Anatomy and Physiology: Bee Sting

You legalize that your Pep-pen was left in the car, so you panic and begin sprinting back to the car to get it. ‘ The Assignment: Name and describe all of the anatomic structures and physiological actions involved with this incident including hearing and seeing the bee, turning your head and swatting at the bee. Where did the muscles get the energy for this action? What tissue types and skin layers did the stinger invade? Explain how your body responded to this event. This is an opportunity to review much of the information presented during this semester.

It will give you an opportunity to integrate the multiple systems onto a single 60 second physiological episode. This assignment could be seen as a very intense and major (perhaps overwhelming) undertaking, but the outline below should make it more palatable. Administrative Instructions: 1. Form small groups of 2 to 6 students to complete this assignment. Each group is to do its own work: No information is to be shared between groups. Evidence of answer sharing will result in both groups receiving a zero. Do not discuss or share your answers with anyone outside of your group, including your lab instructor or tutor. . Do not divide the questions among group members. Every member of the group is to fully understand all the answers to this assignment so that you may double check each other and create the best answers possible. May call on any member of a group to explain their answer to any question. 3. This assignment is to be typed and posted to the drop DEL drop-box by the due date (save the file in a WORD compatible form). One document posted per group. 4. Put all answers in your own words. DO NOT COPY from any source (including the textbook). Do not ‘paraphrase’ by re-arranging a few words. 5.

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Include the questions, question numbers and point values with your answer. . Give your references for each answer and provide a Works Cited page at the end (in PAP or ML style). Give Page numbers for textbook citations and complete URL for all web- based references. DOSS are acceptable as well. Outline: Answer the following questions in order and you will have completed the assignment. Be sure to include the question with your answers and provide proper citations within each answer. 1. (6 opts) Describe the metabolic process providing your energy while you were walking (at an easy pace) before the bee stung you.

Include which molecules are being consumed, the arioso intermediate molecules and which energy molecule is being regenerated. Our bodies, even at rest, rely on aerobic metabolism to fuel our energy needs. As we begin to exercise, our energy needs increase and our bodies will begin to burn the molecules. Walking is a mild endurance exercise and primarily uses aerobic respiration of glucose. This is done in three phases: Glycoside, Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport System. TAP is the energy molecule produced during this process.

Aerobic respiration is the process by which sugars (glucose) is transferred into adenosine troposphere (TAP), usable energy. During Glycoside, one 6- carbon glucose is transformed into two 3-carbon private molecules. This breakdown of glucose requires the use of 2 TAP to start the process and happens in the cytoplasm. This process creates four TAP molecules and two incontinence adenine denunciative (NADIA) molecules and acutely commence A is formed. The private molecules begin to oxidize into carbon dioxide and a 2-carbon acutely groups. CA is released as a waste product.

The 2-carbon acutely group binds to commence A. At this point, the process starts to move into the mitochondria and the Krebs Cycle is initiated. There is a net gain Of 2 TAP and 2 molecules of NADIA produced. During Krebs Cycle, the acutely Cocoa breaks down further into two molecules of carbon dioxide during each turn of the cycle. In the process, the molecules FAD and AND are reduced to FADDY and NADIA. 2 TAP is generated during the Krebs Cycle. The reduced FADDY and NADIA enter the Electron Transport System where they are re- oxidized to FAD and AND. These electrons release energy which forms 32 TAP molecules.

During aerobic respiration, there is a total net gain of 36 TAP. 2. (6 opts) Turn your head to the right. (Create a table* that describes which useless move which bones across which joints under the control of which nerves) Action Muscle Origin insertion Nerve Turn head right: Rotation to the shoulder of opposite side Extraterritoriality Imbruing of Sternum and Clavicle Mastoid Process of temporal bone and the occipital bone Accessory Nerve Flexing and slight rotation of the head Scalene (scalene anterior, scalene medium, and scalene posterior) Transverse processes of clavicle vertebrae First two ribs cervical nerves (CA-CA) 3. 10 points) Trace the image of the bee to perception. (Include all focusing, transduction, transmission and perception processes and structures) The ear species the initial signal of the bee bussing which forces you to look to where the sound is coming from; because you are aware of what a bee buzzing sounds like, you already start to feel panicked and aware of what could and probably will happen. You then begin to visually see your worst nightmare. It begins with receptions as the eye receives incoming light from the external environment and the focuses it onto the retina.

Once the retina receives it the image of the visual stimulus is captured and the photoreceptor’s within the retina begin to detect the image. Transduction then occurs as the Hottentots change the light into signals, which can travel along the optic never to the brain, where the information can then be processed. At the same time, the process Of transmission also occurs, as the information from the electric impulses that travel from the optic never to the brain carries the visual information from the retina to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe of the brain.

It is then organized and interpreted into the image we see, which, in this case, would be the bee threatening us. 4. (11 points) Move your left hand to swat the bee (Create a table* that describes which muscles move which bones across which joints under the control of which nerves) limit your discussion to the movement at the shoulder and elbow only (do not include any UN-needed muscles nor discuss the movement at any other joints) First Action: (Anatomical Description) Medial rotation and Adduction of hummers at the shoulder English: Moving arm to the right in front of your body towards the midlines of your body.

