Currently covered by forest flash card

Table of Content
________% of Earth’s land area is currently covered by forest.
Most commercial logging today takes place in ________.
Canada, Russia, and Brazil
Forests reach their greatest ecological complexity when ________.
they are mature and exhibit a multi-level canopy
Most of the world’s forests are __________.
boreal forests
What is the process in which forest plants release water back into the atmosphere?
Which of the following types of organisms would most likely be found in the understory of a forest?
small trees, mosses, and epiphytes
________ are replacing primary forests in much of southeast Asia.
Oil palm plantations
Concessions granted by developing nations allow ________.
timber extraction by foreign multinational corporations
Why do developing nations impose few or no restrictions on logging?
They are desperate for economic development.
The UNFAO has demonstrated that forest loss has slowed but ________.
we still lose forests at the rate of 5.2 million ha/yr
Second-growth forests ________.
are forests that establish themselves after virgin timber has been removed from an area
With very few exceptions, what sort of forest is in the United States?
secondary forests
A fire hits an old forest with large, old trees. A large section of the forest is burnt down. Over many years, new, immature trees replace the old ones. How can the new area be characterized?
It is a secondary forest.
Currently, what sorts of forests are being lost more rapidly than others?
tropical rainforests

Use the figure above to answer the following question.

The arrow at the top right of the graph represents the ________.

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equilibrium point where births in the population equal deaths
Most forest resource managers aim to maintain resource populations ________ of the pictured curve.
in the middle

Use the figure above to answer the following question.

Many forest resource managers aim to maintain resource populations at the position named in the question above because it ________.

delivers the maximum sustainable timber yield
Fire history in an open pine woodland ecosystem would be best determined by ________.
tree ring scars
Clear-cutting ________.
removes all trees from an area
Ecosystem-based timber harvesting uses methods that ________.
leave seed-producing or mature trees uncut to provide for future forests
The National Forest Management Act ________ national forest land.
was passed in 1976 with the intent to ensure multiple use and sustainable yield of
Prescribed burns would be used in forests ________.
that are subject to severe wild fires to remove fuel load and stimulate new growth
How has the “Smokey the Bear” campaign damaged forest health?
It has allowed too few fires to burn in forests.
What would one call trees planted in a stand at the same time?
even aged
Which of the following harvesting methods is the most cost-efficient but has the greatest ecological impacts?
Which of the following phrases best describes the goals behind the resource management strategies?
sustainable use of natural resources
When will a population grow most rapidly?
when it is at 50% of carrying capacity
Which of the following management practices attempts to minimize ecological impact by allowing some trees in a forest to grow to maturity?
ecosystem-based management
Mr. Smith has been hired to manage a swath of land owned by a private company. His goal is to manage the forest in the most sustainable way while still using the land and making a profit. At first, he manages the land using the concept of maximum sustainable yield. After a few years he realizes that ecosystem-based management is more appropriate for this particular swath of land. Mr. Smith is using __________.
adaptive management
How do resource managers achieve maximum sustainable yield?
They keep the population at 50% of the carrying capacity, thus maximizing the growth rate.
The first national park was ________.
Land trusts are ________.
private nonprofit groups
Wilderness areas ________.
are off-limits to development of any kind but are open to low-impact recreation
Paper parks are ________.
areas protected on paper but not in reality due to lack of funding
“Edge effects” are a particular problem when ________.
formerly large habitats are reduced to small fragments

Read the following scenario and answer the question(s) below.

There are groups of tropical birds, such as trogons and parrots that are usually considered to live in Central America and the mountains of southern and central Mexico. Small populations of these birds migrate into the United States each year. It is probably true that ________.

more of these birds are found in the mountains of New Mexico and Arizona than in the mountains of Colorado, Utah, or Nevada

Read the following scenario and answer the question(s) below.

The tendency of humans to want to live in these Sky Islands, visit them for recreation, and use them for lumber or for wood pulp, causes ________.

increased habitat fragmentation and alteration

Read the following scenario and answer the question(s) below.

If the Sky Islands become warmer and drier, the species that live at lower elevation will ________.

become extinct

Read the following scenario and answer the question(s) below.

If the Sky Islands become rapidly warmer and drier, the endemic species there will ________.

probably suffer a high extinction rate
Approximately what areal percentage of the world’s lands are designated as parks, reserves, and protected areas?
Which of the following statements is true regarding the area effect?
Large islands contain more species than do smaller islands.
Why do urbanized societies need stretches of uninhabited and undeveloped land?
Uninhabited and undeveloped lands provide natural resources that, in turn, provide the ecosystem services and the psychological relief needed to support urban populations.
What is the difference between biosphere reserves and other protected areas?
Local people are allowed to live in and harvest resources from the outer areas of the reserve.
This is the U.S. government designation that provides the most protection from human damage to a public area.
wilderness area
According to the island biogeography theory, given islands of the same size, which would host the greatest amount of biodiversity?
an island just off the mainland
What challenge does the concept of SLOSS represent?
whether to make a few large reserves or many small reserves
What sorts of limitations are placed upon national wildlife refuges?
The refuges are open for hunting, fishing, education, and other public uses.
What are corridors?
protected lands that allow animals to travel between islands of habitat
What percent of the world’s oceans are in protected areas or reserves?

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