Contents Foreword 3 Acknowledgment 4 Summary 5 Introduction Importance of energy for the economy Energy crises Pakistan: Power Crisis Feared by 2007 Major Energy Crisis Feared Waste to Energy Is Needed in Pakistan Rising Oil Prices Pakistan Coal Reserve should be explored
Energy crisis in Pakistan Wind Power: a solution to Energy Crisis Energy Crisis: serious and worsening Concluding remarks 24 Bibliography 25 FOREWORD An energy crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. It usually refers to the shortage of oil and additionally to electricity or other natural resources.
The crisis often has effects on the rest of the economy, with many recessions being caused by an energy crisis in some form. In particular, the production costs of electricity rise, which raises manufacturing costs. For the consumer, the price of gasoline (petrol) and diesel for cars and other vehicles rises, leading to reduced consumer confidence and spending, higher transportation costs and general price rising. We chose this topic to have a review on the energy crises in Pakistan and its impact on the economy of Pakistan.
SUMMARY Pakistan is presently facing a serious energy crisis.
Despite strong economic growth during the past decade and consequent rising demand for energy, no worthwhile steps have been taken to install new capacity for generation of the required energy sources. Now, the demand exceeds supply and hence “load-shedding” is a common phenomenon through frequent power shutdowns. Pakistan needs about 14000-15000MW electricity per day, and the demand is likely to rise to approximately 20,000 MW per day by 2010. Presently, it can produce about 11, 500 MW per day and thus there is a shortfall of about 3000-4000MW per day.
This shortage is badly affecting industry, commerce and daily life of people. All possible measures need to be adopted, i. e. , to conserve energy at all levels, and use all available sources to enhance production of energy. It seems that the government is considering importing energy from Iran and Central Asian Republics and using indigenous sources, such as, hydel, coal, waste, wind, and solar power, as well as other alternate and renewable energy sources, besides nuclear power plants for production of energy.
Needless to say that if the country wishes to continue its economic development and improve the quality of life of its people, it has to make serious efforts towards framing a coherent energy policy. INTRODUCTION An energy crisis is any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. In popular literature though, it often refers to one of the energy sources used at a certain time and place. Energy runs machinery in factories, lights our cities and powers our vehicles. There has been an enormous increase in the demand for energy as a result of industrial development and population growth.
Supply of energy is, therefore, far less than the actual demand. Importance of energy for the economy The energy sector is an important one for all the various countries of the world, and especially, the countries that are developing from an economic point of view. It has been observed that the energy sector has played a crucial role in the context of the global economy. Prices of oil and such other sources of energy have been affecting the economies of various developing nations and have been playing crucial roles in shaping them.
It is common knowledge that the economically developing countries have gathered a lot of foreign direct investments from the developed as well as other developing countries. This has helped them no end. A lot of major companies of the United States of America and the United Kingdom, for example, have come and set up bases in these countries. They have looked to exploit the oil resources of these countries but in turn have provided the country a larger job market by throwing open increased job opportunities. This has enabled the residents of this country to lead a better life.
The invested capital from the international sources has been used by these countries to better their infrastructural facilities like making new roads and improving the state of education in the country for example. Important example in this case is the entire gulf region in Asia and the countries worth mentioning in this regard would be the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. The United Arab Emirates have been able to improve their tourism industry with the help of the money that has been invested by various countries in its oil and energy industry. The emirates of Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Sharjah are the biggest examples.
It’s quite apparent that economic growth is inextricably linked to energy. As energy is tied to our economy, our future is dependent upon equitable access to energy. This in turn sets the framework of our dependence on oil and hence, why our national security is tied to securing the flow of oil. Energy Crisis Energy resources have depleted! Whatever resources are available are simply too expensive to buy or already acquired by countries which had planned and acted long time ago. Delayed efforts in the exploration sector have not been able to find sufficient amounts of energy resources.
Nations of the world which have their own reserves are not supplying energy resources anymore; only the old contracts made decades ago are active. Airplanes, trains, cars, motorbikes, buses and trucks, all modes of transportation are coming to a stand still. Many industries have closed due to insufficient power supply. Price of oil has gone above the ceiling. At domestic level, alternate methods like solar, biogas and other methods are being tried for mere survival. The above is a likely scenario of Pakistan and around the globe after 25 years.
