Short preganglionic, long postganglionic fibers.
Increases blood pressure.
Decreases heart rate.
Causes erection of the penis.
Stimulates ciliary muscles of the eye.
Active after you have eaten a meal.
Postganglionic sympathetic to sweat glands.
Postganglionic sympathetic to sweat glands.
Most postganglionic sympathetic.
Since the ANS is a visceral motor system, afferent pathways are of no importance and actually are rarely found.
The rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic division of the ANS.
The gray rami communicantes consist of myelinated postganglionic fibers.
Splanchnic nerves are mixed motor and sensory nerves.
The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected.
The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the sympathetic division.
The sympathetic chain is composed of collateral ganglia.
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Thermoregulatory responses to increased heat are mediated by the sympathetic nervous division.
Most disorders of the autonomic nervous system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control.
Alpha-adrenergic effects are usually stimulatory and mediatory.
The adrenal medulla is considered a ʺmisplacedʺ sympathetic ganglion by some.
Acetylcholine is the substance released by the axonal endings of the somatic efferent fibers and by the parasympathetic nerve fiber endings.
Most body organs are innervated by only the sympathetic division of the nervous system.
Through direct neural stimulation, the sympathetic division promotes many metabolic effects via hormone release.
Cranial nerves VII, IX, and X contain postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system.
In contrast to the parasympathetic division, the sympathetic division has numerous ganglionic neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord.
Norepinephrine-releasing fibers are called cholinergic fibers.
The parasympathetic division is a branch of the somatic nervous system.
The craniosacral division is the same as the parasympathetic division.
The chain ganglion, like the dorsal root ganglion, contains soma from sensory neurons.
Most blood vessels are innervated by the sympathetic division alone.
The blood vessels of the skin are one of the few areas of the body where the vessels are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
Events recorded in a lie detector examination are controlled by the sympathetic division.
All splanchnic nerves are sympathetic.
Splanchnic nerves pass through the abdominal aortic plexus.
The structures that specifically exhibit vasomotor tone are mostly under sympathetic control.
Since many of the same cardiac cells are innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers, the influence of the two divisions on the heart is synergistic.
β-adrenergic receptors are the only receptors found on the heart.
Autonomic reflex centers occur in the spinal cord, medulla, and midbrain.
The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.
has two efferent neurons
In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system ________.
sympathetic nervous system
Preparing the body for the ʺfight-or-flightʺ response is the role of the ________.
organs and by short postganglionic fibers
The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by peripheral ganglia near the ________.
A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be ________.
The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.
dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.
Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
The ʺresting and digestingʺ division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.
Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
dilation of the pupils
Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
brain stem and the sacral region of the cord
The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the ________.
single preganglionic axons make multiple synapses with ganglionic neurons
Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebrae?
the cell bodies of motor neurons
Autonomic ganglia contain ________.
The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the lens of the eye, the muscles that cause the eye to bulge to accommodate close vision.
Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called ________.
Which is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?
visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.
determines normal activity of the urinary tract
The parasympathetic tone ________.
is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem
The autonomic nervous system ________.
carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
The white rami ________.
attach mainly to the β1 receptors of cardiac muscle
is primarily under parasympathetic control
Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.
regulation of body temperature
Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
Raynaudʹs disease ________.
represents a return of reflex activity with no controls from higher centers
The mass reflex reaction ________.
the distal portion of the large intestine fails to develop parasympathetic innervation
In congenital megacolon (Hirschsprungʹs disease) ________.
clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.
thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine
Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the ________.
in the armpit
Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.
tenth cranial nerve
The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is the ________.
constriction of bronchioles
Parasympathetic functions include ________.
the same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons
All preganglionic axons of the autonomic nervous system release ________.
Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.
The possibility of control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.
The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.
The sympathetic division is referred to as the ________ system.
Two major classes of adrenergic receptors, ________ and ________ are found in the ANS.
The ________ division causes erection of the penis and clitoris.
Sweat glands are innervated by the ________ fibers alone.
The ________ division alone stimulates the lens of the eye.
The two cholinergic receptor types are ________ and ________.
The ________ receptor type is used by the heart, and when activated increases heart rate.
The only sympathetic preganglionic neuron to go directly to an organ is one branch of the ________ splanchnic nerve.
Pain from the diaphragm will be referred to the anterior cutaneous area of the ________.
The parasympathetic division uses only ________ as a neurotransmitter in the ganglionic neurons.
1. The autonomic is a two-neuron system; the somatic uses one.
2. The autonomic uses smaller neuron fibers (type B or C); the somatic generally uses the type A fibers.
3. The autonomic is mostly involuntary and automatic; the somatic is voluntary.
4. The autonomic uses several neurotransmitters and many receptor types; the somatic uses only one.
5. The autonomic is a slow system; the somatic is a fast system.
6. The autonomic has opposing forces to regulate the body; the somatic does not.
In what ways are the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system different?
Prior to and during intercourse the parasympathetic system causes erection in the male penis and female clitoris. During the climax the sympathetic system causes ejaculation of semen by the penis and reflex peristalsis of the vagina.
Discuss a way in which the opposing ANS systems cooperate with each other.