It has jumped back and forth between attempts to totally automate the entire design process, o its partial support as a drafting mechanism, from a representation of objects properties, to complete modeling and visualization tool. Design is an intelligent human process activity which requires many skills and lots of knowledge. Design problems can be solved by individuals or by teams. They may take minutes or years. Design occurs in a wide variety of domains, ranging from the design of a Nuclear Power Plant to that of a simple glass bottle.
The general design process is often characterized as mapping needs, functions and structures, this process is carried out by using many different types of analysis and different resources of information. Hand-drawn plans or sketchers can be all a computer aided draftsperson or a modeled needs to get to complete a job. On projects without structural work that don’t require permits, even a quick sketch might be sufficient. This computing evolution has precipitated a fundamental re-evaluation of space and time.
The transition between pre-industrial conditions to a world of computers and cyberspace, taking place in the best part of half a century, affecting the modern designer’s concept of space, which has been an intangible medium for centuries and through constant manipulation and thought, has extinguished the design profession. The value of a computer-aided design (CAD) programs depends entirely on what kind of jobs you do how much design work they regularly involve and the expectations of your client base.
Many consumers can’t envision the result of a AD modeling project, and therefore have a hard time signing off on a contract. Programs that create realistic two dimensional or three-dimensional images of what the client or designer proposes down to the light at different times of day can help make the sale. Other consumers might not see the charm of a hand-drawn design and consider CAD drawings ore professional. CAD programs can definitely accelerate the design process, especially if you do a lot of design work or have clients who change their mind frequently during the design phase.
With CAD programs you can change one element of the design, perhaps lengthening one wall of a room, and the proportions of the other walls, the materials list and other affected elements update automatically. Even if your company doesn’t create the design, the ability to share files electronically with suppliers, subcontractors and architects can improve productivity and smooth production. Advantages in using CAD * Reduces connectional time for new designs * Products can be created more quickly. * Costly mistakes in design or production can be avoided. * Reduced Manufacturing time. Documentation can be printed in various forms for multiple users. * Ease of document reproduction and cloning Visualization of complex technical elements * The quality of designs. * Clarity of documentation. * Easier to apply new ideas-Disadvantages in using CAD * Training. * Expansive start up costs (hardware, software, and training). Hard to get the connectional form. The benefits of AD CAD design fall into two disgorges :Key Benefits :Using AD design modeling greatly improves design quality because it is a more complete process than AD design. As a result, many human errors that can occur with traditional AD design methods are avoided.
In the past problems such as component collisions, incorrect quantities or parts that don’t fit, would happen because a designer who works in only AD is forced to hold much of the information mentally. It is this point that gives rise to errors because the brain CANNOT visualize to exact scale. Reducing human error by using the AD modeling design methods shown in our AD CAD manual minimizes he need for re-work because the design quality is greatly improved . BOOM and schedule generation with AD methods also relies on mental visualization to generate a part count, and thus human error is again a risk when quantifying.
With AD methods, views are visually representative but quantity data from AD views is poor because projections might show a particular component in several views while other components might be completely omitted to maintain drawing clarity. Using AD design modeling to get quantity data is easy because items are represented as they occur. Consequently, as long as a CAD AD design s created as a true to life model, the AD modeling design represents quantities with exact accuracy. If done correctly – and our AD CAD manual gives the details how – the CAD AD modeling method used will give details of blocks and layers (i. E. Teems) automatically so human error risks when counting quantities become minimal. Communication of design intent is vastly improved by using CAD AD modeling. In the past, non technical people interested in a AD design often had to wait for a prototype before they could truly understand a design. Since cad AD modeling can be used to generate pictorial views, as well as traditional rejections, the design intent can clearly be seen by anyone willing to look. Consequently, it is possible to communicate a AD modeling design and promote inter departmental understanding earlier in the project cycle, thus creating a time saving.
Customer presentations, brochures, manufacturing, and technical publications all benefit. Clearer communication of design intent at the earliest stage is always useful. The possibilities for concurrent engineering take a real step forward with CAD AD design because the sheer quality of AD design modeling data can be instinctively understood and acted on by other departments. A very impressive and up-to-date approach can be achieved by using AD CAD modeling – particularly in the eyes of customers. This also applies to individuals because their skills as employees need to be up dated in order to remain competitive in the jobs market.
Advanced Benefits : Advanced benefits are more complex, and thus less easy to achieve but at the same time bring great efficiencies in reducing costs and leadsmen. Put briefly, there will come a time when AD CAD methods can be smoothly integrated with other computer systems within companies – and even the internet. This will enable users to quickly locate the most cost effective monuments easily, reducing the CAD operators need to search for, and then model them, as well as allowing production and scheduling software to have visibility of bills of material that are evolving as the AD CAD modeling develops.