A pessimistic view, but realistic enough to think about and plan for the future. But are we doing anything about it? Lets have a look at the current energy situation of Pakistan and the world. Pakistan’s economy is performing at a very high note with GDP growing at an exceptional rate, touching 8. 35% in 2004-05. In its history of 58 years, there has been only a few golden years where the economy grew above 7%. This year official expectations are that GDP growth rate will be around 6. 5 – 7. 0%. For the coming years, the government is targeting GDP growth rate above 6%.
With economy growing at such a pace, the energy requirements are likely to increase with a similar rate. For 2004-05, Pakistan’s energy consumption touched 55. 5 MTOE (Million Tons of Oil Equivalent). The energy consumption is expected to grow at double digit if the overall economy sustains the targeted GDP growth rate of 6% by the government. Pakistan’s energy requirements are expected to double in the next few years, and our energy requirements by 2015 is likely to cross 120MTOE. By 2030, the nation’s requirement will be 7 times the current requirement reaching 361MTOE.
Pakistan’s energy requirements are fulfilled with more than 80% of energy resources through imports. On the other hand, international oil prices have not only broken all records but are touching new highs, with every news directly or indirectly affecting the black gold industry. Moreover, speculators all around the world expect oil prices to touch $100 per barrel in medium term. With concerns over Iran’s nuclear program, terrorist issues in Nigeria and high economic growth in China & India and their ever rising energy requirements, oil prices don’t see any another way but to shoot upwards.
PAKISTAN: POWER CRISIS FEARED BY 2007 The country may plunge into energy crisis by the year 2007 due to rising electricity demand which enters into double digit figure following increasing sale of electrical and electronic appliances on lease finance. “The country may face energy crisis by the year 2007 following healthy growth of 13 per cent in electricity demand during the last quarter, which will erode surplus production in absence of commissioning of any new power generation project during this financial year,” informed sources told The Nation.
As per Pakistan Economic Survey 2003-04, electricity consumption has increased by 8. 6 per cent during first three-quarter of last fiscal year. However, a top level WAPDA official maintained that electricity demand surged up to 13 per cent during last quarter. The survey said household sector has been the largest consumer of electricity accounting for 44. 2 per cent of total electricity consumption followed by industries 31. 1 per cent, agriculture 14. 3 per cent, other government sector 7. 4 per cent, commercial 5. 5 per cent and street light 0. 7 per cent.
Keeping in view the past trend and the future development, WAPDA has also revised its load forecast to eight per cent per annum as against previous estimates of five per cent on average. Even the revised load forecast has also failed all assessments due to which Authority has left no other option but to start load management this year, which may convert into scheduled load shedding over a period of two year, sources maintained. The country needs a quantum jump in electricity generation in medium-term scenario to revert the possibilities of load shedding in future due to shrinking gap between demand and supply of electricity at peak hours.
According to an official report, the gap between firm supply and peak hours demand has already been shrunk to three digit (440 MW) during this fiscal and will slip into negative columns next year (-441 MW) and further intensify to (-1,457 MW) during the financial year 2006-07. The report maintained that the difference between firm supply and peak demand is estimated at 5,529 MW by the year 2009-10 when firm electricity supply will stand at 15,055 MW against peak demand of 20,584 MW. Chairman WAPDA Tariq Hamid at a Press conference warned about the possible energy crisis and stressed the need for ‘quantum jump’ in power generation.
The experts say it could only be possible through a mega project of hydropower generation; otherwise the gap between firm supply and peak demand will remain on the rise. They said that power generation projects, which are due to commission in coming years are of low capacity and will not be able to exceed the surging demand of electricity. They say no power generation project will commission during this fiscal year and the total installed capacity of electricity generation will remain 19,478 MW to meet 15,082 MW firm supply and 14,642 MW peak demand.
Giving details of projects, the sources said Malakand-lll (81MW), Pehur (18MW) and combined cycle power plant at Faisalabad (450MW) are planned to be commissioned during the year 2007. Mangla Dam raising project would also add 150 MW capacity to the national grid by June 2007. Besides this, Khan Khwar (72MW), Allai Khwar (121MW), Duber Khwar (130MW) and Kayal Khwar (130MW) are expected to be completed in 2008 along with Golan Gol (106MW) and Jinnah (96MW). Moreover, Matiltan (84MW), New Bong Escape (79MW) and Rajdhani (132MW) are expected by 2009 while Taunsa (120MW) is likely to be completed by 2010.
