Energy Crisis in History

Table of Content

An energy crisis is any great bottleneck) (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. In popular literature though, it often refers to one of the energy sources used at a certain time and place. Causes Market failure is possible when monopoly manipulation of markets occurs. A crisis can develop due to industrial actions like union organized strikes and government embargoes. The cause may be over-consumption, aging infrastructure, choke point disruption or bottlenecks at oil refineries and port facilities that restrict fuel supply.

An emergency may emerge during unusually cold winters due to increased consumption of energy. Pipeline failures and other accidents may cause minor interruptions to energy supplies. A crisis could possibly emerge after infrastructure damage from severe weather. Attacks by terrorists or militia on important infrastructure are a possible problem for energy consumers, with a successful strike on a Middle East facility potentially causing global shortages. Political events, for example, when governments change due to regime change, monarchy collapse, military occupation, and coup may disrupt oil and gas production and create shortages.

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Historical crises {draw:a} 1970s Energy Crisis Cause: peaking of oil production in major industrial nations (Germany, U. S. , Canada, etc. ) and embargos from other producers 1973 oil crisis Cause: an OPEC oil export embargo by many of the major Arab oil-producing states, in response to western support of Israel during the Yom Kippur War 1979 oil crisis Cause: the Iranian revolution 1990 spike in the price of oil Cause: the Gulf War The 2000–2001 California electricity crisis Cause: failed deregulation, and business corruption.

The UK fuel protest of 2000 – Cause: Raise in the price of crude oil combined with already relatively high taxation on road fuel in the UK. North American natural gas crisis Argentine energy crisis) of 2004 North Korea has had energy shortages for many years. Zimbabwe has experienced a shortage of energy supplies for many years due to financial mismanagement. Political riots occurring during the 2007 Burmese anti-government protests were sparked by rising energy prices. [edit] Emerging shortages {draw:a} {draw:a} Kuwait’s Al Burqan Oil Field, the world’s second largest oil field, will be depleted within 40 years. 1] Crises that exist as of 2008 include: Oil price increases since 2003 Caused by continued global increases in petroleum demand coupled with production stagnation, the falling value of the U. S. dollar, and a myriad of other secondary causes. 2008 Central Asia energy crisis, caused by abnormally cold temperatures and low water levels in an area dependent on hydroelectric power. Despite having significant hydrocarbon reserves, in February 2008 the President of Pakistan announced plans to tackle energy shortages that were reaching crisis stage. 2] At the same time the South African President was appeasing fears of a prolonged electricity crisis in South Africa. [3] South African electrical crisis. The South African crisis, which may last to 2012, lead to large price rises for platinum in February 2008[4] and reduced gold production. China experienced severe energy shortages towards the end of 2005 and again in early 2008. During the latter crisis they suffered severe damage to power networks along with diesel and coal shortages. 5] Supplies of electricity in Guangdong province, the manufacturing hub of China, are predicted to fall short by an estimated 10 GW. [6] It has been predicted that in the coming years after 2009 that the United Kingdom will suffer an energy crisis due to its commitments to reduce coal fired power stations, its politician’s unwillingness to set up new nuclear power stations to replaces those that will be de-commissioned in a few years (even though they will not be running in time to stop a full blown crisis) and unreliable sources and sources that are running out of oil and gas.

It is therefore predicted that the UK may have regular blackouts like South Africa. [7] [edit] Social and economic effects Main article: Energy economics The macroeconomic implications of a supply shock-induced energy crisis are large, because energy is the resource used to exploit all other resources. When energy markets fail, an energy shortage develops. Electricity consumers may experience intentionally-engineered rolling blackouts which are released during periods of insufficient supply or unexpected power outages, regardless of the cause.

Industrialized nations are dependent on oil, and efforts to restrict the supply of oil would have an adverse effect on the economies of oil producers. For the consumer, the price of natural gas, gasoline (petrol) and diesel for cars and other vehicles rises. An early response from stakeholders is the call for reports, investigations and commissions into the price of fuels. There are also movements towards the development of more sustainable urban infrastructure. {draw:a} {draw:a}

In 2006, US survey respondents were willing to pay more for a plug-in hybrid car In the market, new technology and energy efficiency measures become desirable for consumers seeking to decrease transport costs. [8] Examples include: In 1980 Briggs & Stratton developed the first gasoline hybrid electric automobile; also are appearing plug-in hybrids. the growth of advanced biofuels. innovations like the Dahon, a folding bicycle modernized and electrifying passenger transport Railway electrification systems and new engines such as the Ganz-Mavag locomotive variable compression ratio for vehicles

Other responses include the development of unconventional oil sources such as synthetic fuel from places like the Athabasca Oil Sands, more renewable energy commercialization and use of alternative propulsion. There may be a Relocation) trend towards local foods and possibly microgeneration, solar thermal collectors and other green energy sources. Tourism trends change and ownership of gas-guzzlers vary, both because of increases to fuel costs which are passed on to customers. Items which were not so popular gain favour, such as nuclear power plants and the blanket sleeper, a garment to keep children warm.

Building construction techniques change to reduce heating costs, potentially through increased insulation. See also: Green building_ and _Zero-energy building [edit] Crisis management An electricity shortage is felt most by those who depend on electricity for their heating, cooking and water supply. In these circumstances a sustained energy crisis may become a humanitarian crisis. If an energy shortage is prolonged a crisis management phase is enforced by authorities. Energy audits may be conducted to monitor usage. Various curfews with the intention of increasing energy conservation may be initiated to reduce consumption.

