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Authority and Responsibility of Management

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Division of Work

According to Henry Fayol under division of work, “The worker always on the same post, the manager always concerned with the same matters, acquire an ability, sureness and accuracy which increases their output. In other words, division of work means specialization. According to this principle, a person is not capable of doing all types of work. Each job and work should be assigned to the specialist of his job. Division of work promotes efficiency because it permits an organizational member to work in a limited area reducing the scope of his responsibility.

Fayol wanted the division of work not only at factory but at management levels also. Example:

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This principle is being used at Mc Donald and has greatly helped in improving the services. For example:

  • The method in which McDonalds for example create their hamburger is a form of deskilling and division of labour.
  • They have simplified the job by firstly grilling the burger, putting in lettuce and tomatoes, adding sauce etc, putting onto rolls and then wrapping it up.

  • We can see that this is a break down of the job and by having individuals do each task it not only improves efficiency but also creates specialised personnel.

Authority and Responsibility

Authority and responsibility go together or co-existing. Both authority and responsible are the two sides of a coin. In this way, if anybody is made responsible for any job, he should also have the concerned authority. Fayol’s principle of management in this regard is that an efficient manager makes best possible use of his authority and does not escape from the responsibility. In other awards when the authority is exercised the responsibility. In other awards when the authority is exercised the responsibility is automatically generated. Example:

KFC’s success derived from its effective crisis management. There are three main types of authority with is line Authority mean it is the power to give orders to subordinates. Line managers are responsible for attaining the organizational goals as efficiently as possible. Production and sales managers typically exercise line authority. Next is staffing Authority, power to give advice, support, and service to line departments. Staff managers do not command others. Examples of staff authority are found in personnel, purchasing, engineering, and finance. Lastly functional Authority, staff’s ability to initiate actions within a given area of expertise. Functional Authority allows decisions to be implemented directly by the staff. It provides to understand the organization behaviors in order to help the organization to achieve the organization objectives. The right of authority in organization such as:

  • The organization authorizes the supervisor to carry out certain tasks.
  • Authority has a right to perform a task or give orders to someone else.
  • The supervisor has the authority to act in behalf of the organization in matters of directing work and hiring and disciplining employees.
  • Authority of the supervisor is legitimized by the organization.

The responsible of authority in organization is to accepting responsibility commits people to completing an assignment to the best of their ability. The authority granted supervisors gives them a certain amount of power. Supervisors may have authority, but may have trouble getting others to act in the desired way. By accepting the position, supervisors are accepting the responsibility to achieve the goals of the organization. In an organization functional authority can be found in accounting. The speed of the first principle of Kentucky started the crisis team to assess the crisis and develop appropriate plans tasks. Just showing signs of the crisis, they quickly took control of the situation, effectively preventing the escalation of the situation to expand. The principle of sincere communication, promptly informed of its findings, after a series of actions, has shown a sincere attitude. System Operation Principles, the crisis came quickly after the Organization of the crisis management team, special for this purpose

Discipline

According to Henry Fayol discipline means sincerity about the work and enterprise, carrying out orders and instructions of superiors and to have faith in the policies and programmes of the business enterprise, in other sense, discipline in terms of obedience, application, energy and respect to superior. However, Fayol does not advocate warming, fines, suspension and dismissals of worker for maintaining discipline. These punishments are rarely awarded. A well disciplined working force is essential for improving the quality and quantity of the production.

Example:

  • Maxis Communications have unquestionably applied this principle of management in their general administrative management because the superior reputation of the company and the high-quality products and services produced by the company is ought enough to prove that Maxis has an effective and efficient bunch of employees who are led by truly great leaders by moving forward towards the vision of the company and executing their tasks by obeying the values set by the company. Maxis is an organization that is based thoroughly on its values and aspirations and therefore, all its employees are groomed and seasoned to follow those goals set.
  • Maxis Communications as a whole will not be listed in the Wall Street Journal Asia 200 today as Asia’s Most Admired Company if it wasn’t for the obedient, well-informed and dedicated employees who are led by their managers and leaders. For Maxis to achieve such a milestone in the telecommunications industry, it is indeed very obvious that this organization possesses worthy and credible leaders who are able to plan, organize, lead and control their employees and responsibilities to the heights of excellence.For any company to be able to become as accomplished, prestigious and admired as Maxis Communications, good discipline is quintessential. Maxis without a doubt has a good control of the conducts of its employees and are a great example of how an organization that practices good discipline could achieve so much success.

