to Rome and theshipwreck on the Island of Melita or Malta. After a three-months stay in Maltathe soldiers and their prisoners left in an Alexandria ship for Italy. Theytouched at Syracuse, where they stayed three days, and at Rhegium, from whichplace they were carried with a fair wind to Puteoli, where they left their shipand the sea. At Puteoli they found “brethren,” for it was an importantplace and especially a chief port for the traffic between Alexandria and Rome;and by these brethren they were exhorted to stay a while with them. Permissionseems to have been granted by the centurion; and whilst they were spending sevendays at Puteoli news of the apostle’s arrival was sent to Rome. (Spring, A.D.
61.) First imprisonment of St. Paul at Rome. A.D. 61-63. –On their arrival atRome the centurion delivered up his prisoners into the proper custody that ofthe praetorian prefect. Paul was at once treated with special consideration andwas allowed to dwell by himself with the soldier who guarded him. He was nowtherefore free “to preach the gospel to them that were at Rome also;”and proceeded without delay to act upon his rule – -“to the Jewsfirst,” But as of old, the reception of his message by the Jews was notfavorable. He turned, therefore, again to the Gentiles, and for two years hedwelt in his own hired house. These are the last words of the Acts. But St.
Paul’s career is not abruptly closed. Before he himself fades out of our sightin the twilight of ecclesiastical tradition, we have letters written by himselfwhich contribute some particulars to his biography. Period of the laterepistles. –To that imprisonment to which St. Luke has introduced us — theimprisonment which lasted for such a tedious time, though tempered by muchindulgence –belongs the noble group of letters to Philemon, to the Colossians,to the Ephesians and to the Philippians. The three former of these were writtenat one time, and sent by the same messengers. Whether that to the Philippianswas written before or after these we cannot determine; but the tone of it seemsto imply that a crisis was approaching, and therefore it is commonly regarded usthe latest of the four. In this epistle St. Paul twice expresses a confidenthope that before long he may be able to visit the Philippians in person.
(Philemon 1:25; Philemon 2:24) Whether this hope was fulfilled or not has beenthe occasion of much controversy. According to the general opinion the apostlewas liberated from imprisonment at the end of two years, having been acquittedby Nero A.D. 63, and left Rome soon after writing the letter to the Philippians.
He spent some time in visits to Greece, Asia Minor and Spain, and during thelatter part of this time wrote the letters (first epistles) to Timothy and Titusfrom Macedonia, A.D. 65. After these were written he was apprehended again andsent to Rome. Second imprisonment at Rome. A.D. 65-67. –The apostle appears nowto have been treated not as an honorable state prisoner but as a felon, (2Timothy) but he was allowed to write the second letter to Timothy, A.D. 67. Forwhat remains we have the concurrent testimony of ecclesiastical antiquity thathe was beheaded at Rome, by Nero in the great persecutions of the Christians bythat emperor, A.D. 67 (Smith). 46. Simon The persecution of the church inJerusalem sent disciples everywhere preaching the word. Phillip went to Samariawhere he preached and performed miracles. Multitudes believed and were baptized.
Simon practiced sorcery or “magic” for a living. He was held in greatesteem by the people. However, at the preaching and miracles of Philip, hebelieved and was baptized. Peter and John came so that the new Christians couldreceive the Holy Spirit. Simon tried to purchase the gift of God and was rebukedby Peter (Henneke). 47. Eunuch He was an Ethiopian Nobleman. Philip was sent toan area of desert outside of Jerusalem by an angel. There he met the Ethiopiannobleman who had been to Jerusalem to worship. He was reading from Isaiah as hetraveled. Philip was directed by the Spirit to overtake the chariot. He thenproceeded to use the passage in Isaiah to preach Jesus Christ. The Ethiopianrequested to be baptized. Philip heard his confession of faith and then baptizedhim. Philip was taken away by the Spirit of the Lord. The nobleman went on hisway rejoicing (Henneke). 48. Ananias A Christian at Damascus. He became Paul’sinstructor; but when or by what means he himself became a Christian we have noinformation. He was “a devout man according to the law, having a goodreport of all the Jews which dwelt” at Damascus (Lockyer). 49. Aeneas Aparalytic healed by Paul. 50. Cornelius The Centurion-at the time the events inActs chapter 10 occurred, the Roman army of occupation in Judea consisted of 5cohorts, containing a total of approximately 3,400 men. A typical cohortconsisted of 600 men. The Italian cohort of which Cornelius was a centurion wascomposed of Romans. The other four cohorts were composed mainly of Samaritansand Syrian Greeks. In Acts 27:1, it is mentioned that Julius was a centurion inthe Augustan cohort also stationed at Caeserea. In Acts 23:18, Claudius Lysiasis named as the commander of the large cohort (1000 men) stationed at Jerusalem.
