We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

See Pricing

What's Your Topic?

Hire a Professional Writer Now

The input space is limited by 250 symbols

What's Your Deadline?

Choose 3 Hours or More.
2/4 steps

How Many Pages?

3/4 steps

Sign Up and See Pricing

"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Get Offer

Different Phases Of Normal Menstrual Cycle Biology

Hire a Professional Writer Now

The input space is limited by 250 symbols

Deadline:2 days left
"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Write my paper

The step of reaction clip has been used to measure the treating velocity of CNS and the coordination between sensory and motor system. Estrogen and Lipo-Lutin can change neural operation. This survey was taken up to find any changes in simple reaction clip during different stages of normal menses. In our survey we included 100 female first twelvemonth medical and dental pupils with normal menses history. The topic ‘s ocular reaction clip was measured in all the stages of menses. The consequences were expressed as mean and standard divergence.

Student ‘s mated ‘t ‘ trial was used for statistical analysis. Each stage was compared with matching next stages and the simple ocular reaction clip was found to be significantly increased ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) in both premenstrual stage and on the expected twenty-four hours of ovulation. Hence the altered degrees of endocrines during catamenial rhythm affect the coordination between sensory and motor system.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Different Phases Of Normal Menstrual Cycle Biology
Just from $13,9/Page
Get custom paper

Cardinal words: Hormones, Menstrual rhythm, Premenstrual stage, Simple reaction clip


The simple reaction clip is the clip interval between the application of a stimulation and the visual aspect of appropriate voluntary response by a topic ( 1 ) .

It involves stimulus processing, determination devising and response scheduling. Chemical reaction clip is found to be altered by a figure of factors both physiological and pharmacological ( 2 ) . The processing and motor velocities are dependent on intellectual dopaminergic systems. The neuroscience surveies have shown that estrogen influences the release of Dopastat in the nigro-striatal tract. Ovarian endocrines have widespread effects throughout the encephalon, including mesencephalon serotonergic tracts and cholinergic tracts. The serotonergic system ordinance is supposed to be linked to the presence of estrogen and progestogen sensitive nerve cells in the mesencephalon rhaphe. The ovarian endocrines influence upon cholinergic map, which involves initiation of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase harmonizing to a sexually dimorphous form. Because of the widespread influences of these assorted neural systems, it is non surprising that ovarian steroids have mensurable effects on knowledge that are apparent after ovariectomy and during aging ( 3 ) . The high-estrogen stages of the catamenial rhythm were found to be associated with enhanced left-hemisphere processing and low-estrogen stages were associated with better right-hemisphere processing ( 4 ) . Gonadal steroids non merely have generative maps but besides display neuroactive effects. These are thought to be responsible for alterations in temper and knowledge over the class of the catamenial rhythm, during gestation, and after climacteric ( 5, 6, 7 ) . During menstruations, degrees of estradiol and Lipo-Lutin are low, the follicular stage is characterized by high estradiol degrees, while during the luteal stage, concentrations of both endocrines are high ( 8, 9 ) .

The catamenial rhythm has changing degrees of endocrines, so it is hypothesized that reaction clip alters during normal catamenial rhythm. Our survey is an attempt to find whether there is any change of simple ocular reaction clip [ VRT ] during the normal catamenial rhythm.


Our survey was conducted in the section of Physiology, M.R. Medical College Gulbarga in the twelvemonth 2011 after obtaining permission from the Institutional Ethical Committee. The survey involved 100 female first twelvemonth medical and dental pupils within age group of 17-20 old ages. Merely girls with history of regular catamenial rhythm of 28-30 yearss continuance for at least last six months and with normal vision were selected.

Male topics and female topics with colour sightlessness, ocular defects, irregular menstruations, gynaecological jobs, Premenstrual Syndrome, any hormonal intervention, other medicine, sleep upsets and manus malformations were screened and excluded from the survey. All topics were instructed to daily chart their basal organic structure temperature during the full survey period.

The reaction clip setup is a portable research reaction timer with 2 response picks bought from Anand bureaus, Pune-2, which can mensurate VRT. The specifications of the reaction timer include an built-in 4 figures chronoscope with least count of 1/1000 seconds and works on 230 Vs AC.

The trials were carried out in lighted and good ventilated room in sitting position between 10:00 am to 12:00 autopsy. All the topics were exhaustively acquainted with setup and 3 readings were taken after pattern and tests for Red and Green colour for ocular reaction clip.

The topics were cognizant about the type of stimulation being presented and they were asked to press the response button with index finger of their dominant manus and respond instantly on seeing the light stimulation by taking the finger from button on topic ‘s panel. Chemical reaction clip was read straight from digital show. The reaction clip was recorded on:

1-2 yearss prior to the expected day of the month of menses [ premenstrual stage ] .

1-3 yearss of menses [ catamenial stage ] .

Middle of proliferative stage ( 10th – 12th twenty-four hours ) .

On the expected twenty-four hours of ovulation ( BBT demoing rise ) [ ovulatory stage ] .

Middle of secretory stage ( 21st-23rd twenty-four hours ) .

The consequences were expressed as Mean±SD and the information was analyzed utilizing statistical trial named Student ‘s mated t-test for comparing of the agencies. ‘p ‘ value of less than 0.05 was considered important.