Although difficult to achieve at present, this will become common place in time, but only for those who work in AD CAD methods. AD methods are not able to relay the quality and quantity of design information because AD methods will always rely on human interpretation or visualization skills to interact with a AD design. Interpretation, visualization and interaction with a AD design is always official for non design staff and almost impossible for computer systems to extract information, because computers do not have the ability to interpret representative (I. . Incomplete) visual information. I THE MODERN DRAWING (CAD) 2012 A Library Paper by: Ortega, Christine F. Codicil, Vigil S. Naval, Darlene C. Rossini, April A. Modern Drawing also known as Computer-Aided Design (CAD) or Computer-Aided Design and Drafting (CAD) is the use of computer systems to assists in the creation, modification, analysis, and optimization of a design. CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print or machining operations.
As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances according to application-specific conventions. CAD programs provides precise dimensioning and positioning of the elements being drawn. It is also used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals. Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics, and discrete differential geometry.
It is used to increase the productivity of the designer or architect, improve the quality of design, improve communication through documentation and to create database for manufacturing. In the new millennium, CAD System is widely use to create designs not only on structures of building but of many others. Engineers and architects are the main beneficiaries of the CAD System. It helps them to work more faster in matters of designing and planning. It also helps them make and group all the ideas of the mind into a beautiful work of art.
Uses of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) CAD is a useful tool for engineers and architects. For people working in the designing industry, Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is a technique that makes the work easy and handy. There are many essential/significant uses of CAD in the community. Below are some of the uses of CAD: њ photorealism rendering; creation of photo simulation; computer animation for special effects in movies, advertising and technical manuals; C] computer graphics designing curves, figures, surfaces and solids in two-dimensional (AD) space and three-dimensional (AD) space.
Advantages and Disadvantages of CAD Advantages and disadvantages are common properties of any material, tool, object and etc. With the many uses of CAD (Computer-Aided Design) in the society not only in the designing industry, advantages and disadvantages are always present in any form. Below, on Table 1, are some of the advantages and disadvantages in using the CAD System: Table 1 . Advantages and Disadvantages in using CAD ADVANTAGES I DISADVANTAGES I No need for scaling.
All drawing is done full-size; | 0 If computer problem will occur, all data will be lost; I D The screen drawing can be set to any size with a click of a button; I D If not checked properly, the object created can go very wrong; I All tools needed are supplied by the aerogram; I D Can be very expensive; I Absolute accuracy can be maintained; I њ Can be hard to do and handling needs training; I Production details can be extracted directly from the drawing; I Since not manual, its very hard to insure exactly what is wanted by the designer; I Eliminates the need for full-size set outs; I O Sometimes, you can’t do everything you want to because the tools aren’t available. Your work is copied and stored off the computer for security, you may never lose your work again! ; I Drawings are stored on stick rather than in a bulky folder; I Dimensioning is almost automatic. I I (Table 1.
On the above table, there are more advantages than the disadvantages in using the CAD System. In this condition, we could conclude that using CAD could be a helpful tool for studying, designing and planning. ) Benefits in using CAD (Computer-Aided Design) CAD is useful to people. It also brings advantages and disadvantages to people and with the environment. Who would be the possible beneficiary of CAD System? What would be its benefits to people? Environment? Community? These are questions that emphasize the importance of CAD and its benefits. Below are the benefits in using the CAD System: Save time and money and reduce errors with the dynamic engineering model.
Reduce purchase, deployment, and support costs with one complete solution. Increase value to client by delivering more design alternatives in less time. 0 Take full advantage of existing Autocrat skills to get up to speed quickly. Create production sheets faster. Be sure that production drafting is always in sync with your design. Complete projects faster and reduce the chance of coordination errors using the Civil AD project environment. Exploit data compatibility. Build a foundation for your custom solution. Clearly communicate sign intent and complete final proposals with realistic AD rendering. Conclusion With the uses of the CAD, we could conclude that it supports the needs of designers in designing.
Photorealism rendering, creation of photo simulation, manuals, computer graphics, designing curves, figures, surfaces and solids in two-dimensional (AD) space and three-dimensional (AD) space, these are some of the uses of the CAD System that supports the basic needs in designing. It can be an exchange tool in designing and planning because it Uses computer programs to create a design or plan, so, it mainly shows that manual drawing sing the instruments is on the outside diameter. However, its advantages and disadvantages also inhibits the possible benefits and consequences in using the modern drawing (CAD). Furthermore, in the above data showed, we can identify that the CAD System is a useful tool because it gives more advantages than its disadvantages.