Pectorals Major Clavicle, sternum, cartilages of Ribs 2-6 Fibers converge to form a short tendon that inserts into the interlobular inserts into the interlobular groove of the hummers Lateral & Medial Pectoral Nerves

Subsidiaries Scapular Foss of the anterior Scapula Lesser tubercle of hummers upper & Lower Scapular nerves CA, CA Trees Major Inferior angle of Scapula Intracellular groove of Hummers Lower Scapular nerve Ultimatums Doors Copious process of lower 6 vertebrae, all lumbar vertebrae, ribs 8-12, and lumbagos fascia Intracellular groove of hummers Tetrachloride nerve Second Action : (Anatomical Description) Flex the left forearm at the elbow English: Move the forearm up and towards your shoulder at the elbow. Biceps Brachia Short head at carotid process of scapula radial tuberose’s

Miscellaneous nerve(CA-CA) Brachia Distal part of Hummers Corrosion process of ulna Miscellaneous nerve (CA-CA) Paradisiacal Distal end of Hummers Stolid process of Radius Radial nerve 5. (6 points). Choose one of those muscles and trace its control from the appropriate brain structure all the way to the NM]. Be sure to include all intermediate structures, synapses, tracts, plexuses and nerves. Movement begins in the brain with a voluntary thought. The motor areas of the brain are located in the cerebral cortex, more specifically the primary motor cortex of the frontal lobe.

The process begins when a motor impulse is initiated by the brain and travels down the spinal cord. From there it continues through the anterior horn and anterior root into a somatic motor neuron. The motor neuron branches into the miscellaneous nerve of the brachia plexus. The motor impulse travels down the motor neuron which travels from the dendrites to the axon, to the synapse which connects the neuromuscular joint. This initiates the impulse to contract the biceps brachia. 6. Feel the pain of the stinger in your skin. . (3 opts) What layers of the skin are penetrated and what tissue types make hem up? The layers of skin that would be affected would be the epidermis and the demise- The five layers of the epidermis; stratum Basel, spumoni, granule’s, lucid, and corners, are made of stratified exogamous epithelium, is what initially would be affected by the bee sting. It would then make its way through the layers of the epidermis to the dermis and release its venom or toxins into the deep part composed of dense irregular connective tissue. B. 6 opts) Trace the pain sensation from the receptors to perception. Include all intermediate structures (nerve, plexus, root, horn, tract, etc. ) in order. Free dendrites nerve endings, inspectors, in the epidermis are stimulated and detect tissue damage caused from the bee sting. Dendrites react and initiate an action potential in the sensory nerve axons which will travel via the auxiliary nerve in the brachia plexus. The action potential travels through the peripheral nerve into the dorsal root ganglion to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord creating a synapse.

The impulse continues to travel through the ascending pathway of the sophistication tract where it enters the brain stem, medulla obligate, the mandarin and into the thalamus. Synapses occur in he ventral nuclei of the thalamus. The thalamus sends a signal to the primary compensatory cortex of the parietal lobe where the perception of the bee sting pain is recognized. 7. (8 opts) Explain your autonomic response to this event. State which division is taking control and describe exactly how that division will affect breathing rate, heart rate, and pupil size. Note: don’t just describe the effect, but describe the control pathway that leads to that effect, including any chemical messengers involved. ) In this event, the Sympathetic division of the NAS would be involved because this division is concerned with when our iodides are experiencing a crisis or an increased level of somatic activity. Specifically, with this being an emergent situation Sympathetic activation is going to occur. This is controlled by the sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus. There will be stimulation in the cardiac, vasomotor and respiratory centers of the central nervous system.

Next there will be stimulation in the adrenal medulla to release Morphogenesis into the blood stream as a hormone. Morphogenesis will then work as a neurotransmitter to bind with Alpha and Beta receptors causing cardiac muscle stimulation which will in turn cause an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. The binding of Morphogenesis to alpha 1 receptors is stimulatory to the smooth muscles and blood vessels in the eye and will cause vasoconstriction which will in turn make the pupils dilate. 8. (8 opts) Describe the elements of the homeostasis control system that caused the sweating and the red skin.

Include the control pathway involved. Body temperature varies from person to person and energy gained or lost must be balanced in order to maintain a constant body temperature. Your hypothalamus, the temperature receptor in the brain, detects the temperature of the blood flowing through your body. Your skin is also a temperature receptor and detects external temperature. As temperatures begin to claim out of the normal range of 96 to 99 degree, the thermonuclear center in the hypothalamus, receives messages from both receptors.

The thermonuclear center will begin to send out impulses to the effectors. In this instance, the effectors include the sweat glands and smooth muscles in the arteries of the skin. At high body temps, more sweat is produced which will help cool the body when it evaporates. Glands begin to secrete more sweat onto the skin which helps remove the heat from the body. The smooth muscle under the skin starts to relax which causes vacillation and increased blood flow to the skin, which turns it red.

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Anatomy and Physiology: Bee Sting. (2018, Mar 18). Retrieved from