HUMANS Virginia Henderson Physiological 1. Breath normally 2. Eat and drink adequately 3. Eliminate body wastes 4. Move and maintain desirable postures 5. Sleep and rest 6. Select suitable clothes – dress and undress 7. Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying the environment. 8. Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument. 9. Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others. 0. Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions. 14. Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities. Spiritual 11. Worship according to one’s faith. Sociological 12. Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment. 13. Play or participate in various forms of recreation. Psychological Virginia Henderson ENVIRONMENTt Individuals in relation to families * Supports tasks of private and public agencies * Society expects nurses to act for individuals who are unable to function independently * Basic nursing care involves providing conditions under which the patient can perform the 14 activities unaided HEALTH * Definition based on individual’s ability to function independently as outlined in the 14 components. * Nurses need to stress promotion of health and prevention and cure of disease. * Good health is a challenge. Affected by age, cultural background, physical, and intellectual capacities, and emotional balance * Impact on health by working of various social issues. Virginia Henderson NURSING: * Definition Henderson’s classic definition of nursing: “I say that the nurse does for others what they would do for themselves if they had the strength, the will, and the knowledge. But I go on to say that the nurse makes the patient independent of him or her as soon as possible. ” * Nurse serves to make patient “complete”,”“whole”,or “independent. * Physicians therapeutic plan * Individualized care * Use nursing research SISTER CALLISTA ROY, PhD ADAPTATION THEORY HUMANS An adaptive system with coping processes · Described as a whole comprised of parts · Functions as a unity for some purpose · Includes people as individuals or in groups (families, organizations, communities, nations, and society as a whole) · An adaptive system with cognator and regulator subsystems acting to maintain adaptation in the four adaptive modes: physiologic-physical, self-concept-group identity, role function, and interdependence
SISTER CALLISTA ROY, PhD ENVIRONMENT · All conditions, circumstances, and influences surrounding and affecting the development and behavior of persons and groups with particular consideration of mutuality of person and earth resources · Three kinds of stimuli: focal, contextual, and residual · Significant stimuli in all human adaptation include stage of development, family, and culture SISTER CALLISTA ROY, PhD
HEALTH AND ADAPTATION · Health: a state and process of being and becoming integrated and whole that reflects person and environmental mutuality · Adaptation: the process and outcome whereby thinking and feeling persons, as individuals and in groups, use conscious awareness and choice to create human and environmental integration · Adaptive Responses: responses that promotes integrity in terms of the goals of the human system, that is, survival, growth, reproduction, mastery, and personal and environmental transformation · Ineffective Responses: responses that do not contribute to integrity in terms of the goals of the human system · Adaptation levels represent the condition of the life processes described on three different levels: integrated, compensatory, and compromised SISTER CALLISTA ROY, PhD
NURSING · Nursing is the science and practice that expands adaptive abilities and enhances person and environment transformation · Nursing goals are to promote adaptation for individuals and groups in the four adaptive modes, thus contributing to health, quality of life, and dying with dignity · This is done by assessing behavior and factors that influence adaptive abilities and by intervening to expand those abilities and to enhance environmental interactions Dorothea Orem Self-Care Theory HUMANS Self caring agent capable of providing for own individual needs through self-care acitvities. The model is concerned with the provision and management of self-care. A requirement for nursing exists when a person is unable to maintain for him/herself self-care action which is therapeutic in sustaining life and health, recovering from disease and injury or coping with their effects. Meet own needs through nutrition, fitness, hygiene, rest and relaxation, interpersonal relationships, meaningful work, spiritual practices, prevention and health promotion practices Dorothea Orem
ENVIRONMENT Context where self-care occurs. Can hinder or support self-care activities. Includes the family, work, community, health care system. Person (client/patient) self-care deficits are the result of environmental situations. HEALTH Promoted by adequate self-care Major areas for “self-care” patient education Maintaining health Enhancing health Includes: exercise & physical fitness nutrition and weight control stress management maintenance of social support systems environmental control Dorothea Orem NURSING systems exist within this professional nursing practice model Compensatory system-nurse provides total care Partially compensatory system-nurse & atient share responsibility for care Educative-development system-client has primary responsibility for personal health, with nurse acting as a consultant Direct Nursing Care (nurse has direct contact with client and/or family) Providing care or teaching in the following areas: Nutrition Hygiene Mobility Medications Behavior HUMAN IMOGENE KING, PhD – consists of the personal, the interpersonal, and the social. – dynamic human being whose perceptions of objects, persons, and events influence his behavior, social interaction, and health The personal system that King speaks of refers to the individual. The concepts within the personal system and fundamental in understanding human beings are perception, self, body image, growth and development, time, and space Interpersonal systems involve individuals interacting with one another. Social systems are groups of people within a community or society that share common goals, interests, and values.
Social systems provide a framework for social interaction and relationships, and establish rules of behavior and courses of action The relationships between these three systems led to King’s Theory of Goal Attainment. IMOGENE KING, PhD ENVIRONMENT The surroundings and interpersonal relationships around the person HEALTH Depemded on a healthy interplay of human interactions, perception, communication, role, stress, time, space, growth and development, and transactions. NURSING Client goals are met through the transaction between nurse and client. The nurse and the person interact toward a goal. The end-point of this interaction, which occurs over time, is transaction, at which the person’s goal is met. The goal of nursing as bringing a person closer to a healthy state