Enzymes: Enzyme and Enzymes- Substrate Complex
What is Enzyme? - Enzymes: Enzyme and Enzymes- Substrate Complex introduction?? Enzymes are protein that acts as speed up reactions and break down molecules in our body. However, different enzymes only work on certain types of molecules. Enzymes can accelerate the reactions by more than one million times. (3) In our human body, there are a total about forty thousand types of enzymes and each catalyzes different kind of molecule. (3) The molecules that enzymes help to accelerate is called substrates, and when enzyme is combined together with the substrate, it is called enzymes- substrate complex, and after the enzyme finish catalyzing, the substrates before is turned into what we called product.
Enzymes, just like other catalyst, will not be used up as a part reactant through the reaction. So enzymes can be used over and over again. The substrates fit into the enzyme like a key fits into a lock (3). Enzymes have other functions as well, for example enzymes play a big role in your stomach and intestines. Enzymes such as protease, lipase, and amylase can break up fat, oil and starches from our daily food. How Does It Work? Enzymes are proteins, which act with a given compound (the substrate) to produce a complex, which then forms the products of the reaction. 1) Enzymes are controlled by the industries by the temperature, the PH, the concentration and the enzymes inhibitors and effectors. Temperature: Different types of enzymes can work in different or similar temperatures. But temperature that is too high can destroy enzymes. Normally, the maximum temperature of an enzyme could survive in is 40 Celsius. When the temperature gets too hot, the shape of the enzymes changes, and it can no longer change shape to fit substrates in and the acceleration in the reaction can no longer happen(3).
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PH: As the PH change, the same thing happens when u put enzymes in a really hot environment; it changes change and can no longer do its jobs. Most common PH of a enzyme is normally 7, but some enzymes that works in the stomach can hold up the PH one, since they have to work with acids in the tummy(3). Concentration: The higher the concentration of enzymes in the solution, the faster it works. Enzyme inhibitor: Enzyme inhibitors can slow down reaction and some can stop enzymes from working. Most of the enzymes inhibitors are used in drugs (3).
Effectors: some enzymes need effectors to work at full speed, and some cannot function well enough with out these effectors(3). Enzymes used in washing powder: Enzymes are used widely through industries; there are meat tenderizers, baby food, and one of them is what we mostly use everyday to clean our clothes, enzymes washing powder. Many people experimented putting enzymes in washing powder long time ago, but the real patent was not until 1913. Many famous brands like white – plus, FAB, Breeze, Dynamo also make enzymes washing powders.
Stains and dirt that you get everyday on your shirt is actually different molecules such as fat, oil, starch and protein. In order to clean the stains in more effectively, scientists and industries put enzymes like protease, lipase and amylase in to the washing powder. With the protease breaking down proteins, lipase breaking down fat and amylase breaking starch, bio washing powder can clean the dirty clothes more effectively. Most washing powders have only one type of enzymes but other others have more than 1 type to wash off a variety kinds of stain and dirt. Enzymes that are used in washing powders:
Protease: Break down protein into amino acids. It is good for blood, egg, gravy, and other protein stains. (6)(12) Amylase: Break down starches into glucose. (6)(12) Lipase: Break down grease and lipids (fat) into fatty acids and glycerol. (6)(12) Advantages: – Bio washing powder works more effectively in room temperature, because enzymes die in high temperature such as 40C. So bio washing powders can actually save up more energy and is more environmentally friendly. – The enzymes in the bio washing powder often comes from plants and animal sources, some even come from bacteria in the hot spring, this shows that nzymes are environmentally friendly. – Bio washing powders are proven to be better at cleaning stains and dirt off the clothes. Disadvantages: – Bio washing powders take up more time to wash clothes because the enzymes take longer to break down the molecules. – Lots of people that have allergies or are skin sensitive often find bio washed clothes itchy or is allergic to it. Some people even find it hard to breathe with it and could possibly cause asthma. I personally recommend you to not use if you are skin sensitive or you have allergies.
Though this can be prevented by not overloading the washing machine, by raising up the rinse time. Bibliography And In-Text Reference: Informations (1)Hine, Robert. “enzyme. ” Science Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 14 Sept. 2010. http://fofweb. com/activelink2. asp? ItemID=WE40&SID=5&iPin=FDBF0983&SingleRecord=True (2)Rosen, Joe, and Lisa Quinn Gothard. “enzymes. ” Science Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 15 Sept. 2010. http://fofweb. com/activelink2. asp? ItemID=WE40&SID=5&iPin=EPS0072&SingleRecord=True (3)http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Enzyme (4)Laberge, Monique. enzymes. ” Science Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 15 Sept. 2010. http://fofweb. com/activelink2. asp? ItemID=WE40&SID=5&iPin=ECBC0004&SingleRecord=True (5)http://www. spolem. co. uk/worksheets/docs/industrial_enzymes. doc BY: M Leisola last update: NA (6)http://www. biotechlearn. org. nz/themes/biotech_at_home/enzymes_in_washing_powders Last update 2010 by university of waikato (7)http://isbibbio. wikispaces. com/Enzymes+in+Washing+powder Last update 2010 by: Tangient LLC. (8)http://www. biggreensmile. com/products/ecover-biological-washing-powder-1-