Cornelius- His name meant “of a horn” and was that of a distinguishedRoman family. Cornelius may, therefore, have been a man of political importance.
Cornelius was… A. Devout B. Feared God with his household C. Benevolent D.
Prayerful E. Well spoken of by the entire Jewish nation F. A soldier (Henneke)51. Agabus Agabus was a New Testament Prophet. This was the first mention of thegift of prophecy among the disciples. He foretold a famine which would occurthroughout the world. The brethren in Antioch believed Agabus and prepared forthe famine. They even sent relief to Judea even though the famine was to includethem. The famine occurred during the time of Claudius Caesar. He foretold Paul’sarrest in Jerusalem. The brethren did not want Paul to go to Jerusalem. Paul wasdetermined to go anyway. “The will of the Lord be done.” (Henneke) 52.
Claudius The fourth Roman emperor. He succeeded Caligula (A.D. 41). Though ingeneral he treated the Jews, especially those in Asia and Egypt, with greatindulgence, yet about the middle of his reign (A.D. 49) he banished them allfrom Rome (Acts 18:2). In this edict the Christians were included, as being, aswas supposed, a sect of Jews. The Jews, however soon again returned to Rome.
During the reign of this emperor, several persecutions of the Christians by theJews took place in the dominions of Herod Agrippa, in one of which the apostleJames was “killed” (12:2). He died A.D. 54 (Smith). 53. King HerodHerod Agrippa I was the grandson of Herod the Great. Secular history recordsthat while living in Rome, he became a favorite of Emperor Caligula who gave hima kingdom subsequently enlarged by Claudius to include all of Palestine.
Apparently, to please the Jews, he joined his government to the persecution ofthe church. Herod the persecutor. He had the apostle James beheaded. Thisoccurred about ten years after the death of Jesus. He then arrested andimprisoned Peter under heavy guard. The church prayed fervently for Peter.
Unknown to the soldiers, an angel led Peter from the prison. This caused nosmall disturbance among the soldiers. Peter presented himself to the brethrenand departed to another place. Herod ordered the execution of the soldiers. Thedeath of Herod. At Caesarea, Herod celebrated a festival in honor of EmperorClaudius. He addressed the people (clad in a garment fashioned ofsilver-Josephus). The people exclaimed that “he is a god.” An angelstruck him because he did not give God the glory. He was eaten by worms anddied. Josephus wrote that this death took five days (Henneke). 54. John (Mark)First mentioned in Acts 12:12 where saints had gathered in the home of JohnMark’s mother. They were praying for Peter who had been imprisoned by Herod.
Peter was released miraculously and Herod died soon thereafter. John Mark sawthe power of God in the defeat of Herod and the spread of the Church. He JoinedBarnabas and Saul in their ministry. He was present at the conversion of theproconsul in Salamis and the defeat of Elymas the sorcerer. John went with Paulas far as Pamphylia, but then left the group to return to Jerusalem. Later, Pauland Barnabas disagreed over whether to take John Mark with them. Mark went withBarnabas to Cyprus. However, Paul tells the Church at Colossae to welcome JohnMark (Col. 4:10). John Mark became a useful worker for the Lord (2 Tim. 4:11;Phil. 24; 1 Pet. 5:13). He is the author of the book of Mark. He was Barnabascousin (Henneke). 55. Barnabas the Prophet Same as Barnabas whom traveled withPaul. He was also seen as a prophet. 56. Simeon (Niger) A devout Jew, inspiredby the Holy Ghost, who met the parents of our Lord in the temple, took him inhis arms, and gave thanks for what he saw and knew of Jesus. (Luke 2:25-35;)There was a Simeon who succeeded his father Hillel as president of the Sanhedrinabout A.D. 13, and whose son Gamaliel was the Pharisee at whose feet St. Paulwas brought up. It has been conjectured that he may be the Simeon of St. Luke(Smith). 57. Lucius A Christian teacher at Antioch (Acts 13:1), and Paul’skinsman (Rom. 16:21). His name is Latin, but his birthplace seems to indicatethat he was one of the Jews of Cyrene, in North Africa (Smith). 58. Manaen Hewas one of the teachers and prophets in the church at Antioch at the time of theappointment of Saul and Barnabas as missionaries to the heathen. He is said tohave been brought up with Herod Antipas. He was probably his foster-brother(Smith). 59. Saul the prophet *See Saul above, different name. 60. Bar-JesusAlso known as Elymas was a magician, a Jewish false prophet, whose name wasBar-Jesus. Elymas opposed Barnabas and Saul seeking to turn Sergius Paulus fromthe faith. Paul rebuked him and struck him with temporary blindness. This is theonly recorded miracle wrought by an apostle to the injury of a person. Paul saidthat he was: Full of guile and fraud. A son of the devil. An enemy ofrighteousness. A perverter of the right ways of the Lord (Henneke). 61. SergiusPaulus. Roman proconsul of Cyprus at Paphos. A man of understanding. Sought tohear the word of God from Barnabas and Saul. Believed after Paul struck Elymaswith blindness for hindering the gospel. Saul now called Paul (a name which heused thereafter) Paul now recognized as the dominant member of his company (Henneke).