Sources say WAPDA has also planned to install a high efficiency combined cycle power plant at Baloki (450MW), which is expected to be completed by 2010. In addition of these, power plant 1 & 2 of 300 MW each at Thar Coal with the assistance of China are also planned for commissioning in 2009, sources said. Moreover, efforts are also under way with China National Nuclear Corporation for the construction of a third nuclear power plant with a gross capacity of 325 MW at Chashma, they added. When contacted, a WAPDA official said there is no power shortage in the country at present as the Authority still has over 1,000 MW surplus electricity.
However, he admitted that the shortage may occur in the year 2007 and onward and said the Authority will utilise all options including running of IPPs plant at full capacity to avert any possible crisis. About the system augmentation to bring down line losses, the official said the Authority would spend Rs 3. 5 billion on augmentation of distribution lines this fiscal while another Rs 5 billion will be consumed on transmission lines. “We have been negotiating Rs 9 billion loan with a consortium of local banks to upgrade and augment the power transmission system,” he disclosed.
The official further said that five new transmission lines of 220-KV would be installed by the end of 2004, that would ensure smooth supply to the consumers. He expressed full trust on present transmission and distribution system and said it could easily sustain the load of total installed power generation in the country. MAJOR ENERGY CRISIS FEARED Pakistan is most likely to face a major energy crisis in natural gas, power and oil in the next three to four years that could choke the economic growth for many years to come, official estimates and energy experts suggest.
Pakistan’s total energy requirement would increase by about 48 per cent to 80 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) in 2010 from about 54 MTOE currently, but major initiatives of meeting this gap are far from turning into reality, said a former petroleum minister on condition of anonymity for the simple reason that he had also served the present government. Major shortfall is expected in the natural gas supplies, he said. According to official energy demand forecast, he added, the demand for natural gas, having about 50 per cent share in the country’s energy consumption, would increase by 44 per cent to 39 MTOE from 27 MTOE currently.
Partly contributed by gas shortfalls, the power shortage is expected to be little over 5,250MW by 2010, he said, adding that the oil demand would also increase by over 23 per cent to about 21 million tons in 2010 from the current demand of 16. 8 million tons. This would leave a total deficit of about nine million tons of diesel and furnace oil imports, he said. Since the gas shortfalls were expected to be much higher, the country would need to enhance its dependence on imported oil, thus increasing pressure on foreign exchange situation, he added. Last year’s oil import bill amounted to about $6. billion compared with about $3. 5 billion in 2004-05, mainly because of higher international oil prices – a burden expected to be even higher in future as a result of growing Middle East crisis. Current year’s oil import bill has again been projected by the government at about $6. 5 billion on last year’s average prices, which have started to rise in the recent days. According to the former minister, the government had planned five major initiatives to meet these energy requirements. They included three gas import pipelines, Gwadar port as energy hub and LNG import.
However, four of these measures, including the three import pipeline projects, show no signs of progress for various reasons while concentration on energy facilities in Gwadar would chiefly depend on security situation, besides oil and gas import pipelines. Planning Commission sources said the government had planned to add an overall power generation capacity of about 7,880MW by 2010. Of this, about 4,860MW is to be based on natural gas, accounting for 61 per cent of capacity expansion. However, the gas based power expansion of about 4,860 MW would remain I doubt since theses stimates were based on the gas imports options for completion in 2010, 2015, and 2020. The fifth initiative of LNG import was on schedule and would start delivering about 0. 3 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFD) by 2009 and another 0. 5 BCFD by 2015, said the sources. Petroleum ministry officials are not ready to speak on record about gas import options and resultant overall energy shortfalls because of recent political developments on Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline project and security situation in Afghanistan and non-certification of gas reserves in Turkmenistan.
According to World Bank estimates, a demand gap (supply shortage) of about four per cent of the total demand, is expected in 2010. Even though this gap would be met by LNG imports, it would again increase to 20 per cent of the total demand. The bank said the indigenous gas supply would fall from 32. 6 MTOE in 2010 to 20. 7 MTOE in 2025 while the ‘gas supply-demand gap’ would rapidly increase as demand is expected to grow continuously, quadrupling in 2025. As per the World Bank estimates, the gas imports will represent almost 67 per cent of natural gas supply in 2025.
