Oral communication A model of communication refers to the conceptual model used to explain the human communication process. The first major model for communication came in 1949 by Claude Elwood Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories[l] Following the basic concept, communication is the process of sending and receiving messages or transferring information from one part (sender) to another (receiver). Shannon and Weaver Model The new model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver.
The sender was the part Of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon and Weaver also recognized that often there is static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation, which they deemed noise. The noise could also mean the absence of signal. In a simple model, often referred to as the transmission model or standard view of communication, information or content (e.
G. A message in natural language) is sent in some form (as spoken language) from an miser/ sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ coder.
This common conception of communication views communication as a means of sending and receiving information. The strengths of this model are simplicity, generality, and quantifiable. Mathematicians Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver structured this model based on the following elements MODELS OF COMMUNICATION In this section, you will learn about three models of communication: a. Linear model b. Interactive model c. Transactional model Linear Model The linear model views communication as a one-way or linear process in which the speaker speaks and the listener listens.
Scalpel’s (1948) model was eased on the five questions below, which effectively describe how communication works: Shannon and Weaver’s (1949) model includes noise or interference that distorts understanding between the speaker and the listener. Figure 1. 3 shows a linear model of communication: Figure 1 . 3: A linear model Of communication Interactive Model The main flaw in the linear model is that it depicts communication as a one- way process where speakers only speak and never listen. It also implies that listeners listen and never speak or send messages.
Ashrams (1955) in Wood (2009) came out with a more interactive model that saw the receiver or Sistine providing feedback to the sender or speaker. The speaker or sender of the message also listens to the feedback given by the receiver or listener. Both the speaker and the listener take turns to speak and listen to each other. Feedback is given either verbally or non-verbally, or in both ways. This model also indicates that the speaker and listener communicate better if they have common fields of experience, or fields which overlap (please refer to Figure Figure 1. : An interactive model of communication Transactional Model The main drawback in the interactive model is that it does not indicate that incubators can both send and receive messages simultaneously. This model also fails to show that communication is a dynamic process which changes over time. The transactional model shows that the elements in communication are interdependent. Each person in the communication act is both a speaker and a listener, and can be simultaneously sending and receiving messages. There are three implications in the transactional model: I. Transactional” means that communication is an ongoing and continuously changing process. You are changing, the people with whom you recontaminations changing and your environment is also continually hanging as well. Ii. In any transactional process, each element exists in relation to all the other elements. There is this interdependence where there can be no source without a receiver and no message without a source. Iii. Each person in the communication process reacts depending on factors such as their background, prior experiences, attitudes, cultural beliefs and self- esteem.
Figure 1. 5 shows a transactional model of communication that takes into account “noise” or interference in communication as well as the time factor. The outer lines of the model indicate that communication happens within systems that both communicators share (e. . , a common campus, hometown, and culture) or personal systems (e. G. , family, religion, friends, etc). It also takes into account changes that happen in the communicators’ fields of personal and common experiences. The model also labels each communicator as both sender as well as receiver simultaneously.
Animal And human communication Introduction Language is an invaluable possession Of the human race. Man is clearly distinguished from other species by his capacity of using language. Human beings have an organized form of languages. There are innumerable languages exist around the world. Animals also common iGATE in one or the there way. This communication method or language is not organized as human language and entirely different from human communication method, biologically and culturally. Human Language Language is the most effective method of human communication. The term language is derived from the Latin word lingua meaning tongue.
Human language is in organized form. It is an open entity, new words or meanings may come into use. Language is as important as breathing. Barnett says, “Verbal communication is a condition of the existence of human society. ” Language helps man in several ways. It enables him to reach back into elective knowledge of his ancestors. It is through language that human beings collect and preserve knowledge and transfer it to the next generation. Most of the linguists disclose the fact that human language has different types of realizations such as written form, spoken form.
Human language has signifier and signified. Animal communication Animals also can communicate. Some animals and birds like dog, dolphins, gibbons, herring gulls and honey bees have developed their own system of communication. But their communication system differs from human communication. Animal communication lacks flexibility and creativity. Their communication tradition is acquired genetically and not through learning. Human language has got certain properties which makes it unique and different from animal communication system.
These properties are duality, creativity, displacement, arbitrariness, interchangeability etc. The main differences between animal and human communications. The primary difference between human communication and animal communication is the duality of structure of human language. Each human language has got a fixed number of sound units called phonemes. These phonemes are combined to make morphemes. Thus language has got two bevels of patterning which is not prevailed in animal communication. Yet another distinctive feature of human communication is creativity.
Human beings use their linguistic resources to produce new expressions and new sentences. They arrange and rearrange phonemes, morphemes, words and phrases to create new modes of expression. This is also called open- mindedness of language. Animal communication is closed system they cannot produce new vocal signals to communicate novel events or experience. Human beings can talk Of real or imaginary situations, places and Objects far removed from their present surroundings and time. Human language is intent free whereas animal communication mostly context bound.
Animal communication is merely a response to stimulus in the immediate environment like the presence of food or danger. Human language is interchangeable. Both sexes of human beings can use the same language interchangeably. But certain communications in animal world are performed only by one sex of that sect. Bee dancing is performed by worker bees. The important disparity is human language is culturally transmitted. Thus human beings brought up in different culture acquire different languages also by the influence of other culture man can learn other languages in ours of time.
But animals lack in this capacity. Their communication ability is transmitted biologically so they are unable to acquire other languages. Human language is a symbolic system. Hence human language is not only uttered but also can be displayed by writing with the help of certain symbols called alphabets of that language. Animal communication fails to disclose in this manner. Hence ideas or main events of any time cannot be preserved for the future generation of that sect. Biological differences also play a vital role in communication.