62. Elymas *See Bar-Jesus 63. King Saul From the Old Testament, he wasSolomons son. 64. Zeus Roman god of all gods. 65. Hermes Messenger to thegods. 66. Pharisees They were a religious party or school among the Jews at thetime of Christ, so called from perishin, the Aramaic form of the Hebrew wordperushim, “separated.” The chief sects among the Jews were thePharisees, the Sadducees and the Essenes, who may be described respectively asthe Formalists, the Freethinkers and the Puritans. A knowledge of the opinionsand practices of the Pharisees at the time of Christ is of great importance forentering deeply into the genius of the Christian religion. A cursory perusal ofthe Gospels is sufficient to show that Christ’s teaching was in some respectsthoroughly antagonistic to theirs. He denounced them in the bitterest language;see (Matthew 15:7,8; Matthew 23:5,13,14,15,23; Mark 7:6; Luke 11:42-44;) andcompare (Mark 7:1-5; Mark 11:29; Mark 12:19,20; Luke 6:28,37-42;) To understandthe Pharisees is by contrast an aid toward understanding the spirit ofuncorrupted Christianity. (Henneke) 67. Sadducees 68. Silas Silas is first seenas a messenger for the church in Jerusalem. He and Judas were prophets and theystayed to strengthen the saints in Antioch. He was also a Roman citizen. WhenPaul and Barnabas disagreed over John Mark, Paul took Silas with him to Syriaand Cilicia. Paul and Silas stayed with Lydia in Phillipi where Silas wasarrested along with Paul. They preached to the Phillipian Jailer and his family.
Silas went with Paul to Thessalonica where there was trouble with the enviousJews. They were sent away by night to Berea. When the Jews followed them to stirup trouble, Silas and Timothy stayed while Paul went on to Athens. Silas andTimothy caught up with Paul in Corinth. Silas continued to serve the Lord andthe apostles (2 Cor. 1:19; 1 Thes. 1:1; 2 Thes. 1:1; 1 Pet. 5:12) (Henneke). 69.
Barsabbas, Judas A Christian teacher, surnamed Barsabas. He was sent fromJerusalem to Antioch along with Paul and Barnabas with the decision of thecouncil. He was a “prophet” and a “chief man among thebrethren.” (Easton) 70. Timothy A man form Lystra whose mother is Unice. Hehad a greek father but became a traveler with Paul. He was circumcised by Paul.
71. Luke (we) Luke appears to have been with Jesus during His ministry. He wrotethe books of Luke and Acts. Luke records the travels of Paul as an eyewitness.
