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Essay- Tigers History and Statistics



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    Tigers are descended from civet-like animals called niacis that lived during the age

    of the dinosaurs about 60 million years ago (Dang, 1994). These small mammals, with

    long bodies and short flexible limbs, evolved over millions of years into several hundred

    different species, including cats, bears, dogs and weasels. About 37 cat species exist today

    (Dang, 1994). Tigers evolved in eastern Asia , but it is not exact. Sabre-tooth tigers are

    not the ancestors of today’s tigers. In fact, sabre-tooth tigers belonged to a separate

    branch of cat evolution which became extinct many millions of years ago.

    The Siberian or Amur tiger lives primarily in eastern Russia, and a few are found in

    northeastern China and northern North Korea. It is estimated that 437-506 Siberian tigers

    still exist in the wild (Tilson ,1995). About 490 captive Siberian tigers a re managed in

    zoo conservation programs (Tilson, 1995).

    The South China tiger is the most critically endnagered of all tiger subspecies.

    They are found in central and eastern China. It is estimated that only 20-30 South China

    tigers are left in the wild (Dang ,1994). Currently 48 South China tigers live in 19 zoos,

    The distribution of the Indochinese tiger is centered in Thailand, and is found in

    Myanmar, southern China, CAnbodia, Laos, Vietnam, and penisular Malaysia. About

    1,180- 1,790 Indochines tigers are left in the wild and about 60 live in zoos (Tilson, 1995).

    Bengal tigers live in India, and some range through Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan,

    and Myanmar. The estimated wild population is approzimately 3,060- 4,735 tigers, with

    about 333 in captivity, primarily in zoos in India (Dang, 1994).

    White tigers are just white-colored Bengal tigers. They ae not a separate

    subspecies of tiger, and they are no albinos. They have blue eyes, a pink nose, and creamy

    white fur with chocolate colored striipes, White tigers are only born when two tigers that

    both carry the unusual gene for white coloring mate, Wild white tigers are very rare, and

    todayt they can only be seen in zoos.

    The Sumatrain tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. About

    400-500 wild Sumatran tigers are believed to exist, primarily inthe island’s five national

    parks (Dang, 1994). Another 235 Simatran tigers live in zoos around the world (Dang,

    Three tiger subspecies have been considered to become extinct in the past 70 years

    (Tilson ,1994). The Caspian tiger, known as the Panthera tigris virgata, once ranged in

    Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Mongolia, and Central Asiatic area of Russia and probably

    went extinct in the 1950’s (Tilson, 1995). The Javan tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica,

    formerly ranged on the Indonesian island of Java and was last seen in 1972 (Tilson, 1995).

    The Bali tiger, Panthera tigris balica, once lived on Bali, where the last tiger was believed

    to have been killed in 1937 (Tilson, 1995).

    Tigers have social behavior. Adult tigers are solitary animal that establish their

    territories in areas with enough prey, cover and water to support them. The hardship of

    loating prey in tiger habitat makes it more efficient for tigers to hunt alone. As a result,

    they do not tend to form social groups like lions. A female tiger and her cubs are the

    exception to this, and will form a family group for 2 to 3 years, until the cubs are able to

    fend for themselves (Dang ,1994). The territory of a tiger usually ranges in size from

    about 10 to 30 square miles, although the territory of a Siberian tiger may be as large as

    120 square miles (Tilson, 1995). Both male and female tigers spray bushes and trees

    along their route with amixture of urine and scent gland secretions. This is a way of

    declaring their territory. They also leave marks on trees, and urinate or leave droppongs

    Female tigers reach maturity when they area bout 3 years old and males reach it

    when they are a year or so later (Dang, 1994). In temperate climates, a tigress comes into

    heat only seasonally , but in tropical climates, she may come int heat throughtout the year.

    She signals her readiness with scent marking and locating roars. The brief act of

    copulaiton occurs continually for a five day period. Tigers are induced ovulators, and

    must be stimualted through frequent copulation in order to become pregnant. To

    stimulate ovulation the male tiger’s penis has spines. This explains in part why the female

    roars and lashes out at the male immediately following copulation.

    After mating, the period for tigers is about 103 days (Tilson, 1995). The average

    litter size of tigers is 2 or 3 cubs (Tilson, 1995). One usually dies at birth. Tiger cubs are

    born blind and weigh only about 2 to 3 pounds (Tilson, 1995). They live on their mother’s

    milk for 6-8 weeks before the female begins taking them to kill in order to feed (Tilson,

    1995). They start making their kills within 18 months of age (Tilson, 1995). Young tigers

    leave their mother’s range at anywhere from a year and a half to three years of age,

    depending on whether the mother has another liter. Females tend to stay closer to the

    Over much of the tiger’s broad geographic range, wild pig, wild cattle and several

    species of deer are its major prey. All prey are forest or grassland ungulates that range in

    size from 65 to 2,000 pounds (Tilson, 1995). Tigers are ambush hunters, stalking their

    prey, appproaching as closely as possible. When they are close enough they charge the

    animal. They bite the neck or throat of their prey. The neck bite, which affects the spinal

    cord, is typically used on small or medium sized prey. The throat bite that causes

    suffocation is used on larger animals. After killing their prey, tigers drag the animal to a

    safe place so that no one else eats it. They usually carry their prey in high trees.

    Typically, wild tigers go wild on fresh kills, and can eat as much as 40 pounds of meat at

    one time (Dang, 1994). Several days may pass before they are hungry enough to hunt

    Although tiger attacks on humans are unusual, they do sometimes occur. Because

    the Asian human population is increasing, farmers and loggers are beginning to use areas

    where tigers live. This causes increasing conflicts between tigers and human. It is thought

    that most tigers who eat humans are sick or injured and unanble to kill their prey. Once

    they have acquired a taste for human beings, they will keep eating humans. While man-

    eating tigers are a rarity in most parts of Asia, they are common in the Sunderbans. No

    one lives in the magrove forests and swamps of the Sunderbans. The Sunderban tigers

    seem to have targeted humans as prey, and human being attacked are being reported every

    year. Several different have been used to combat man-eating tigers in the Sunderbans.

    One method uses human dummies fitted with electric wires from car batteries. This

    method administers a shock when touched by a tiger. Another method uses a simple mask

    of a human face which arw worn on back of your head. This effectively made both sides

    of the wearer appear to be the front. This method is used because tigers usually attack

    from the behind. While this method seemed to work for several years, the Sunderban

    In no further discussion, tigers are very interesting to learn about. Tigers may be

    dangerous if you invade their territory. Tigers can be found in open areas and zoos . If

    you want to see tigers you should go to a zoo. Tigers are becoming extinct because we

    are invading their territories and we should protect them from going extinct because they

    Essay- Tigers History and Statistics. (2018, Jun 15). Retrieved from

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