Unity of Command

A subordinate should take order from only one boss and he should be responsible and accountable to him. Further he claimed that if the unit of command is violated, authority is undermined, disciplined in danger, order disturbed and stability threatened. The violation of this principle will face some serious consequences. In this way, the principle of unity of command provides the enterprise disciplined, stable and orderly existence. It creates harmonious relationship between officers and subordinates, congenial atmosphere of work. It is one of the Fayol’s important essential principle of management.

Unity of direction

Fayol advocates “One head and one plan” which means that group efforts on a particular plan be led and directed by a single person. This enables effective co-ordination of individual efforts and energy. This fulfils the principles of unity of command and brings uniformity in the work of same nature. In this way the principle of direction create dedication to purpose and loyalty. It emphasizes the attainment of common goal under one head.

Example:

  • This principle of management is definitely practiced by Maxis Communications because although the vision or the objective of the company as a whole is to become A Regional Communications Leader of every department in this organization led by its leader and troops of employees develop their own specific objectives and goals to achieve according to their departments and tasks given.
  • For example, if a task of successfully coming up with an interesting and attractive advertising campaign to promote Maxis’s new low call rates to increase the Hotlink prepaid subscriber base to an additional 10% is assigned to its Consumer Marketing Department, the head of this department alongside its group of expert employees will begin to draw up a plan towards achieving this task or objective that has been set for them. As the objectives of these employees are now the same and clear, they would begin the process of generating new ideas right up to the execution of the advertising campaign led by their department head to achieve that objective.
  • The unity of direction in my view is very vital in every organization because it enables the employees to stay on track and perform at their best if they are led by one superior and are aimed at one objective. As mentioned above, every department in the organization would have objectives and goals to achieve all through their careers which are actually stepping stones towards achieving the common goal of the entire organization which in the case of Maxis, is to be a regional communications leader of choice.

Subordination of individual interests to general interests

The interest of the business enterprise ought to come before the interests of the praise individual workers. In other words, principle of management state that employees should surrender their personnel interest before the general interest of the enterprise. Sometimes the employees due to this ignorance, selfishness, laziness, carelessness and emotional pleasure overlook the interest of the organisation. This attitude proves to be very harmful to the enterprise.

Fair Remuneration to employees

According to Fayol wage-rates and method of their payment should be fair, proper and satisfactory. Both employees and ex-employers should agree to it. Logical and appropriate wage-rate and methods of their payment reduces tension and differences between workers and management, create harmonious relationship and a pleasing atmosphere of work. Further Fayol recommends that residential facilities be provided including arrangement of electricity, water and facilities.

Centralization and Decentralization

There should be one central point in the organisation which exercises overall direction and control of all the parts. But the degree of centralization of authority should vary according to the needs of situation. According to Fayol there should be centralization in small units and proper decentralization in big organisation. Further, Fayol does not favor centralization or decentralization of authorities but suggests that these should be proper and effective adjustment between centralization and decentralization in order to achieve maximum objectives of the business. The choice between centralization and decentralization be made after taking into consideration the nature of work and the efficiency, experience and decision-making capacity of the executives.

Scalar chain

The scalar chain is a chain of supervisors from the highest to the lowest rank. It should be short-circuited. An employee should feel the necessity to contact his superior through the scalar chain. The authority and responsibility is communicated through this scalar chain. Fayol defines scalar chain as “the chain of superiors ranging from the ultimate authority to the lowest rank.” The flow of information between management and workers is a must. Business opportunities must be immediately avoided of. so we must make direct contact with the concerned employee. Business problems need immediate solution, so we cannot always depend on the established scalar chain. It requires that direct contact should be established.

Order

According to Fayol there should be proper, systematic and orderly arrangement of physical and social factors, such as land, raw materials, tools and equipments and employees respectively. As per view, there should be safe, appropriate and specific place for every article and every place to be used effectively for a particular activity and commodity. In other words, principles that every piece of land and every article should be used properly, economically and in the best possible way. Selection and appointment of the most suitable person to every job. There should be specific place for every one and every one should have specific place. This principle also stresses scientific selection and appointment of employees on every job.

