The cow – milk feeding construct of babies, in the larger parts of Lake Victoria basin of Kenya, for about the first six months after birth, has vastly invigorated the involvement in look intoing the presence and degrees of some heavy metals in cow ‘s milk. Toxicity of a heavy metal depends on its fractional bioavailability and concentration in the environment, therefore its speciation is of great importance. The cognition of concentrations of toxic heavy metals like Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, lead and Zn in cow ‘s milk is hence really necessary.
Fresh – milk samples from breastfeeding cattles will be obtained by ego milking into sterilized polyethene bottles and labeled harmonizing to clip, day of the month, location and replicate. Other parametric quantities that will be collected from the three locations on the footing of 7-day interval and thenceforth investigated include: grass provenders, deposits, H2O, dirt, and breastfeeding cow ‘s fecal beads and piss. This information therefore gives a suited background for measuring and finding the concentrations of heavy metal contaminations on cattles and their subsequent consumption by homo.
Few beads of 0.1 M trichloroacetic acid will be added to the sample for curdling and the aqueous bed heated at 500 0C for one hr. Digestion will be done with 0.5 M azotic acid as presence and concentration of heavy metals analyzed utilizing an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, AAS.
Statistical analysis will be conducted utilizing MSTATC two factor complete randomized block design, with the heavy metal concentration as the chief factor with the locations as the bomber intervention. The bundle will execute analysis of discrepancy ( ANOVA ) at P a‰¤ 0.05 with two factor experiment and pupils T-test at P a‰¤ 0.05. The mean, standard divergence, scope and additive correlativity co-efficient on the measured parametric quantities will be determined. The survey is expected to give an indicant of the exposure of female parents and babies in the part to the heavy metals and besides ascertain the safety of absolute milk eating of babies.
This survey will be conducted in Kisumu metropolis, at the shore of Lake Victoria, Kenya.
Cardinal words: Heavy metals, babies, cow ‘s milk and taint.
Human and animate beings have been exposed to heavy metal toxicity for an unmeasurable clip. The industries have dramatically increased the overall environmental burden of the toxins to degrees that they are present in every country of modern consumerism. Therefore, it is necessary to cognize the environmental destiny of all xenobiotics so as to foretell their continuity and possible effects on non-target beings ( Keng’ara F.O: 2004 ) .
Anthropogenetic activities appear to play an of import function in this survey since, in the past, solid wastes have been dumped by occupants in their several vicinities. In an evident effort to maintain the environment clean, in Kisumu metropolis, the local governments, in the past four old ages have collected and dumped the solid wastes at a new site, Nyalenda – Kachok, Kisumu. Similarly lorry-loads from all over the metropolis ‘s supermarkets, industrial set-ups, gasoline Stationss, abodes and markets dump theirs solid wastes at the site.
Cadmium, Cr, Cu, Fe, lead and Zns are among the most common heavy metals known as contaminations in the environment and hence come insult as risky substances to both human and carnal wellness ( Roberts J.R, 1999 ) . This is due to broad spread environmental pollution by stuffs incorporating them: like batteries, pigments, pipes, soldering rods, pesticides, antifungals, gasolene, engine oils, chemical fertilisers or when they occur in high sums in air, dirt, H2O, workss and other compounded carnal provenders.
They therefore increase concentrations of heavy metals in air, H2O, dirt and later taken by workss and animate beings into their nutrient concatenation ( Ahmad, W.M.S, 2002 ) . The presence of heavy metals in cow ‘s milk may be attributed to taint of the original one, which may be due to exposure of breastfeeding cow to environmental pollution or ingestion of contaminated eating materials and H2O ( Carl M, 1991 ) .
This happening can take to considerable concentrations in human organic structure since they are non metabolized hence poses a serious hazard to human wellness when consumed even in little sums ( Selinger B, 1979 ) .
Most of them, like Cd, lead and quicksilver persist in the organic structure and exercise their toxic consequence by uniting with one or more reactive groups indispensable for normal physiological maps of the cells therefore doing cellular perturbations or clinical manifestation. The inauspicious toxic effects caused by lead, cadmium quicksilver are widely recognized ( Friberg, L. and Elinder, C.G, 1988 ) . The major clinical marks in animate beings and adult male for lead and Cu toxic condition include, among others, divergences of the haematological parametric quantities due to their direct effects on haematopoiesis, reduced unity of ruddy blood cells ‘ membrane taking to intravascular hemolysis, anaemia and desiccation ( Radostits O. M. et al. , 1994 ) .
Therefore haematological parametric quantities have diagnostic value in animate beings suspected of heavy metal toxicity ( Mlay P.S and Migumia Y.O, 2008 ) . Man becomes at hazard by eating nutrient and imbibing fluids contaminated with heavy metals, A through air, direct contact with the metals like in people working in auto wash or organic structure spraying industries or mills covering with heavy metals and their derived functions ( Farr G, 2001 ) .
Kisumu metropolis is endowed with comparatively many but little endeavors covering with metal plants, auto care and fix ( Jua Kali Sheds ) , building works that pose a hazard of taint to the environment with risky substances including heavy metals. Subsistence agriculture and farming are rather enhanced in its vicinities.