One can, therefore, gauge the quantum of shortage in case import pipelines are not materialised. Pakistan’s gas reserves are 32. 8 TCF at present, with reserve-production ratio in the order of 27 years, considering that domestic production does not grow substantially. Power sector demand represents 41 per cent of total gas consumption, general industries 24 per cent, fertiliser 7. 8 per cent and domestic-commercial 22. 8 per cent, cement 1. 5 per cent and CNG 2. 8 per cent. Demand growth has been up to 8. 5 per cent in recent years and is expected to be seven per cent with power industries and domestic consumption accounting for 82 per cent.
Gas demand already displays seasonal pattern with national demand growing in winter beyond transmission capacity. Therefore, supplies to large users mainly industries and power plants are curtailed during winter months to ensure supplies to domestic, commercial and small industries. Annual production at present is about 1. 16 TCF. WASTE TO ENERGY IS NEEDED IN PAKISTAN Growing urbanization and changes in the pattern of life, give rise to generation of increasing quantities of wastes and it’s now becoming another threat to our already degraded environment.
However, in recent years, waste-to-energy technologies have been developed to produce clean energy through the combustion of municipal solid waste in specially designed power plants equipped with the most modern pollution control equipment to clean emissions. Yet, solid waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations. In developing countries like Pakistan, institutions charged with the responsibility to make decisions on solid waste management, operate in the enormous information, policy and strategy vacuum and lack therefore the ability to address this looming environmental disaster.
Today in America, 2500 MW are solely generated by the waste-to-energy plants. Many other countries in the world, Sweden, Japan included, have applied this technology since the last 20 years. In the sub continent, India installed three projects to produce electricity from waste with a total capacity of 17. 6 MW. RISING OIL PRICES All predictions now failing and the oil prices are rising and now about to reach 100 $ level. who knows that in market trading if even the customers are buying the oil on +100 $.
The reason being given for this enormous rise is the US oil reserves are depleting and therefore customers are ready to purchase the oil at any price available. The future prospects are also not very encouraging. All trading is being made on +90 $. OPEC promised to raise its out put but with out any significant effect. For the time being the prices were dipped but raised again on much higher values. Rising tension between US and Iran is one reason. Some sources are predicting the attack on Iran is imminent. If the condition continues like this who is going to be benefited. Emerging economies and developing will suffer most.
Their economy is dependent on energy resources. How can survive and how can they meet their production commitments. Those industries which consume more energy will suffer with maximum. It will lead to rise of inflation shutting down in efficient industries and rising unemployment in third world countries. When come to individual the poor will suffer most . High income group will survive and it will not effect on their livings. But the strains coming on poor in third world countries will transform to social unrest and hence will cause instability in the region. Pakistan economy is already under intense pressure.
On one hand it has the competitors like China and India giving cut throat fight. Another end it has continuous problem on its western borders draining its resources and causing political chaos. Pakistan exports and its all economic activities are dependent of uninterrupted energy supplies for its energy requirement maximum share still of furnace which is imported from Middle East countries. Rising prices will bring a wave of inflation. Already many textile mills closed down due to higher production costs which make it uneconomical. Further increase in oil prices will definitely bring more strain on existing working units.
PAKISTAN COAL RESERVES SHOULD BE EXPLORED The energy shortage is increasing day by day and the resources of Pakistan are limited and we are witnessing increasing of imported fuel bill. This is time that Pakistan should explore all its available resources. We see a limited progress in alternate energy sector. But so far little efforts are being made to explore and use the coal reserves in Sind. This is claimed that coal quality is inferior and having low BTU. This is a challenging task. Today technology and boilers are available that can burn any kind of coal.
Therefore all possible measures should be adopted to utilize existing resources. The smaller size power plants near the coal mines which can get direct feed and connect to National Grid will be an ideal configuration. PAKISTAN IRAN AGREE ON GAS PIPE LINE PROJECT This good news coming in energy sector that Iran and Pakistan finally agreed to go ahead with the project. The gas project which was initiated by Iran India and Pakistan was having many constraints and was continuously under pressure from US. India was asking more time to make the decision and therefore the project was delayed.