Human vocal cords can produce a large number of sounds. Each human language makes its own selection of sounds for it use. Animal and birds have an entirely different biological structure with regard to the formation Of sounds. Conclusion Human language is entirely different from animal communication. Human language has many properties which makes it different from animal communication. Human language has alphabets which help man to write down and preserve ideas for coming generations. Animal communication is context bound, they cannot communicate any experience of past.
Animal communication is biologically transmitted thus it cannot learn any other languages. Some birds like parrot may imitate human utterances but it reiterate the words without knowing meaning also fails to learn more words. If they try to learn new utterance the older ones get erased. Whereas human beings can imitate the sounds of animals and make them respond to the sounds easily. Hence human communication or human language is a unique one which is the sole property of him. List of telecoms animation gadgets Gadgets commonly refer to small devices used for communications.
Examples of these “gadgets” can be cell phones, pods, pads, Notebooks, etc. Newer gadgets will continue to emerge and redefine or extenuate electrification as each year passes. Advantages of telecommunication gadgets ;Easy Access to information: It has become very easy to get access to relevant information at any time anywhere. This has been possible because of modern technologies like broadband internet. Lots of data is being published and indexed online, sites like Wisped and Youth have great original content which can be used in research or entertainment.
Information is power, and those who find information and use it well always succeed. With smart gadgets like the pad , phone , galaxy tablet , users can easily have access to information through these smart gadgets because they use internet. So a user on a train can easily read breaking news while traveling, they can also buy and sell stocks while in the bedroom using the internet. These smart gadgets make it easy to access internet and this simplifies the way we get information. ;Encourages innovation and creativity – Since technology is challenging, it sparks the brain to work to its full potential.
In the past, it used to be very difficult to start a business, one had to have lots of capital and they even had limited access to business information. Today, it is very easy to start a business while at home. Let’s look at companies like Test. Com which enable creative people sell their works online, this encourages creativity. Another good example is streakier. Com which helps creative people get funds for their projects through crowd funding. On this platform, creative developers post projects seeking for funding from the community, this helps them generate lots of cash for their good ideas which latter leads to creation of new Jobs.
The other creative works which have been facilitated by modern technology include Google , Apple , Faceable , Microsoft , Amazon , etc ;Improved communication: Communication is like water to life. We can not develop without communication. Modern technology has blessed us with advanced communication technology tools. These can include e-fax machines, electronic mail, mobile phones, videoconferencing, instant text messaging applications, social networking applications. All these modern communication technology tools have simplified the way humans and businesses communicate.
I can easily talk to my relative oversees using a mobile phone or video chatting services like Keep ;Convenience of Traveling: Modern transportation technology makes it very easy to travel long distances. Transport is a very important both in our lives and in the business world. Transportation technology has evolved with years. In the past it used to be slow and expensive to move long distances. Now days, can cover a 10 miles distance with in a few minutes or hours using electric trains or airplanes. ;Improved housing and lifestyle: This is another great way how modern technology has simplified our lives.
If you compare the type of housing we used to have in 1 900 and the architecture of houses today, the difference is very big. New architectural technology has improved the types of housed we build now days. People with money can afford town floating housed and glass homes. Most of the items in our house are now automated, for example, doors use finger prints which guarantee security. Remote websites which you can use to monitor what goes on at your home. ;Improved Entertainment: Modern technology has played a big role in changing the entertainment industry.
Home entertainment has improved with the invention of video games and advance music and visual systems like smart televisions which can connect live to internet so that a user can share what they re watching with friends. Easy access and storage of music, services like Tunes allow users to purchase and download music on their pods at a small cost, this is a win – win situation for both musicians and the users. Because musicians can easily sell their music via tunes and the user can also have a wide selection of which music to buy without having troubles of going to a physical music store. Efficiency and Productivity: Modern technology has helped businesses increase production. Humans are slow and some times they fail to deliver on time. So many businesses have integrated modern technology in their production line, most of the hard work has become so impel and the results are better than those of humans. Let’s look at a farmer who uses modern technology right from the day of preparing the farm land to the day of harvesting. They save a lot of time and money during this process. Convenience in Education: Learning is a process and it is part of our daily lives. Modern technology has made it simple for students to learn from any where through online education and mobile education. Also students now use modern technology in classrooms to learn better. For example, students use pads to share visual lessons and examples with peers in the classroom. This has made learning more convenient and fan. Also new modern educational technologies support individual learning which gives a chance to students to learn on their own with no need of tutors. Social Networking: Modern technology has made it simple to discover our old friends and also discover new people to network with. This is a benefit to both individuals and businesses. Many businesses have embraced the social networking technology to interact with their customers. Users of social networks can share information with friends, live chat with them and interact in all sorts of ways. Changed the health industry: Now days most hospitals have implemented modern technology in surgical rooms, this has reduced on mistakes made by doctors.
Humans can easily make mistakes because of work overload and stress factors. Also the business community has developed health applications which can enable us monitor our health and weight. These applications can be used on mobile phones, so users can have them at any time of the day. Disadvantages of telecommunication gadgets ;Increased loneliness – Social Isolation is on the increase, people are spending more time playing video games, learning how to use new modern cosmologies, using social networks and they neglect their real life. Technology has replaced our old way of interacting.
If a user can easily interact with 100 friends online, they will feel no need to going out to make real friends which at a later stage leads to loneliness. ;Job Loss: Modern technology has replaced many humans; robots are doing of the jobs which used to be done by humans. Many packing firms have employed robots on production lines to increase on production and efficiency, this is good news for businesses because it helps them make more money and serve customers n time, but it is bad news to employees because they get replaced by a robot. Competency – Increased dependency on modern tools like calculators has reduced on our creativity. You can find a student when they can solve a very simple mathematical equation without using a calculator.
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