The foregone information prompts the desire to look into the presence of some heavy metals in cow ‘s milk. The information generated will help the concerned metropolis contrivers, establishments and organic structures charged with environmental control and surveillance to explicate steps and policies that would firmly regulate the dumping of solid wastes, re-locate the site and magisterially saloon animate beings from feeding on the wastes.
Statement of the Problem
The presence and concentration of heavy metals in H2O, deposits, dirt and cow ‘s milk piss and fecal beads are unknown. This means that both adult male and animate beings likely assimilate the heavy metal contaminations unabated, therefore jeopardizing their lives.
Justification of the Research
The toxic heavy metals from the possible beginnings as stated above continue to acquire into the environment and the biology. This phenomenon is a existent menace to the human life therefore it is an pressing issue that the survey needs to turn to.
It is of import to observe that with the known construct of milk eating of babies for the first six months after birth, either through female parents ‘ chests or other beginnings like cow milk, more so in the rural set-ups, presents a possible lethal exposure path of heavy metal toxic condition. The clinical manifestations that un-permissible degrees of the heavy metals cause to both adult male and animate beings are fatal and expensive to handle therefore endanger the economic advancement of the affected community.
The dumping point at the present site has continued to foul the air due to organics let go ofing toxicant gases when they decompose and burnt. The changeless combustion of the wastes has hindered visibleness, caused external respiration trouble and eye-aches to the route users as the site is at the high manner and the entryway to the metropolis. It is hence a ill-mannered welcome to the tourers sing the metropolis.
Therefore, the survey will give an indicant of the exposure of female parents and babies in the part to the heavy metals and besides ascertain the safety of absolute milk eating of babies.
( I ) The solid wastes dumped at the dumping site at Kachok, Kisumu metropolis, contain toxic heavy metals like Cd ( Cd ) , Cu ( Cu ) , Fe ( Fe ) , lead ( Pb ) , manganese ( Mn ) , and Zn ( Zn ) .
( two ) The animate beings that feed on the wastes take-up the heavy metals into their organic structure systems.
Heavy metals are elements with specific denseness of 5gcm3, at least five times as the specific gravitation of H2O ( Florea T et al. , 2006 ) and ( Steven, D, 2003 ) . They have been found in human chest milk and shown to impact wellness in babies. This may be due to female parents being susceptible to chemicals largely in nutrients. Inhalation and cuticular paths are possible though they are undistinguished. Heavy metals, quicksilver, lead, arsenic, Cd, Bi, Sb most frequently disrupt immune map, neurological and endocrinal maps.
Some common effects of heavy metal toxicity include encephalon murk. Insomnia in kids, memory loss, dementedness shudders delay development ( Molin J, 2000 ) . Due to their toxic nature, the human organic structure upon assimilation begins to acquire rid of them through the variety meats such as the tegument, liver, kidney and through urine and perspiration. However, this procedure is rather strenuous therefore loads and amendss the variety meats ( Bentum J.K, et al. , 2010 ) .
Unfortunately human milk is one of the paths of riddance this load, and hence a beginning of exposure to babies ( Oskarsson A, 1998 ) . Some of these metals are stored in the female parent ‘s castanetss and are extracted from her to supply Ca for the development of the kid ‘s castanetss. As a consequence, they enter the maternal blood and chest milk during gestation and lactation, therefore exposing the foetus and babies to put on the line ( Sonawane R.B, 1994 ) . However, at allowable degrees, some of them are indispensable for normal physiological maps in animate being tissues ( Ahmed, E.E.K, et al. , 1999 ) .
Dietary lacks of Cu, Zn, Ca, Fe, protein and extra fats cause an addition in the soaking up and toxicity of lead ( Goldfrank, L.R. et al. , 1990 ) . While Cu is a hint component in assorted metabolic maps in the organic structure, lead and other heavy metals have no map in the organic structure and can be extremely toxic due to interference straight in metabolic tracts or indirectly by doing lacks of other hint metals ( Farr G, 2004 ) . Excessively higher degrees of the metals in milk and tissues of animate beings suggest an exposure either from the air, dirt, H2O or provenders or all of these beginnings ( Farr G, 2001 ) and ( Dupler D, 2001 ) .
Animals can digest elevated degrees of these metals though at certain degrees clinical marks of toxicity manifest which can be acute or chronic when there is low exposure for a long clip since these metals bio-accumulate in the organic structure ( IARC, 1997 ) and ( Allcroft R, 1951 ) . Heavy metals like Cd, lead and quicksilver have been detected in chest milk in many parts of the universe and have different agencies and scopes ( Appendix 6.1 ) .
In many parts of the universe, they exceed the recommended bounds ( Oskarson A et al. , 1995 ) while in others lead has been found in chest milk between 5-20 ppb ( Rabinowitz M et al. , 1985 ) . This may be attributed to the fact that beginnings of lead exposure are legion runing from ceramic and pottery glazed with lead, electronic plants, welding and solders, jewellery devising and repairing, certain hair dyes, car fixs ( ATSDR, 1990 ) .
The presence of Cd has been detected in chest milk as 0.28 I?g/litre. It is found in many constituents of vehicles and in electrical and electronic equipment ( Honda R et al. , 2003 ). Cadmium ‘s degrees in chest milk have besides been associated with coffin nail smoke. Arsenic has non been exhaustively studied in chest milk but is nevertheless known to do malignant neoplastic disease in worlds ( Radisch B and Luck W, 1987 ) .
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