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Educational Theory Of Jean Jacques Rousseau Education

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    Jean Jacque Rousseau was a great philosopher born in Geneva on 28 June 1712; he died in Ermenoville in 1778. His parts are societal and political theories with the societal contact of 1762, an easy of cardinal inquiries of societal justness and political legitimacy. He besides wrote a really of import book on instruction theory through widen purpose, Emile or on instruction ( 1762 ) which every bit influenced on the society at the present clip. ( Routledge, 2005, p.21 ). The class of his life is besides really singular his female parent died merely after a few yearss after his birth; he left Geneva on urge when he was non yet 16, converted to Roman Catholicism, was taken in by and became the lover of a adult female 13 old ages older than himself.

    That relationship failed after several old ages. ( Taneja, V.R. 2010, pp. 103-104 ). In instruction factor, Rousseau conveyed his educational doctrine through his celebrated novel, Emile, which tells the narrative of the male child ‘s instruction from babyhood to stripling. He believed that people were baronial barbarians, inexperienced person, free, and undefiled by socioeconomic artificialities and the end of his instruction is “to make learning environment that allow the kids innate natural goodness to boom which closely related to the nature that kids experience”. ( Course Reading Foundation of Education, pp.135-135 ). The undermentioned parts, you will be familiar with the inquiries:

    What was Rousseau ‘s doctrine?

    What were Rousseau ‘s Aims and Methods of Education?

    What were Rousseau ‘s application rules of instruction and acquisition in Emile?

    Should Rousseau ‘s methods of instruction be applied in Kampuchean schools now?

    Rousseau ‘s doctrine

    The three influences worked in determining his general doctrine related to the province of clip, varied experience of his life and his unprompted and emotional nature. All this work gives insight into his political, societal and educational doctrine. The cardinal note of his doctrine was to hold a “ State of Nature, Natural adult male and Natural Civilization. ” ( Taneja, V. R. 2010, p. 105 ) . Rousseau wanted work forces to be free from the bond age of society by instruction them non for citizenship but for manhood. He believed that civilisation, the humanistic disciplines and all human establishments and baneful consequence. Harmonizing to him the beginning of all societal immoralities is to be found in the ungratified wonder of which the scientific disciplines and humanistic disciplines are the concluding merchandises.

    Man, he believed, would hold been happier if he had been allowed to stay in crude phase as a animal of droping. Man had brought wretchedness to him by his ain innovations. Rousseau stated that these innovations should be scrapped away and the adult male would go happy. Rousseau ‘s doctrine is normally designated by the term “ Naturalism ” ( Taneja, V.R. 2010, p.106 ). He contended that all the ailment and wretchednesss of civilisation are due to a going from a State of Nature. Everything is good as it comes from the custodies of the Author of Nature ; but everything perverts in the manus of the adult male. Return to the nature was his method to bring around the universe of problems.

    Life harmonizing to Nature was echt. It recognized the worth of the person on his ain virtues. It was free from the trammels of use, tradition and dictatorship. By Natural province and Natural adult male he did non desire crude societal order and the barbarian adult male. He wanted natural civilisation and a to the full developed adult male populating in the commotion of societal life without being carried off by the passion and biass of society. His ideal of the province of Nature was, “ a simple agriculture community or province without immoralities ” ( Taneja, V.R. 2010, p. 105 ). Rousseau said that human Nature is good and should be all a free development. Education, hence, must be in harmoniousness with original and good human nature. By nature here Rousseau meant native inherent aptitudes, inclinations and capacities.

    He held that larning takes topographic point best when kid is free to develop and turn harmonizing to his natural urges. The map of instruction is to continue kids ‘s goodness and pureness without discoloration from the universe. He thought human restrains and subject should be discarded. His naturalism holds that the best acquisition comes from covering with natural objects with natural humanistic disciplines and with ground in natural ways. Rousseau glorified the wholesome development of all the natural powers of the person. If the person is nurtured decently so that his physical, emotional, moral and mental capacities are allowed to develop of course and at the proper clip, the cause of instruction and the society will be best served.