CAD System has its best ways of making the foundation of designing industry tough and durable. It supports the need of designers, engineers, and architects to develop their designing skills more enough. CAD (Computer-Aided Design) has completely change the drafting business and made the storage and he retrieval of projects much easier. However, manual drawing is still important and provides the basics in learning drawing. The goal of automated CAD Systems is to increase efficiency; they are not necessarily the best way to allow newcomers to understand the geometrical principles of Solid Modeling, but still, it is a good technique in designing and planning structures or figures.
References Books: ( Visa Dugan, “CAD Primer”, Mailman Publishing. ) C] ( Nary K. L alit (2008). “Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing”. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India. Up. 3 – 4. ) O Madsen, David A. (2012). “Engineering Drawing and Design”. Clifton Park, New York: Delmarva. Up. 10. ) C] 0 Web: www. Wisped. Com. PH www. Wanda/computer-designing. 22596/SGF. 8580/ 1 . Advantage: Software Flexibility * Using CAD software enables design changes to be made rapidly. Before CAD, a particular design change would have required a draftsperson to completely redraw the design to the new specification. CAD software allows designers to tinker with designs and make small changes on the fly.
It can also be used to simulate the behavior of the design in software. For example, CAD software can be used to simulate the airflow around an engine. This allows for rater flexibility in the software design process. Advantage: Design Flexibility * Another term for CAM is rapid prototyping. Rapid prototyping allows designers to construct physical prototypes during the design process. These physical prototypes can be used to test various aspects of the design. For example, if the goal is to design a steel object, then a prototype can be made out of transparent acrylic. The transparency of the acrylic prototype allows designers to view the pattern of stresses and strains within the object.
This allows for greater flexibility in the physical design and prototyping process. Advantage: Automatic Specification Checking * Using CAD software enables the designer to automatically check if the design is within specification. CAD software also enables clients to view designs at an earlier stage in the design process than is usually the case. CAM also enables clients to check the progress of functional and semi-functional prototypes at a much earlier stage than is possible in the traditional design process. Disadvantage: Processing Power Limitations and Cost * CAD software often consumes large amounts of computer processing power. This requires high-quality computer hardware that can be costly.
CAM requires advanced manufacturing devices that are also very expensive. The cost of hardware is a significant disadvantage of CAD. CAM and a major barrier to the wider uptake of CAD. CAM technologies. Disadvantage: Software Complexity * As CAD software advances, it becomes more flexible and adaptable. However, this comes at the cost of making the software more complex. This complexity makes it more difficult for first-time users to learn the software. Combined with the cost of training personnel in CAD. CAM technologies, this complexity represents another disadvantage of CAD. CAM. Mind it harder and harder to keep up with the changes that happen so rapidly these days!
For you, and for Modern Edge, it is very important to: * keep a record of what is done, * move every order and design swiftly to production, and * be able to easily refer back to past projects. Computer Aided Design (CAD) has completely changed the drafting business and made the storage and retrieval of projects much easier. However, manual drawing is still very important and provides the basics of learning to draw. To enhance the advanced CNN technologies, Modern Edge has purchased a new personal computer CAD/CAM system! Some of the advantages of CAD over manual drawing are: No need for scaling. All drawing is done full size. I Both two and three dimensional drawings can be produced. I The screen drawing area can be set to any size with the click of a button. I Your work is copied and stored off the computer for security – you may never lose your work again! I All of the tools needed are supplied by the program. Drawings are stored on disk rather than in a bulky folder. I Absolute accuracy can be maintained. I Dimensioning is almost automatic. I Production details can be extracted directly from the drawing. I Parts of drawings can be saved and used in other drawings. Eliminates the need for full size set outs. I Everything you learn about manual drawing technique applies to CAD/CAM drawing development. The images are displayed on the PC screen and, with the click of a button, can be put on paper using printers or plotters.
One of the benefits of drawing components on CAD is that these drawings can be converted to Drawing Exchange Format (DXL) and transferred to the Computer Numeric Controlled (CNN) machines for automated production. Within the CAD/ CAM PC: * the working plan is completed and signed off the plan is transferred to a drilling and router program for conversion to CNN program, and * the CNN program is transferred to CNN machine via a data cable connected to the CNN equipment Autocrat Coordinate Entry Methods Absolute Method: (X, Y) Absolute Cartesian coordinates specify a point’s exact distance from the origin point of the coordinate system, which is represented as (0,0). The absolute X and Y coordinates are signed numbers.
Relative Method: (@X,Y) Relative Cartesian coordinates specify a point’s exact distance from the last point that was entered. For example, typing @4. Tells Autocrat to locate a point that is four X units and two Y units away from the last point entered. The X and Y relative coordinates are signed numbers. Direct distance entry is a shorthand relative coordinate entry method. Polar Method: (@Distance;Angle) Polar coordinates specify a point’s exact location by a distance and angle from the last point that was entered. The distance is always positive and the angle is measured from the positive X axis.