Finally Iran and Pakistan decided to continue with the project and when ever India decides it can be accommodated in the project extension. The major issue which is now resolved is the gas price which is now related to petroleum prices as per the international practice. For all practical purposes the gas purchased will be based on BTU values as agreed by both partners. For Pakistan it means that the gas will be on higher price than the domestic supply which is subsidized for common house hold users. The gas is primary source for domestic usage as well as fertilizers and power generation companies.
This is expected that the average price when fixed for local consumers will take care for common users as well as industrial users. ENERGY CRISIS IN PAKISTAN Production units were shut. There was severe load shedding through- out the country. APTMA was forced to accept volunteer load shedding of 5 hours each day on all units. And the residential areas were with out power Energy Crisis in Pakistan maximum time of the day. The situation was worsened because Sui Gas Company already stopped the supply of industrial units and was going through a system of load shedding it self.
Therefore captive units were shut off due to non availability of the gas. The IPP who were operating on furnace could not get the regular supply of furnace and they did not bother to keep enough stock for contingency therefore stop shutting. And then naturally the blame game started, starting from the water shortage in Dams to furnace oil transportation problem, violence in Sind and maintenance activity in some independent power producers. Now it is officially declared that in last 10 years not a singles MW was added. We have seen hundreds of seminars, conferences and events on energy issues in Pakistan.
The money wasted there if utilized then at least we can add few hundred MW of Power. The fact is that Pakistan is sustaining an acute shortage of Power. Its demand is increasing and production is declining due to aging of the plants. WAPDA is in favor of large dams and thinks that the delay of construction of large dams was the basic reason for the shortage of power. The issue is very controversial subject and it is not expected to resolve soon. Moreover the construction of the dam will take at least 10 years and if the situation persist our economy will then come to a stage where it will need any power any more.
Energy is a key factor for the stability and prosperity of Pakistan. If our production units keep on shutting then unemployment will rise and hence street violence will rise. Government is advocating a policy of promoting the investment in Private Sector. Although the response is favorable but the out come is very slow. Now Government has to make a huge investment in energy sector. And the investment has to be in direct purchase of power plants, manufacturing main and auxiliary units, The objective should be utilization of diversified energy resources.
It is imperative that renewable energy resources should be explored but still conventional thermal and coal fired power plants should be established. The situation was worsened because Sui Gas Company already stopped the supply of industrial units and was going through a system of load shedding it self. Therefore captive units were shut off due to non availability of the gas. The IPP who were operating on furnace could not get the regular supply of furnace and they did not bother to keep enough stock for contingency therefore stop shutting. WIND POWER: A SOLUTION TO ENERGY CRISIS
As Pakistan‘s energy needs are immediate, thermal and large hydro-electric plants may not be the solution because such projects may take between 4-12 years to become operational. In order to meet energy requirement, the best option is exploiting wind energy because wind power projects can start generating electricity within two years. This is why wind energy is the fastest-growing source of power in the world and its globally-installed capacity has risen from 20,000MW in 2001 to 70,000MW in 2006. USA alone is installing 4,500MW per annum and China plans to install 20,000MW by the year 2020.
India offers a good example of a country that has embraced wind energy and has added substantial electricity generation capacity within a short period of time! It’s cumulative wind power generation capacity is 6,018MW, of which 4,500MW was installed in last five years! If Pakistan can realise half the growth that India has achieved, it can add 2,250MW to its electricity supply in the next five years, much more than possible by pursuing thermal power projects. In fact, wind energy can go a long way in meeting our acute energy shortage.
Pakistan has a huge potential to develop wind power. The “wind corridor” in the coastal area of Sindh alone has the capacity to generate 50,000MW and AEDB has put in place a `renewable energy policy that is one of the most comprehensive and investor-friendly in the world. However, progress towards first wind power plant has been handicapped by a severe shortage in supply of wind turbines. The experience of other countries is that once the first project is executed, subsequent additions to capacity take place at an accelerated pace.
This should be the case with Pakistan as well. It is important that the government continues to provide incentives to private investors in the form of an attractive tariff. This support is essential for the development phase of wind power sector and to realise its potential. Exploiting wind resources is not only in our economic interest, but serves our security interest as well! ENERGY CRISIS: SERIOUS AND WORSENING Serious energy shortage, massive load-shedding and lowest ever strategic oil reserves are emerging as major risk to the economy.
