Chapter 14

Education
A formal process of of learning in which some people consciously teach, while others adopt the social role of the learner.
Complex social institution that formally socializes nearly all members of our society.
Latent Function is serving as an agent of social change. Meeting social and recreational needs of students.
Credentialism
An increase in the lowest level of education needed to enter a field.
Hidden Curriculum
Standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in schools.
Habitual obedience to authority.
Children must not speak until they are called upon, and have all regulated activities by a bell.
You are expected to concentrate on their own work rather than help those who learn at a slower pace.
Correspondence principle
The tendency of schools to promote the values expected of individuals in each social class and to perpetuate social class division from one generation to the next.
Working class children are destined for subordinate positions and are pushed into vocational schools and general eduction tracks.
Affluent Class children are pushed toward college career tracks which stress leadership and decision making processes.
Tracking
The practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of their tests scores and other criteria.
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Teacher-expectancy effect
The impact that a teachers expectations about a students performance may have on the students actual achievements.
Predominant in lower grades specifically 3rd grade.
Charter School
An experimental school that is developed and managed by individuals, groups of parents, or an educational management organization.
Functionalist Perspective
Education has manifest and latent functions.
Basic manifest function of education is the transfer of knowledge and the bestowal of status.
Teaching students to read and write, speak foreign languages.
Latent Functions such as transmitting culture, promoting social and political integration, and serving as an agent of change.
Portrays contemporary education as a basically benign institution.
Schools rationally select and sort students foe future high status positions, meeting societies need for talented and expert personnel.
Education performs the important function of bestowing power and beneficial to the person and society as a whole.

Transmission of the dominant culture.
Integration of society.
Promotion of social norms, values, and sanctions.
Promotion of desirable social change.

Takes a positive view of the bureaucratization of education.
Stress education increases the likelihood of fair treatment later down the line.

Conflict Perspective
views education as an instrument of elite domination.
point out sharp inequalities that exist in the educational opportunities available to different racial and ethnic groups.
Argues the educational system socializes students into values dictated by the powerful,schools stifle individualism and creativity in the name of maintaining order, and the level of change they promote is relatively insignificant.

credentialism reinforces social inequality.
Education performs the important function of bestowing power.
Stress school sort pupils according to their social class background.
Educational inequalities produced by tracking are designed to meet the needs of modern capitalist societies.

Hidden curriculum.
Credentialism.
Bestowal of status.
Domination by the elite through unequal access to schooling.

The trend toward more centralized education has harmful consequences for disadvantaged people.
Low income minority parents will have even less influence over city wide and state wide educational administrators vs. local school officials.

Feminist Perspective
Educating women yields high social returns by lowering the birth rates and improving agricultural productivity through better management.
Educational system of the USA has been characterized as being discriminatory in the treatment against women.
Treatment of female students.
Role of women’s education in economic development.
Interactionist perspective
Teacher-expectancy effect.
High school students know who they are.
use the labeling process.
Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis
argued that capitalism requires a skilled, disciplined labor force, and that the educational system of the USA is structured with that objective in mind.
Oberlin College
1833 first institution of higher learning to admit women.
Oberlin believed women should become wives and mothers versus becoming doctors or lawyers. They also had to wash the mens clothes, cared for the mens rooms, and served the mens meals.
Lucy stone refused to write a commencement address cos the college was going to have a man read it.
Max Weber pg 366
5 characteristics of Bureaucracy
1-Division of Labor
2-Hierarchy of Authority
3-Written rules and Regulations
4-Impersonality
5-Employment Based on Technical qualifications
Clark, Trow, Horowitz
4 subcultures among college students.
1-Colligate subculture-
focus on having fun and socializing. little commitment to academic pursuits. Athletes often fit this subculture.
2-Academic Subculture-
identifies with the intellectual concerns of the faculty and values knowledge for its own sake.
3-Vocational Subculture-
interested primarily in career prospects and views college as a means of obtaining a degree for means of advancement.
4-Nonconformist Subculture-
Hostile to the college environment, and seeks ideas not related to academics. Uses campus publications or issue-oriented groups as an outlet.
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