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# Crossing Individual Phenotypes Results

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Describe, “in details,” the methods used to investigate the Hardy-Weinberg Law. The class collected their lab from the instructor, and she told them what they would be observing. Then the instructor called a student up to the board to record the results for ear lobes. After the instructor walked around and observed each student to collect the results. As the instructor walked around to each student to call out their results individually; the person at the board was recording it down.

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Finally when all the results were collected the person at the board had took the results and calculated it using the Hardy-Weinberg equation (pa + PC + q = 1). Once done the steps were repeated for widows peak, hitch hiker’s thumb, thumb crossing, tongue rolling, dimples, and freckles. Results: 4. For any (2) traits/characteristics evaluated, determine the percentages for p square PC + q square = (percentages of homozygous dominant + heterozygous dominant + homozygous recessive). 1 .

Thumb Crossing Individual Phenotypes Results Class Results: Number tot Dominant Phenotype Number of Recessive Phenotype = Percentage = q % of the class Therefore q = the frequency of q allele = v’ q Total = 1 -q = p = frequency of the dominant allele( ) = p = genotype of homozygous dominant = % of the class PC = genotype of the heterozygous dominant = pa + PC + q=1 -? % = 100% 2.

Freckles Number of Dominant Phenotype Number of Recessive Phenotype % = 100% Detonate Datum Discussion Conclusion: 5. Discuss/Explain, “in details.

The concept of gene pool and gene frequency of a population. Gene pool is the total number of genes of every individual in an interbreeding population (“Gene pool,” 2008). A large gene pool indicates high genetic diversity, increased chances of biological fitness, and survival (“Gene pool,” 2008). A small gene pool indicates low genetic diversity, reduced chances of acquiring biological fitness, and increased possibility of extinction (“Gene pool,” 2008). Gene pool increases when mutation occurs and survives.

Gene pool decreases when the population size is significantly reduced (e. G. Famine, genetic disease, etc. ) (“Gene LOL,” 2008). Some of the consequences when gene pool is small are low fertility, and increased probability of acquiring genetic diseases and deformities (“Gene pool,” 2008). Gene pool gives an idea of the number of genes, the variety of genes and the type of genes existing in a population (“Gene pool,” 2008). It can be used to help determine gene frequencies or the ratio between different types of genes in a population (“Gene pool,” 2008).

Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele on a genetic locus in a population; which is usually it is expressed as a proportion or a percentage (“Allele frequency,” 2014). In population genetics, allele frequencies show the genetic diversity of a species population or equivalently the richness of its gene pool (“Allele frequency,” 2014). The frequencies of all the alleles of a given gene often are graphed together as an allele frequency distribution histogram (“Allele frequency,” 2014).

Population genetics Detonate Datum studies the different “forces” that might lead to changes in the distribution and frequencies of alleles in relations to evolution (“Allele frequency,” 2014). 6. Discuss/Explain, “in details,” the concept of the genetic drift of a population. The process of change in the genetic composition of a population due to chance or random events rather than by natural selection, resulting in changes in allele frequencies over time (“Genetic drift,” 2008). The effect of genetic drift in large populations is usually negligible whereas in small populations, it predominates (“Genetic drift,” 2008).

In a small population, genetic drift results in some alleles become more common while others become less common over time (“Genetic drift,” 2008). 7. Discuss/Explain, “in details,” the significance/importance of the Hardy-Weinberg in he evaluation of evolution (change) in a given population over a period of time. Evolution is not only the development of new species from older ones, as most people assume (O, 1997-2012). It is also the minor changes within a species from generation to generation over long periods of time that can result in the gradual transition to new species (O, 1997-2012).

Hardy-Weinberg theorem gives a baseline by which to judge whether evolution has occurred. There are 5 agents of evolutionary change (“Lecture 7: Population ecology 1,” 2008): 1. Mutation – new alleles form because of random changes in DNA 2. Genetic Drift – by chance, only certain members of population reproduce (e. G. , founder effect, bottleneck effect) Detonate Datum 3. Gene flow – movement of alleles between populations 4. Non-random mating – individuals often choose a mate according to phenotype 5. Selection – (e. G. , NATURAL, artificial, and sexual selection) 8.

Discuss/Explain, “in details,” the possible effect (s) of weather and geography on gene frequencies in a given population over a period of time. Distribution is the natural geographic range of an organism or the spatial arrangement of individuals in a local population (“Lecture 7: Population ecology 1,” 2008). Habitat, dispersal, climate and other biotic factors controls distribution of species at large scales (“Lecture 7: Population ecology 1,” 2008). Ultimately, at large scales, the physical environment limits the geographic distribution of species. 9.

Discuss/Explain, “in details,” the possible effect (s) of competition on gene frequencies in a given population of a period of time. Migration makes a groups within a population reproductively isolated and so gene flow between them stops since migration brings a group of them or both in another region environmental conditions change and each group adapt to new condition changing allelic frequency ND the best fitted individuals pass on alleles to offspring and so two sub populations are formed and when they meet again they won’t breed together so competition occurs (“Lecture 7: Population ecology 1,” 2008). 0. Discuss/Explain, “in details,” the possible effect (s) of mutation (s) on gene frequencies in a given population over a period of time. Mutation is a weak force for changing allele frequencies, but is a strong force for introducing new alleles (“Mutation,” 2014). Mutation plays an important role in evolution. The ultimate source of all genetic variation is mutation (“Mutation,” 2014). Mutation is important as the tires step tot evolution because it creates a new A sequence tort a particular gene, creating a new allele (“Mutation,” 2014).

Recombination also can create a new DNA sequence (a new allele) for a specific gene through antigenic recombination (“Mutation,” 2014). Mutation acting as an evolutionary force by itself has the potential to cause significant changes in allele frequencies over very long periods of time (“Mutation,” 2014). But if mutation were the only force acting on pathogen populations, then evolution would occur at a rate that we could not observe (“Mutation,” 2014). 1 1 .

Discuss/Explain, “in details,” the possible effects of any two (2) variables on the gene frequencies of a given population over a period of time. Genetic Drift: Allele frequencies in small populations do not generally reflect those of larger populations since too small of a set of individuals cannot represent all of the alleles for the entire population (“Genetic drift and,” 2007). Genetic drift occurs when the population size is limited and therefore by chance, certain alleles increase or decrease in frequency.

This can result in a shift away from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HEW) (“Genetic drift and,” 2007). Natural Selection: Although population genetics by itself is important, one of the objectives of this field is to assess how changes in allele frequencies affect the evolution of a population (“Genetic drift and,” 2007). Over time, faced with new environments and habitats, populations of species acquired modifications, which allowed them to better adapt to their environment (“Genetic drift and,” 2007).

Darwin termed these changes within populations, natural selection, and he proposed the idea of “survival of the fittest (“Genetic drift and,” 2007). ” Individual variations which proved beneficial would be reserved within a population, whereas variations that were lethal to the organism would be destroyed (“Genetic drift and,” 2007). Under natural selection, some individuals in a population have modifications that allow them to more successfully survive and reproduce, making their adaptations more common as a whole due to their increased reproductive success (“Genetic drift and,” 2007).

Over a long period of time, this change in the characteristics of a population can lead to the production of a new species (“Genetic drift and,” 2007). 12. Discuss/Explain, “in details,” the possible extension of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to sociological, economic or other issues of society. Natural populations rarely meet all of these conditions (“Population,” 2014). Large populations rarely occur in isolation, all populations experience some degree of random mutation, mating is seldom random, but rather is the result of careful selection of mates (“Population,” 2014).

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