He was with Paul on the trip to Macedonia. Luke was also with Paul on his returnto Troas. He accompanied Paul to Miletus and on to Jerusalem. Luke traveled withPaul to Rome and suffered through the same shipwreck. He remained in Rome whilePaul was in prison. For a time he was Paul’s only companion. Luke was aphysician. He was also an excellent writer and historian (Henneke). 72. Jason Heis called the Thessalonian, entertained Paul and Silas, and was in consequenceattacked by the Jewish mob. (A.D. 48.) He is probably the same as the Jasonmentioned in (Romans 16:21;) It is conjectured that Jason and Secundus, were thesame. 73. Dionysius A member of the Athenina supreme court at Athens who becamea Christian. 74. Aquilla He was a tent maker. His wife was Pricilla. 75. TitiusJustus Paul stayed at his house in Corinth because his house was next to thesynagogue. 76. Crispus. He was the ruler of the Jewish Synagogue and one the fewmentioned to as being personally baptized by Paul. 77. Gallio The RomanProconsul of Achia, the elder brother of Seneca, described by Seneca as a man ofextreme amiability of character. 78. Apollos He was a Jew of Alexandria. He wasknowledgeable about the scriptures and taught at the synagogue in Ephesus”teaching accurately the things concerning Jesus, being acquainted onlywith the baptism of John” Taught the way of God “more accurately”by Priscilla and Aquila. Went to Greece to teach Strengthened the church inCorinth (I Cor. 3:6). Some brethren in Corinth set up an Apollos faction (I Cor.
3:4-7). Reluctant to return to Corinth from Ephesus (I Cor. 16-12. Commended byPaul to Titus (Titus 3:13) (Henneke). 79. Seven sons of Sceva They werepossessed with demons. 80. Erastus One of the attendants of St. Paul at Ephesus,who with Timothy was sent forward into Macedonia. (A.D. 51.) He is probably thesame with Erastus who is again mentioned in the salutations to Timothy. (Smith)81. Demetrius A silversmith in Ephesus who made silver models for the DianaTemple, he incited the mob against Paul (Lockyer). 82. Gaius A Macedonian,Paul’s fellow-traveler, and his host at Corinth when he wrote his Epistle to theRomans. He with his household were baptized by Paul. During a heathen outbreakagainst Paul at Ephesus the mob seized Gaius and Aristarchus because they couldnot find Paul, and rushed with them into the theatre (Easton). 83. AristarchusOne of Pauls travel companions. He had been imprisoned with him (Lockyer).
84. Artemis Was not a man. Sorry but I did not want to retype it all. 85.
Sopatar A fellow traveler with Paul in Berea. He is said to have Noblebackground. 86. Secundas He accompanied Paul from Macedonia to Asia Minor. 87.
Tychius A christen in Asia Minor who traveled with Paul at times. 88. TrophimusHe was falsely accused of entering the gates to the temple with Paul, he was notaloud in because he was a gentile. 89. Mnasan A Christian of Jerusalem with whomPaul lodged . He was apparently a native of Cyprus, like Barnabas, and was wellknown to the Christians of Caesarea. He was an “old disciple” he hadbecome a Christian in the beginning of the formation of the Church in Jerusalem(Lockyer). 90.Claudius Lysias He was a Greek who, having obtained by purchasethe privilege of Roman citizenship, took the name of Claudius (Smith). 91.
Ananias The high priest before whom Paul was brought in the procuratorship ofFelix. He was so enraged at Paul’s noble declaration, “I have lived in allgood conscience before God until this day,” that he commanded one of hisattendants to smite him on the mouth. Smarting under this unprovoked insult,Paul quickly replied, “God shall smite thee, thou whited wall.” Beingreminded that Ananias was the high priest, to whose office all respect was to bepaid, he answered, “I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest”(Acts 23:5). This expression has occasioned some difficulty, as it is scarcelyprobable that Paul should have been ignorant of so public a fact. The expressionmay mean (a) that Paul had at the moment overlooked the honour due to the highpriest; or (b), as others think, that Paul spoke ironically, as if he had said,”The high priest breaking the law! God’s high priest a tyrant and alawbreaker! I see a man in white robes, and have heard his voice, but surely itcannot, it ought not to be, the voice of the high priest.” (c) Others thinkthat from defect of sight Paul could not observe that the speaker was the highpriest. In all this, however, it may be explained, Paul, with all hisexcellency, comes short of the example of his divine Master, who, when he wasreviled, reviled not again (Easton). 92. Felix The Roman governor of Palestinewho succeeded Pilate in that position (Caesarea was the Roman capitol of Judea).
He was married to Drusilla, the daughter of Herod Agrippa I. Josephus recordsthat he had taken Drusilla from another man and was living in adultery. Tacitus,a historian of the day, recorded that Felix exercised his authority with everykind of cruelty and lust. Paul was sent as a prisoner from Claudius Lysias toFelix. Jews of Jerusalem went to Felix to present their case against Paul.
