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Collateral ganglia flash card

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    Sympathetic
    Short preganglionic, long postganglionic fibers.
    Sympathetic
    Collateral ganglia.
    Sympathetic
    Increases blood pressure.
    Parasympathetic
    Decreases heart rate.
    Parasympathetic
    Causes erection of the penis.
    Parasympathetic
    Stimulates ciliary muscles of the eye.
    Parasympathetic
    Active after you have eaten a meal.
    Acetylcholine (ACh)
    Preganglionic sympathetic.
    Acetylcholine (ACh)
    Preganglionic parasympathetic.
    Acetylcholine (ACh)
    Postganglionic sympathetic to sweat glands.
    Acetylcholine (ACh)
    Postganglionic sympathetic to sweat glands.
    Norepinephrine (NE)
    Most postganglionic sympathetic.
    FALSE
    Since the ANS is a visceral motor system, afferent pathways are of no importance and actually are rarely found.
    TRUE
    The rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic division of the ANS.
    FALSE
    The gray rami communicantes consist of myelinated postganglionic fibers.
    FALSE
    Splanchnic nerves are mixed motor and sensory nerves.
    TRUE
    The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected.
    TRUE
    The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the sympathetic division.
    TRUE
    The sympathetic chain is composed of collateral ganglia.
    TRUE
    Thermoregulatory responses to increased heat are mediated by the sympathetic nervous division.
    TRUE
    Most disorders of the autonomic nervous system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control.
    TRUE
    Alpha-adrenergic effects are usually stimulatory and mediatory.
    TRUE
    The adrenal medulla is considered a ʺmisplacedʺ sympathetic ganglion by some.
    TRUE
    Acetylcholine is the substance released by the axonal endings of the somatic efferent fibers and by the parasympathetic nerve fiber endings.
    FALSE
    Most body organs are innervated by only the sympathetic division of the nervous system.
    TRUE
    Through direct neural stimulation, the sympathetic division promotes many metabolic effects via hormone release.
    FALSE
    Cranial nerves VII, IX, and X contain postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system.
    FALSE
    In contrast to the parasympathetic division, the sympathetic division has numerous ganglionic neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord.
    FALSE
    Norepinephrine-releasing fibers are called cholinergic fibers.
    FALSE
    The parasympathetic division is a branch of the somatic nervous system.
    TRUE
    The craniosacral division is the same as the parasympathetic division.
    FALSE
    The chain ganglion, like the dorsal root ganglion, contains soma from sensory neurons.
    TRUE
    Most blood vessels are innervated by the sympathetic division alone.
    FALSE
    The blood vessels of the skin are one of the few areas of the body where the vessels are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
    TRUE
    Events recorded in a lie detector examination are controlled by the sympathetic division.
    FALSE
    All splanchnic nerves are sympathetic.
    TRUE
    Splanchnic nerves pass through the abdominal aortic plexus.
    TRUE
    The structures that specifically exhibit vasomotor tone are mostly under sympathetic control.
    FALSE
    Since many of the same cardiac cells are innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers, the influence of the two divisions on the heart is synergistic.
    FALSE
    β-adrenergic receptors are the only receptors found on the heart.
    TRUE
    Autonomic reflex centers occur in the spinal cord, medulla, and midbrain.
    sympathetic stimulation
    The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.
    has two efferent neurons
    In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system ________.
    sympathetic nervous system
    Preparing the body for the ʺfight-or-flightʺ response is the role of the ________.
    organs and by short postganglionic fibers
    The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by peripheral ganglia near the ________.
    a beta-blocker
    A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be ________.
    ciliary ganglion
    The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.
    dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
    Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.
    X
    Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
    parasympathetic division
    The ʺresting and digestingʺ division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
    hypothalamus
    Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.
    skeletal muscle
    Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
    dilation of the pupils
    Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
    brain stem and the sacral region of the cord
    The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the ________.
    single preganglionic axons make multiple synapses with ganglionic neurons
    Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
    first thoracic
    Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebrae?
    the cell bodies of motor neurons
    Autonomic ganglia contain ________.
    oculomotor
    The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the lens of the eye, the muscles that cause the eye to bulge to accommodate close vision.
    splanchnic nerves
    Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called ________.
    celiac
    Which is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?
    visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
    Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.
    determines normal activity of the urinary tract
    The parasympathetic tone ________.
    is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem
    The autonomic nervous system ________.
    carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
    The white rami ________.
    attach mainly to the β1 receptors of cardiac muscle
    Beta-blockers ________.
    is primarily under parasympathetic control
    Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.
    regulation of body temperature
    Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
    is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
    Raynaudʹs disease ________.
    represents a return of reflex activity with no controls from higher centers
    The mass reflex reaction ________.
    the distal portion of the large intestine fails to develop parasympathetic innervation
    In congenital megacolon (Hirschsprungʹs disease) ________.
    clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
    In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.
    thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine
    Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the ________.
    in the armpit
    Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
    increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
    Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.
    tenth cranial nerve
    The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.
    vagus nerve
    The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is the ________.
    constriction of bronchioles
    Parasympathetic functions include ________.
    the same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons
    All preganglionic axons of the autonomic nervous system release ________.
    hypothalamus
    Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.
    biofeedback
    The possibility of control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.
    parotid gland
    The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.
    fight-or-flight
    The sympathetic division is referred to as the ________ system.
    alpha; beta
    Two major classes of adrenergic receptors, ________ and ________ are found in the ANS.
    parasympathetic
    The ________ division causes erection of the penis and clitoris.
    sympathetic
    Sweat glands are innervated by the ________ fibers alone.
    parasympathetic
    The ________ division alone stimulates the lens of the eye.
    nicotinic; muscarinic
    The two cholinergic receptor types are ________ and ________.
    β1
    The ________ receptor type is used by the heart, and when activated increases heart rate.
    greater
    The only sympathetic preganglionic neuron to go directly to an organ is one branch of the ________ splanchnic nerve.
    neck
    Pain from the diaphragm will be referred to the anterior cutaneous area of the ________.
    acetylcholine
    The parasympathetic division uses only ________ as a neurotransmitter in the ganglionic neurons.
    1. The autonomic is a two-neuron system; the somatic uses one.
    2. The autonomic uses smaller neuron fibers (type B or C); the somatic generally uses the type A fibers.
    3. The autonomic is mostly involuntary and automatic; the somatic is voluntary.
    4. The autonomic uses several neurotransmitters and many receptor types; the somatic uses only one.
    5. The autonomic is a slow system; the somatic is a fast system.
    6. The autonomic has opposing forces to regulate the body; the somatic does not.
    In what ways are the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system different?
    Prior to and during intercourse the parasympathetic system causes erection in the male penis and female clitoris. During the climax the sympathetic system causes ejaculation of semen by the penis and reflex peristalsis of the vagina.
    Discuss a way in which the opposing ANS systems cooperate with each other.

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