Enzymes: Enzyme and Enzymes- Substrate Complex

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Enzymes are a type of protein that accelerates reactions and breaks down molecules in the human body. They have specificity for certain types of molecules and can increase reaction rates by over a million times. There are around forty thousand different types of enzymes in the human body, each catalyzing a specific molecule. These molecules, called substrates, undergo faster reactions with the help of enzymes. When an enzyme combines with a substrate, it forms an enzyme-substrate complex. After enzymatic catalysis, the substrate is transformed into a product.

Enzymes are catalysts that can be used repeatedly as they are not consumed in reactions. They function by fitting substrates into their structures similar to a key in a lock (3). Enzymes play a significant role in digestion, particularly in the stomach and intestines. Protease, lipase, and amylase are examples of enzymes involved in breaking down fats, oils, and starches present in food. The process of enzyme action involves proteins interacting with substrates to form a complex that produces reaction products (1).

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The activity of enzymes is regulated by industries through various factors including temperature, pH levels, enzyme concentration, inhibitors, and effectors. Different enzymes may have optimal operating temperatures that can be either similar or different from one another. However, excessive heat can damage enzymes. Typically, enzymes can withstand temperatures up to 40 degrees Celsius. High temperatures cause changes in the shape of enzymes which impede their ability to bind substrates and hinder reaction acceleration (3).

Enzymes are impacted by the pH of a solution in a similar manner as enzymes affect pH. When exposed to high temperatures, enzyme pH changes occur and their functionality is compromised. Ideally, enzymes perform optimally at pH 7, although stomach enzymes can withstand lower levels due to interaction with stomach acids (pH 3). The concentration of enzymes directly influences their rate of activity. Furthermore, enzyme inhibitors possess the capability to decelerate or halt enzyme reactions altogether. Numerous medications employ enzyme inhibitors (pH 3).

Effectors are necessary for certain enzymes to function effectively, while others may struggle without them(3). Enzymes are utilized in various industries, such as meat tenderizers and baby food. Additionally, enzymes are commonly found in everyday products such as washing powder, which is used for cleaning clothes. Early experimentation with enzymes in washing powder took place many years ago, but the official patent was granted in 1913. Today, well-known brands like white – plus, FAB, Breeze, and Dynamo produce enzymes washing powders.

The stains and dirt that accumulate on your shirt are actually comprised of different molecules such as fat, oil, starch, and protein. To enhance the efficacy of stain removal, scientists and industries incorporate enzymes like protease, lipase, and amylase into washing powders. By employing protease to break down proteins, lipase to break down fat, and amylase to break down starch, bio washing powder can effectively clean soiled clothes. While most washing powders contain only one enzyme type, certain others contain multiple types to tackle various types of stains and dirt. The following enzymes are commonly used in washing powders:

Protease breaks down protein into amino acids and is effective for removing blood, egg, gravy, and other protein stains. (6)(12) Amylase breaks down starches into glucose. (6)(12) Lipase breaks down grease and lipids (fat) into fatty acids and glycerol. (6)(12) Bio washing powders have advantages such as working more effectively in room temperature as enzymes are not effective at high temperatures like 40C, therefore saving energy and being more environmentally friendly. The enzymes in bio washing powders often come from plants, animal sources, and even bacteria found in hot springs, demonstrating their environmental friendliness. Furthermore, bio washing powders are proven to be better at removing stains and dirt from clothes. However, there are also disadvantages to using bio washing powders. They take longer to break down molecules, resulting in a longer washing time. Additionally, individuals with allergies or sensitive skin may find bio washed clothes itchy or may experience allergic reactions such as difficulty breathing and even asthma. Therefore, it is recommended for those with sensitive skin or allergies to avoid using bio washing powders.

By raising up the rinse time, overloading the washing machine can be prevented. Bibliography And In-Text Reference: Informations (1)Hine, Robert. “enzyme. ” Science Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 14 Sept. 2010. http://fofweb. com/activelink2. asp? ItemID=WE40&SID=5&iPin=FDBF0983&SingleRecord=True (2)Rosen, Joe, and Lisa Quinn Gothard. “enzymes. ” Science Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 15 Sept. 2010. http://fofweb. com/activelink2. asp? ItemID=WE40&SID=5&iPin=EPS0072&SingleRecord=True (3)http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Enzyme (4)Laberge, Monique. enzymes. ” Science Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 15 Sept. 2010.http://fofweb.com/activelink2.asp? ItemID=WE40&SID=5&iPin=ECBC0004&SingleRecord=True (5)http://www.spolem.co.uk/worksheets/docs/industrial_enzymes.doc BY: M Leisola last update: NA (6)http://www.biotechlearn.org.nz/themes/biotech_at_home/enzymes_in_washing_powders Last update 2010 by university of waikato (7)http://isbibbio.wikispaces.com/Enzymes+in+Washing+powder Last update 2010 by: Tangient LLC. (8)http://www.biggreensmile.com/products/ecover-biological-washing-powder-1-

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Enzymes: Enzyme and Enzymes- Substrate Complex. (2016, Nov 08). Retrieved from


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