Table 1: – : General Characteristics of the survey topics.

parametric quantities

Study group

Age ( old ages )


Weight ( kilogram )


BMI ( kg/m2 )


Consequences are expressed as Mean ±SD.

Table I shows analyze group dwelling of 100 topics with average age18.04±1.01 old ages, age scope 17 -20 old ages, average weight 50.56±6.82kgs, weight scope between 38 -67kgs, and intend BMI 21.63±4.10kg/m2.

Table II: Ocular reaction clip ( VRT ) of topics in different stages of catamenial rhythm.

Phases of catamenial rhythm

Mean ±SD

( millisecond )

P value

Premenstrual stage



Menstrual stage



Mid-proliferative Phase



Ovulatory stage



Mid-secretory stage.



Consequences are expressed as Mean ±SD [ *

Table II shows that VRT was highest in pre-menstrual stage [ 233.37 millisecond ] and lowest in mid secretory stage [ 210.64 millisecond ] . There was a important addition in VRT during premenstrual stage as compared to that in the next stages i.e. catamenial stage ( P=0.048 ) and secretory stage ( P=0.010 ) . Besides in the ovulatory stage VRT increased significantly every bit compared to its next stages i.e. proliferative ( P=0.049 ) and secretory stage ( P=0.010 ) .


Chemical reaction clip indicates the clip interval between the oncoming of the stimulation and the induction of response under the status that, the topic has been instructed to react early and quickly. It evaluates the treating velocity of cardinal nervous system and the coordination between the sensory and motor systems ( 10 ) . Chemical reaction clip measures the latency in centripetal nervous codification which traverse peripheral and cardinal tracts, perceptive and cognitive processing, a motor signal tracking both cardinal and peripheral neural constructions and eventually the latency in the terminal effecter activation ( i.e. musculus activation ) ( 11 ) . So any alteration in reaction clip indicates presence of a peripheral and/ or cardinal perturbation.

Neurophysiologic surveies have shown that the encephalon parts involved in affectional province every bit good as knowledge are widely affected by ovarian endocrines ( 3 ) . The estrogen and Lipo-Lutin undergo cyclic alterations in a normal catamenial rhythm.

Proliferative stage has decrease production of Lipo-Lutin and gradual addition in estrogen. In ovulatory stage, there is exponential addition in estrogen degrees. After ovulation, Lipo-Lutin degrees besides begin to lift.

During secretory stage, estrogen and Lipo-Lutin are increased but Lipo-Lutin is increased more. In premenstrual stage both the endocrines lessening ( 12 ) . It is known that the hormonal alterations during catamenial rhythm have fluctuating degrees of estrogen and Lipo-Lutin that might impact the reaction clip.

Surveies of weight alterations and balances of Na, H2O and K across normal catamenial rhythm have shown happening of Na and H2O keeping in premenstrual stage ( 13 ) . Assorted mechanisms like Lipo-Lutin backdown, increased secernment of aldosterone and Anti Diuretic Hormone during premenstrual stage have been postulated to be responsible for these alterations ( 14 ) . This keeping of H2O and Na might act upon the procedure of axonal conductivity and handiness of neurotransmitter at synapses, ensuing in delayed conductivity and hence increased reaction clip in premenstrual stage ( 15 ) . Estrogen may heighten the repressive effects of GABA by exciting its secernment during estrogen extremum mid rhythm stage and thereby detaining conductivity.

Progesterone may do lessening in the sensitiveness of nerve cells and blunt the estrogen potentiated release of GABA ( 14, 16 ) . Thus it is in conformity with our present determination of important addition in VRT during ovulatory stage where estrogen concentration is highest ( 16 ) . This besides explains alterations in VRT during other stages of catamenial rhythm like mid secretory when altering degrees of estrogen and Lipo-Lutin are considered.

During high estradiol and Lipo-Lutin degrees, the nonvoluntary cortical rousing response to incoming stimulation is reduced. At times of low sex endocrine concentrations ( during menstruations ) , the mental categorization of aberrant stimulations appears to be faster whereas it was slower during the follicular and luteal stages. Besides no public presentation differences were observed across the catamenial rhythm. While this happening tantrums to the known repressive actions of Lipo-Lutin, it appears to be in contrast to the reported neuro-excitatory effects of estradiol as demonstrated in worlds with EMG and hence demands experimental reproduction ( 17, 18, and 19 ) .

We can reason that fluctuating degrees of estrogen and Lipo-Lutin during the normal catamenial rhythm influence ocular reaction clip which is an indirect step of sensory and motor association of an person. This fact can be taken into consideration in neurological and behavioural appraisal of adult females. Ours is a preliminary survey on a little figure of topics. Confirmation of its consequences by mensurating the hormonal degrees over the catamenial rhythm in big figure of topics is recommended in farther surveies.

Cite this Different Phases Of Normal Menstrual Cycle Biology

Different Phases Of Normal Menstrual Cycle Biology. (2017, Jul 16). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/different-phases-of-normal-menstrual-cycle-biology-essay/

Show less
  • Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay
  • Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself
  • Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay
  • Do not copy and paste free to download essays
Get plagiarism free essay

Search for essay samples now

Haven't found the Essay You Want?

Get my paper now

For Only $13.90/page