To conserve power during the Central Asia energy crisis, authorities in Tajikistan ordered bars and cafes to operate by candlelight. [9] Warnings issued that peak demand power supply might not be sustained. In the worst kind of energy crisis energy rationing and fuel rationing may be incurred. Panic buying may beset outlets as awareness of shortages spread. Facilities close down to save on heating oil; and factories cut production and lay off workers. The risk of stagflation increases. [edit] Mitigation of an energy crisis {draw:a} {draw:a} Nuclear power in Germany Main article: Mitigation of peak oil

The Hirsch report made clear that an energy crisis is best averted by preparation. In 2008, solutions such as the Pickens Plan and the satirical in origin Paris Hilton energy plan suggest the growing public consciousness of the importance of mitigation. Energy policy may be reformed leading to greater energy intensity, for example in Iran with the 2007 Gas Rationing Plan in Iran, Canada and the National Energy Program and in the USA with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. In Europe the oil phase-out in Sweden is an initiative a government has taken to provide energy security.

Another mitigation measure is the setup of a cache of secure fuel reserves like the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve, in case of national emergency. Chinese energy policy includes specific targets within their 5 year plans. {draw:a} {draw:a} World energy usage Andrew McKillop has been a proponent of a contract and converge model or capping scheme, to mitigate both emissions of greenhouse gases and a peak oil crisis. The imposition of a carbon tax would have mitigating effects on an oil crisis. [citation needed] The Oil Depletion Protocol has been developed by Richard Heinberg to implement a powerdown during a peak oil crisis.

While many sustainable development and energy policy organisations have advocated reforms to energy development from the 1970s, some cater to a specific crisis in energy supply including Energy-Questand the International Association for Energy Economics. The Oil Depletion Analysis Centre and the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas examine the timing and likely effects of peak oil. Ecologist William Rees) believes that Due to a lack of political viability on the issue, government mandated fuel prices hikes are unlikely and the unresolved dilemma of fossil fuel dependence is becoming a wicked problem.

A global soft energy path seems improbable, due to the rebound effect). Conclusions that the world is heading towards an unprecedented large and potentially devastating global energy crisis due to a decline in the availability of cheap oil lead to calls for a decreasing dependency on fossil fuel. Other ideas have been proposed which concentrate on improved, energy-efficient design and development of urban infrastructure in developing nations. [10] Government funding for alternative energy is more likely to increase during an energy crisis, so too are incentives for oil exploration.

For example funding for research into inertial confinement fusion technology increased during 1970’s. [edit] Future and alternative energy sources In response to the petroleum crisis, the principles of green energy and sustainable living movements gain popularity. This has led to increasing interest in alternate power/fuel research such as fuel cell technology, liquid nitrogen economy, hydrogen fuel, methanol, biodiesel, Karrick process, solar energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, wave power, and wind energy, and fusion power. To date, only hydroelectricity and nuclear power have been significant alternatives to fossil fuel.

Hydrogen gas is currently produced at a net energy loss from natural gas. When not produced from natural gas, hydrogen still needs another source of energy to create it, also at a loss during the process. This has led to hydrogen being regarded as a ‘carrier’ of energy, like electricity, rather than a ‘source’. The unproven dehydrogenating process has also been suggested for the use water as an energy source. Efficiency mechanisms such as Negawatt power can encourage significantly more effective use of current generating capacity.

It is a term used to describe the trading of increased efficiency, using consumption efficiency to increase available market supply rather than by increasing plant generation capacity. As such, it is a demand-side as opposed to a supply-side measure. See also: Strategic uranium reserves_ and _Nuclear energy policy [edit] Predictions Although technology has made oil extraction more efficient, the world is having to struggle to provide oil by using increasingly costly and less productive methods such as deep sea drilling, and developing environmentally sensitive areas such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

The world’s population continues to grow at a quarter of a million people per day, increasing the consumption of energy. Although far less from people in developing countries, especially USA, the per capita energy consumption of China, India and other developing nations continues to increase as the people living in these countries adopt more energy intensive lifestyles. At present a small part of the world’s population consumes a large part of its resources, with the United States and its population of 300 million people consuming far more oil than China with its population of 1. billion people. William Catton has emphasised the link between population size and energy supply, concluding that David Pimentel professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell University,has called for massive reduction in world populations in order to avoid a permanent global energy crisis. The implication is that cheap oil has created a human overshoot) beyond Earth’s carrying capacity which inevitably lead to an energy crisis.

David Price postulates that population growth occurs when a higher quality form of energy is commercialised. [11] See also: Energy balance_ and _Tragedy of the Commons {draw:a} {draw:a} For nearly 60 years the US dependence on imported oil has grown significantly. Matthew Simmons and Julian Darley amongst others, have examined the economic effects of an energy crisis. Historian, and sociologist links an energy crisis with a deflating American dollar.

He has stated that According to Christopher Falvin, geopolitical factors has resulted in current energy system, based on fossil fuels, to be a risk management issue that undermines global security. [citation needed] Considering the significant source of greenhouse gas emissions accumulating in the atmosphere, fossil fuel energy is being viewed as increasingly socially irresponsible. Joseph Tainter is an expert on societal collapse and energy supply who draws attention to the complexity of modern society and our ability to problem solve the wider issue of environmental degradation. [12]

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Energy Crisis in History. (2018, Feb 20). Retrieved from

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