    He looked to the person instead than to the society to happen the ultimate purposes of instruction. The two most celebrated histories of “ the province of nature ” prior to Rousseau ‘s are those of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. ( htt: // )

    Rousseau ‘s Aims and Methods of Education

    Rousseau revolted against the full construct of instruction which coercing the kids to accept theoretical account of grownup. His novel Emile attacks the kid ‘s corruption theory and an extensively verbal and literary instruction which is expected kids to talk, believe and move as illumination grownup. The end of his instruction is to “ make learning environment that allow the kids to innate natural goodness which rely on esthesis and experience with the nature.” ( Course Reading Foundation of Education, pp.134-137 )

    He besides believes that kid must be free from society incarcerating establishment, of which the school was one of the most coercive. He said that instructor can develop the adult male or the citizen ; he can non develop natural adult male. His natural adult male was the one whose natural virtuousnesss had non been influenced by traditional and societal establishment. On the other manus their natural virtuousnesss were so developed that they were able to accommodate themselves to the altering environment. To Rousseau, instruction was a procedure of counsel by instructor instead that direction by him. “

    The function of instructor was to help the n nature instead than posting the convention to kids ” . ( Course Reading Foundation of Education, pp.134-135 ). He was emphasized in stating that instruction was a procedure of development into an gratifying, rational, harmoniously balanced, utile and therefore natural life. Simple and direct methods were created by him. Puting a particular accent on objects learning rhenium remarked “ Let the sense ever be the ushers, allow there be no book but the universe and no other instructions than facts.” ( Taneja, V.R. 2010, p. 108 ). His advice was that, “ in general, ne’er substitute the mark for the thing itself, salvage when it is impossible to demo the tinkles for the sing absorb the attending of the kid and do him bury the thing represented. ” ( Taneja, V.R. 2010, p. 109 ).

    All these principles of Rousseau are being progressively recognized in modern instruction, which lays the greatest emphasis on concrete instruction. Child, he believes, should be taught by experience non by verbal lesson. Rousseau advocated that the play-way was the best method to do kids larning. Knowing childhood was his first construct. Ignorance of child nature is the root of educational mistakes. The coach should analyze the nature of his student. Each head has a signifier of its ain ; but the traits of kid ‘s head can be learnt merely by observation as they develop. Wise instruction returns by detecting the kid and following its steps to his single capacities and demands

    Rousseau ‘s application rules of instruction and acquisition in Emile

    Since his rules require pedagogues to analyze the kid from the beginning, he divided his rules into four factors: ( 1 ) the generic character of world refers to those characters which are diversely manifested in the temperaments or disposition. ( 2 ) different features of sexes refer to his first rule of natural instruction as Rousseau understands it that sex should be taken into history in the upbringing of male childs and misss. Harmonizing to him, the nature of the two sexes is different from the beginning. That makes necessary the matching the differences in their instruction. For this ground, he would hold the male child educated to be a complete human being with world-wide involvement, and the miss to be trained for the wifehood and maternity. ( 3 ) difference in individualism refers to each head has a signifier of it ain. It must be directed consequently.

    Individuality he pointed out rises many jobs “ one has to be flattered, another has to be repressed. One adult male is made to transport human cognition to its male parents point ; another may happen the ability to read a unsafe power ” ( 4 ) differences of ages: at this point, Rousseau identified five developmental phases babyhood from birth to five old ages old, the kid do his first contact with objects in the environment and larn straight from his senses. Childhood the age from five to twelve, the kid constructs his personality as he becomes cognizant that his actions cause either painful or enjoyable effects. Motivated by wonder, he actively explores his environment, larning more about the universe through his senses. Rousseau called the eyes, ears, custodies and pess the instructor considered the senses better and more efficient than the headmaster, who teaches words the scholars do n’t understand.

    Emile ‘s coach intentionally refrained from presenting books at this phase to avoid replacing reading for the kid ‘s direct interaction with nature. Boyhood from 12 to fifteen, at this phase the kids can larn the natural scientific discipline by detecting the circles of the growing of the workss and animate beings. By researching this surrounding, the kids learn geographics far more realistically than from analyzing maps. In Emile, it is besides learned a manual trade, woodworking, to do the connexion between mental and physical work. Adolescence from age 15 to the clip of matrimony, around 25 old ages old at this phase kids become grownups and they are now already to get by with the outside universe and to larn about society, authorities, economic sciences, and concern. Rousseau prefers natural to societal and emphasize human intrinsic as an initial mean to knowledge. He believes that school frequently interferes with larning.