Tertullus was brought forth as an attorney against Paul. Paul was accused ofbeing a troublemaker with three charges. He was accused of exciting the Jews toinsurrection. He was accused of being a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes.
He was accused of attempting to profane the temple. Paul answered each charge.
He had only come to Jerusalem 12 days earlier and had been in prison for 5 days.
That was hardly enough time to start an insurrection. He confessed to befollowing Jesus the Nazarene and claimed to believe in the law and the prophets,to hoping for a resurrection, and to living a conscientious life. He stated thathe was obeying the law when found in the temple, not profaning it. Thosewitnesses who found him in the temple had not been called to testify. Felix keptPaul in prison but allowed him visitors. Paul had the opportunity to preach toFelix and Drusilla. He reasoned with them of righteousness, temperance, and thejudgment to come. Felix trembled at Paul’s preaching but chose to wait for aconvenient season. Felix hoped to receive money in order to release Paul.
Secular history records that Felix was removed from office after accusations ofthe mishandling of his position (Henneke). 93. Tertullus A modification of”Tertius;” a Roman advocate, whom the Jews employed to state theircase against Paul in the presence of Felix. The charges he adduced against theapostle were, “First, that he created disturbances among the Romansthroughout the empire, an offence against the Roman government (crimenmajestatis). Secondly, that he was a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes;disturbed the Jews in the exercise of their religion, guaranteed by the state;introduced new gods, a thing prohibited by the Romans. And thirdly, that heattempted to profane the temple, a crime which the Jews were permitted topunish.” (Lockyer) 94. Porcius Festus He succeeded Felix as governor ofPalestine. The Jews renewed their case against Paul with the new governor. TheJews brought charges against Paul which they could not prove. Paul pleaded hisinnocence to their charges. Paul should have been released since he was notproven guilty of any crime. However, Festus wanted to please the Jews, and heasked if Paul would be willing to be tried in Jerusalem. Paul knew he stood abetter chance of justice before Caesar than before the Sanhedrein, so heappealed to Caesar. Under Roman law, when a citizen appealed to Caesar, allproceedings stopped, and he and his accusers were sent to Rome. Festus discussedPaul’s case with King Agrippa (Henneke). 95. Caesar The emperor of the Romanterritory. 96. King Agrippa This was Herod Agrippa II. He was the son of HerodAgrippa I who killed the apostle James. He was the nephew of Herod Antipas whokilled John the Baptist and mocked Jesus during His trial. He was the greatgrandson of Herod the Great who killed the children of Bethlehem after Jesus wasborn. Josephus recorded that Caesar had entrusted Agrippa with the oversight ofreligious affairs in Jerusalem since he knew the Jewish religion very well. Hewas about 31 years old when he heard Paul’s case. Festus wanted Agrippa to helphim with a letter to Caesar stating why Paul was being sent, so Agrippa wantedto hear Paul’s case. Paul spoke before Agrippa, Bernice, Festus, and otherimportant people. Paul spent his youth as a strict Pharisee. At that time he wasconvinced he should do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth. Heimprisoned Christians and even consented to their death. He said the appearanceof Jesus to him on the road to Damascus is what changed his life. Paul did notdisobey Jesus’ instructions but began preaching that people should repent andturn to God. He said he was arrested for teaching what Moses and the prophetshad taught, that Jesus would suffer and be raised to give light to all. Festusthought Paul was mad when he spoke of the resurrection, but Paul said he wasspeaking the truth. Agrippa said that with a little persuasion, Paul might havemade him a Christian. Paul desired that all would become Christians. Festus andAgrippa agreed that Paul had done nothing worthy of death (Henneke). 97. Julius,centurion The centurion of “Augustus’ band,” to whose charge St. Paulwas delivered when he was sent prisoner from Caesarea to Rome. 98. Publicus TheLead man on the island Malta where Paul had shipwrecked.
BibliographyWebsite http://users.aol.com/mgv658/mwbmenu.htm Karl Hennecke. Smith BibleDictionary. 1992. Website http://biblestudytools.net/Dictionaries/EastonBibleDictionary/Easton Bible Dictionary. 1993. Lockyer, Herbert. All the Men of the Bible.
Zondervan. Grand Rapids. 1958. Alexander, George. The Handbook of BiblicalPersonalities. Seabury Press. New York. 1962.