Criminal Justice - Part 4

As for Plato, Aristotle’s metaphysics and epistemology are closely bound together - Criminal Justice introduction. The nature of what we know is tightly bound up with what it is we know. Like Plato, Aristotle takes his cue from language, though, again like Plato, the objects of his enquiry are not linguistic items, but ontological ones. The classification of categories is of things, not terms. metaphysics is not interested so much in making a huge list of things, but in describing what kinds of things there are and how those kinds are related to one another.

Plato and other ancient philosophers divide philosophy into three parts: Ethics, Epistemology and Metaphysics. While generally accurate and certainly useful for pedagogical purposes, no rigid boundary separates the parts. Ethics, for example, concerns how one ought to live and focuses on pleasure, virtue, and happiness. Since, according to Plato (and Socrates), virtue and happiness require knowledge, e. g. , knowledge of goods and evils, Plato’s ethics is inseparable from his epistemology. Epistemology is, broadly speaking, the study of what knowledge is and how one comes to have knowledge.

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Among the many topics included in epistemology are logic, belief, perception, language, science, and knowledge. (‘Science’ derives from the Latin ‘scientia’, which in turn translates the Greek ‘episteme’, from which English derives ‘epistemology’. ) Integral to all of these notions is that they (typically) are directed at something. Metaphysics, or alternatively ontology, is that branch of philosophy whose special concern is to answer the question ‘What is there? ’ These expressions derive from Aristotle, Plato’s student.

In 250 to 500 words, briefly describe the metaphysics or epistemology of one of the Hellenistic, medieval, or early modern thinkers Ancient philosophy is the philosophy of the Graeco-Roman world from the 6th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is usually divided into three periods: the pre-Socratic period, the period of Plato and Aristotle, and the post-Aristotelian or Hellenistic period. A fourth period that is sometimes added includes the Neoplatonic and Christian philosophers of Late Antiquity. The most important of the ancient philosophers in terms of subsequent influence are Plato and Aristotle.

Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Western Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages, roughly extending from the Christianization of the Roman Empire until the Renaissance. Medieval philosophy is defined partly by the rediscovery and further development of classical Greek and Hellenistic philosophy, and partly by the need to address theological problems and to integrate the then widespread sacred doctrines of Abrahamic religion in the form of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity with secular learning.

The history of European medieval philosophy is traditionally divided into two main periods: the period in the Latin West following the Early Middle Ages until the 12th century, when the works of Aristotle and Plato were preserved and cultivated; and the “golden age” of the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries in the Latin West, which witnessed the culmination of the recovery of ancient philosophy, and significant developments in the field of philosophy of religion, logic and metaphysics.

The medieval era was disparagingly treated by the Renaissance humanists, who saw it as a barbaric “middle” period between the classical age of Greek and Roman culture, and the “rebirth” or renaissance of classical culture. Yet this period of nearly a thousand years was the longest period of philosophical development in Europe, and possibly the richest. Jorge Gracia has argued that “in intensity, sophistication, and achievement, the philosophical flowering in the thirteenth century could be rightly said to rival the golden age of Greek philosophy in the fourth century BC Some roblems discussed throughout this period are the relation of faith to reason, the existence and unity of God, the object of theology and metaphysics, the problems of knowledge, of universals, and of individuation. In a 250 to 500 words, compare the similarities and differences between the ancient and the Hellenistic, medieval, and early modern theories. Discuss the influence these theories have on current-day thought regarding metaphysics or epistemology. These are all really nothing more than convenient labels for different periods.

Ancient history is roughly from the earliest recorded events with BC–“Before Christ”– or BCE–“Before Common Era” –and a descending numbering system–300 BC is before 200 BC– until approximately the birth of Jesus Christ, after which the numbering of years in the West is sequential, followed with AD or CE in some cases, to distinguish years with the same number) to around the fifth century of the AD Year of the Lord or Common Era. The medieval period is usually considered to be from the sixth to about the sixteenth century, and from the seventeenth on is pretty much modern history.

The thing is, history is actually living and vibrant–and doesn’t necessarily allow itself to be rigidly categorized. After all, the people who lived in the three periods mentioned all thought that THEY were in the MODERN period. I can just hear some Babylonian teen saying something like, Dad, come on! This isn’t the reign of Nebuchadnezzar! We’re in the fifth year of Xerxes! Or, perhaps in China, someone observing to his friend, “Oh, that went out with the Ch’in Dynasty! Even the medieval period is sometimes broken down into the so-called Dark Ages, High Middle Ages, and Renaissance, so you see the labels can easily be blurred.

Three predecessors heavily influenced Plato’s thoughts on metaphysics and epistemology, Heraclitus c. 540 B. C. -480-70, Parmenides c. 515 B. C. -449-40, and Socrates 470 B. C. -399. Only fragments remain of the writings of Parmenides and Heraclitus, including some contained in the dialogues of Plato. Socrates wrote nothing.

http://facultystaff. vwc. edu/~rwoods/docs/catdefinition.

http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/plato-metaphysics/

http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Philosophy

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