Equity

The principle of equality should be followed and applicable at every level of management. There should not be any discrimination as regards caste, sex and religion. An effective management always accords sympathetic and human treatment. The management should be kind, honest and impartial with the employees. In other words, kindness and justice should be exercised by management in dealing with their subordinates. This will create loyalty and devotion among the employees. Thus, workers should be treated at par at every level.

Stability of use of personnel

Principle of stability is linked with long tenure of personnel in the organisation. This means production being a team work, an efficient management always builds a team of good workers. If the members of the team go on changing the entire process of production will be disturbed. It is always in the interest of the enterprise that its trusted, experienced and trained employees do not leave the organisation. Stability of job creates a sense of belongingness among workers who with this feeling are encouraged to improve the quality and quantity of work.

Initiative

Under this principle, the successful management provides an opportunity to its employees to suggest their new ideas, experiences and more convenient methods of work. The employees, who has been working on the specific job since long discover now, better alternative approach and technique of work. It will be more useful, if initiative to do so is provided to employees. In simple, to ensure success, plans should be well formulated before they are implemented.

Example:

  • This is yet another principle of management that is applied by Maxis Communications. As all the employees of Maxis are departmentalized according to their expertise with a clear superior figure to report to and seek advice from, the level of which the employees come up with new and innovative ideas which are executed are high but well-controlled.
  • It is important that all employees are given the opportunity to generate new, innovative and creative ideas but in true fact, not all of these ideas would be the most beneficial or effective to the organization.  However, in my view, the method Maxis Communications instills initiative in all of its employees is very effective. Before a certain decision is actually made on the execution of the ideas, the employees are constantly motivated by their head of department to come up with the most original and pioneering ideas. Therefore, all of the employees would be driven and wield in high levels of effort in order to come up with the best idea possible. This is a great way of instilling initiative but the technique in which the head of department or superior figure selects the best idea for execution is important.
  • Employees must never feel discouraged or de-motivated when their ideas which they drew up with a lot of effort are not put to effect. Their ideas and plans must instead be kept safely in the database for future projects, purposes or references of the organization and the employees must be aware of that. It is important that the employees feel that each and every one of them have a special value to the company and only then will they have initiative to continue to come up with innovative ideas.
  • The key aspect is to allow the employees to let their creative juices flow and not feel shut in or too afraid to voice out their ideas and opinions. Maxis Communications have certainly implemented the principle management of initiative in its family of employees and are as a result,one of the most successful organizations with the most innovative and pioneering ideas.

Spirit of Co-operation (Spirit de crops)

In order to achieve the best possible results, individual and group effort are to be effectively integrated and coordinated. Production is a team work for which the whole-hearted support and co-operation of the members at all levels is required. Everyone should sacrifice his personal interest and contribute his best energies to achieve the best results. it refers to the spirit of loyalty, faithfulness on the part of the members of the group which can be achieved by strong motivating recognition and importance of the members for their valuable contribution, effective coordination, informal mutual social relationship between members of the group and positive and constructive approach of the management towards workers’ welfare.

Example:

  • This final principle which I am going to explain is again without a doubt applied by Maxis Communications. The reason why Maxis is such a huge success today with some of the best and high-quality products and services in the market is because of the harmony and the unity within the organization itself.
  • Although Maxis has departments with clear lines of authority, they still promote unity and harmony amongst its employees and staff. This is actually a great motivation technique in my view. Being too rigid and too firm on relying on an authoritarian figure would not bring out the best possible outcome for the organization. What a team of people can accomplish together is greater than what a one-man army can accomplish by himself. As the saying goes, ‘no teamwork, no glory’. Everybody in the organization including the heads and authority figures must be team players and allow a good communication flow between the superiors and employees. Firing up the spirits of the members of a team would allow them to excel well and hence result in jobs well done.
  • Maxis Communications has grown into such a success today because of everybody’s contribution to the organization and they work in an environment that highlights unity and values. When an organization is thought to work enthusiastically as a team and is built like a family, I personally think that it would reach heights of success and that is exactly what Maxis has accomplished. Promoting esprit de corps in any organization is key to guarantee a strong foundation and future triumph for the organization.

Reference

http://www.ukessays.com/essays/business/operating-kentucky-fried-chicken-towards-its-company-goal-business-essay.php#ixzz2hBO1lhhV

Cite this Authority and Responsibility of Management

Authority and Responsibility of Management. (2016, Jun 02). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/authority-and-responsibility-of-management/

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