    Schooling instructors teach kids to play the function that adults prefer instead than quash their natural interact and urge. Rousseau used the undermentioned key thoughts to organize his educational doctrine ( a ) childhood is an of import foundation of human development ; ( B ) kids ‘s natural involvement and inherent aptitudes are valuable beginnings of a more thorough geographic expedition of the environment. ( degree Celsius ) human existences, in their babyhood in their life rhythms, go through necessary phases of development, ( vitamin D ) grownup coercion has a negative impact on kids ‘s development. ( Taneja, V.R. 2010, pp.109-116 & A ; Course Reading Foundation of Education, pp.134-137 )

    Should Rousseau ‘s methods of instruction be applied in Cambodia school?

    As every one have known already, Cambodia goes through many phases of the society: Pre French colonial ( before 1863 ), Gallic colonial epoch ( 1963-1953 ), post-French colonial ( 1953-1970 ) , political convulsion of Lon Nol government or the Khmer Republic ( 1970-1975 ), Genocidal government of Khmer Rouge or Pol Pot Regime ( 1975-1979 ), Heng Samrin government ( 1979-1989 ) and the station general election period ( 1993-present ) . In conformity with Chandler, 1988, Cambodian ( Khmer ) people were among the first in Asia to follow spiritual thought and political establishment from India ( Chandler, 1998 ; Encyclopedia Britannica, 2001 ).

    Since the Khmer immersed themselves in Buddhism, the instruction of Buddhist rules was institutionalized and “ basic literacy ” was needed for spiritual leaders to cultivate spiritual constructs and to assist take civil society. The Buddhist temple schools were established and opened for male childs and immature work forces where they could larn moral moralss, literacy and some Buddhist advice about life. The course of study consisted of the survey of Pali of Buddhist philosophy, Khmer linguistic communication, Mathematics, Kampuchean history, geographics, scientific discipline, hygiene, civics and agribusiness. In 1985, the “ aim of Cambodia ‘s instruction was to reserve the radical socialism of Kampuchea and to organize new and good, hard-working citizen with good wellness, proficient consciousness and support for the radical Kampuchea.

    Schools were to be organized as cultural centres open to all and as a system of defence against enemy propaganda ” ( Yres, 2000, p. 452 ) . The instructors were voluntaries Buddhist work forces ( monks- sangha or achaj ) . ( Sideth S. Dy, 2003 ). They taught the pupils through teacher-center methods by talking and necessitating pupil to declaim the lesson. From pre-colonial until 1990 the methods of learning that the instructors used in their instruction public presentation were similar. Late 1990, International organisations ( IOs ) and Non organisations ( NGOs ) diversified their support plans and activities to ease and help the least developed states. ( Windham, 1992 ). Cambodia was among the states under back uping from those organisations, so fund and proficient AIDSs for developing instruction sector were besides granted.

    Sine that clip, the methodological analysiss used in Cambodia have been better bit by bit. For methodological analysis, if the course of study shapers consider diverse methods, it will be utile for reassigning the cognition to the pupil. For one illustration, Rousseau ‘ method is really of import to excite the pupil because the immature kids can larn efficaciously by playing and experimenting with stuffs, they can larn best by actively pull stringsing objects mostly stem from the thought of the lesson or societal life in the society. The pupil can seek for deep apprehension and unpack issues by themselves and they can make philosophers and psychologists. If Rousseau ‘s method could be applied in Cambodia, the pupils would likely get existent cognition, accomplishments, in order to acquire the comfortable life, to assist the inheritor ain household with better criterion of life every bit good as the state.


    Rousseau was a great revolutionist. Led partially by personal feeling and partially by understanding for the common people he revolted against the societal inequalities of his age. He propounded in topographic point the old jurisprudence of ground, the new Gospel of religion in nature. Although Rousseau possessed an unusual power of incarnating great thought in words, he had really little ability to associate them in action. His great part in field of instruction was his was his educational methods by demoing the value of motive, making the jobs, and using the senses and activities of the kid.

    His construct of freedom, growing, involvements and activities were greatly needed at the clip against dictatorship and tyranny in instruction. In the hereafter, if Cambodia instruction factor can absorb his doctrine to do effectual reforms in educational system through course of study reform, manual reform, learning methodological analysis reform, rules of assessment reform and basic instructional stuff reform, It would be the best manner to allow the immature coevals know the ways how to gestate through the new things so that they can better their cognitive and motor accomplishments.

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