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Collateral ganglia flash card

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Sympathetic
Short preganglionic, long postganglionic fibers.
Sympathetic
Collateral ganglia.
Sympathetic
Increases blood pressure.
Parasympathetic
Decreases heart rate.
Parasympathetic
Causes erection of the penis.
Parasympathetic
Stimulates ciliary muscles of the eye.
Parasympathetic
Active after you have eaten a meal.
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Preganglionic sympathetic.
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Preganglionic parasympathetic.
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Postganglionic sympathetic to sweat glands.
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Postganglionic sympathetic to sweat glands.
Norepinephrine (NE)
Most postganglionic sympathetic.
FALSE
Since the ANS is a visceral motor system, afferent pathways are of no importance and actually are rarely found.

TRUE
The rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic division of the ANS.
FALSE
The gray rami communicantes consist of myelinated postganglionic fibers.
FALSE
Splanchnic nerves are mixed motor and sensory nerves.
TRUE
The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected.
TRUE
The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the sympathetic division.
TRUE
The sympathetic chain is composed of collateral ganglia.
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TRUE
Thermoregulatory responses to increased heat are mediated by the sympathetic nervous division.
TRUE
Most disorders of the autonomic nervous system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control.
TRUE
Alpha-adrenergic effects are usually stimulatory and mediatory.
TRUE
The adrenal medulla is considered a ʺmisplacedʺ sympathetic ganglion by some.
TRUE
Acetylcholine is the substance released by the axonal endings of the somatic efferent fibers and by the parasympathetic nerve fiber endings.
FALSE
Most body organs are innervated by only the sympathetic division of the nervous system.
TRUE
Through direct neural stimulation, the sympathetic division promotes many metabolic effects via hormone release.
FALSE
Cranial nerves VII, IX, and X contain postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system.
FALSE
In contrast to the parasympathetic division, the sympathetic division has numerous ganglionic neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord.
FALSE
Norepinephrine-releasing fibers are called cholinergic fibers.
FALSE
The parasympathetic division is a branch of the somatic nervous system.
TRUE
The craniosacral division is the same as the parasympathetic division.
FALSE
The chain ganglion, like the dorsal root ganglion, contains soma from sensory neurons.
TRUE
Most blood vessels are innervated by the sympathetic division alone.
FALSE
The blood vessels of the skin are one of the few areas of the body where the vessels are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
TRUE
Events recorded in a lie detector examination are controlled by the sympathetic division.
FALSE
All splanchnic nerves are sympathetic.
TRUE
Splanchnic nerves pass through the abdominal aortic plexus.
TRUE
The structures that specifically exhibit vasomotor tone are mostly under sympathetic control.
FALSE
Since many of the same cardiac cells are innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers, the influence of the two divisions on the heart is synergistic.
FALSE
β-adrenergic receptors are the only receptors found on the heart.
TRUE
Autonomic reflex centers occur in the spinal cord, medulla, and midbrain.
sympathetic stimulation
The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.
has two efferent neurons
In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system ________.
sympathetic nervous system
Preparing the body for the ʺfight-or-flightʺ response is the role of the ________.
organs and by short postganglionic fibers
The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by peripheral ganglia near the ________.
a beta-blocker
A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be ________.
ciliary ganglion
The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.
dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.
X
Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
parasympathetic division
The ʺresting and digestingʺ division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
hypothalamus
Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.
skeletal muscle
Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
dilation of the pupils
Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
brain stem and the sacral region of the cord
The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the ________.
single preganglionic axons make multiple synapses with ganglionic neurons
Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
first thoracic
Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebrae?
the cell bodies of motor neurons
Autonomic ganglia contain ________.
oculomotor
The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the lens of the eye, the muscles that cause the eye to bulge to accommodate close vision.
splanchnic nerves
Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called ________.
celiac
Which is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?
visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.
determines normal activity of the urinary tract
The parasympathetic tone ________.
is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem
The autonomic nervous system ________.
carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
The white rami ________.
attach mainly to the β1 receptors of cardiac muscle
Beta-blockers ________.
is primarily under parasympathetic control
Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.
regulation of body temperature
Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
Raynaudʹs disease ________.
represents a return of reflex activity with no controls from higher centers
The mass reflex reaction ________.
the distal portion of the large intestine fails to develop parasympathetic innervation
In congenital megacolon (Hirschsprungʹs disease) ________.
clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.
thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine
Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the ________.
in the armpit
Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.
tenth cranial nerve
The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.
vagus nerve
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is the ________.
constriction of bronchioles
Parasympathetic functions include ________.
the same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons
All preganglionic axons of the autonomic nervous system release ________.
hypothalamus
Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.
biofeedback
The possibility of control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.
parotid gland
The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.
fight-or-flight
The sympathetic division is referred to as the ________ system.
alpha; beta
Two major classes of adrenergic receptors, ________ and ________ are found in the ANS.
parasympathetic
The ________ division causes erection of the penis and clitoris.
sympathetic
Sweat glands are innervated by the ________ fibers alone.
parasympathetic
The ________ division alone stimulates the lens of the eye.
nicotinic; muscarinic
The two cholinergic receptor types are ________ and ________.
β1
The ________ receptor type is used by the heart, and when activated increases heart rate.
greater
The only sympathetic preganglionic neuron to go directly to an organ is one branch of the ________ splanchnic nerve.
neck
Pain from the diaphragm will be referred to the anterior cutaneous area of the ________.
acetylcholine
The parasympathetic division uses only ________ as a neurotransmitter in the ganglionic neurons.
1. The autonomic is a two-neuron system; the somatic uses one.
2. The autonomic uses smaller neuron fibers (type B or C); the somatic generally uses the type A fibers.
3. The autonomic is mostly involuntary and automatic; the somatic is voluntary.
4. The autonomic uses several neurotransmitters and many receptor types; the somatic uses only one.
5. The autonomic is a slow system; the somatic is a fast system.
6. The autonomic has opposing forces to regulate the body; the somatic does not.
In what ways are the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system different?
Prior to and during intercourse the parasympathetic system causes erection in the male penis and female clitoris. During the climax the sympathetic system causes ejaculation of semen by the penis and reflex peristalsis of the vagina.
Discuss a way in which the opposing ANS systems cooperate with each other.

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Collateral ganglia flash card. (2017, Dec 22). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/chapter-14-9-essay/

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