The situation, it appears, will not be any better in the days ahead given the political uncertainty and policy planning failure over the last few years. Combined with multi-layered risks including current account deficit, the critical shortage of energy — an ingredient that fuels the economic growth — has the potential to choke economic growth. The shortfall in electricity generation did not emerge suddenly but was developing over the years as the development of cheap and indigenous energy sources was discouraged for lack of any vision. Sponsors of hydropower producers who were offered a tariff of 4. cents per unit under the 1997 policy were practically blocked from developing their plants at their tariff rate and offered a much lower rate of 3. 3 cents per unit in 1999. Same happened with development of coal resources. A Chinese firm that had agreed to set up a 600MW project at Thar for 5. 79 cents per unit was forced to quit when the authorities refused to offer a tariff of more than 5. 39 cents per unit. As a result, no power project could be set up in the last eight years. The regime never tired of criticising political governments for signing costly energy contracts (at the average rate of 5. cents per unit). But it allowed signing of contracts for thermal power project at a much higher tariff of up to 15 cents per unit, although none of these projects would be available to the economy. Likewise, the recent revelation of the country’s strategic oil reserves at a precarious level clearly exposed the government’s lack of vigilance and failure of energy companies to meet their contractual obligations. The strategic oil reserves for defence had also been consumed to meet shortage and thus the country’s security has been exposed to great risks.
Under the fuel supply and power purchase agreements, the oil marketing firms and power generation companies – whether in the public or in the private sector – are required to maintain a minimum of 21 days of their fuel requirements. Non-compliance of such contractual obligations is subject to heavy penalties under the law. The government, too, is required under the standard operating procedures defined in the official Blue Book to ensure that it has oil stocks for at least 21 days of consumption to meet any eventuality, either a natural calamity or war or any such event.
The imperative of maintaining stocks for 21 days was highlighted by the blocking of communication routes during the violent protests following the tragic killing of former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. The entire episode led to disruption of fuel supply chain that included railway, pipeline and road transport. In varying degrees, it came to light that neither the independent power producers, nor the oil marketing companies including those in the public sector had maintained sufficient stocks as required under the law. The result would be more load shedding in the days ahead.
The export growth that is already stagnating would be hit if enough energy – gas and electricity – is not ensured to the industrial sector. The power shortage that had officially been estimated to remain in the range of 1000-2000MW during the current year has already touched 3600 MW. The economy is being run at almost 30 per cent energy shortage, which could worsen if oil supplies continue to remain short or the current disruption of oil transportation prolongs. Wapda estimates that the country could face a power shortage of about 5,500MW by 2010.
Overall, Pakistan’s total energy need is expected to be around 80 million tons of oil equivalents (MTOE) in 2010, up by about 50 per cent from the current year’s 54 MTOE. Energy crisis and Pakistan Current acute shortage of electricity in Pakistan clearly implies failure on the part of government to tackle it . Wapda authorities often attribute this to the failure to build dams. Undoubtedly by building dams cheap electricity can be afforded to the masses. Hydroelectricity is the cheapest source of electricity. More over building dams would benefit immensely . t would provide water for irrigating the lands . so far as its low rates r concerned it will have positive impact on our economy . Nuclear energy There are only 2 nuclear plants providing 2 % of electricity to our country. Coal Pakistan has world seven largest reserves of coal after the discovery of Thar. World bank report regarding the sources of energy in various countries and Pakistan. Energy crisis can be resolved if drastic. CONCLUDING REMARKS The current energy crises in Pakistan is the most bad and horrible problem of Pakistan’s history.
There is not only energy crisis problem, every thing in Pakistan is in crisis either it is power supply, education, politics, economy even each and every thing. This time is the most difficult time of the history of Pakistan. However, government is taking some steps for this energy crisis, but I think there one step that was the privatization of K. S. E was the hugest blunder of this government; it is the cause of the energy crises in Pakistan. To overcome this problem government has to take a keen look on this problem and have to solve it by conversation and taking some strong and possible steps.
Until now there is not any good step that was taken by government to solve this problem. They must appoint a Wapda chairman who will must be a strong and person, who can take strong decision; he must remove the corruption from this department and should check each and every worker of this department. When every one will do his work on time then this crisis will be solve. BIBLIOGRAPHY www. wikipedia. com www. google. com http://www. energybulletin. net/883. htm Energy Crisis in Pakistan http://www. energy. com. pk/energy%20disastor. htm Energy Crisis in Pakistan
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