And The Problem-posing Method?
Paulo Freire. a well-renowned leader in literacy surveies every bit good as an advocator of progressive instruction. is against the instruction system he classifies as the “banking construct of education” . Alternatively. he supports the thought that instruction should be a collaborative procedure in which instructors and pupils work together and believe critically. From the extract “The Banking Concept of Education” taken from his most popular book Pedagogy of the Oppressed. he classifies the Banking Concept as an environment where instructors are the storytellers and the pupils are the recording equipments ( 238 ) .
Freire has besides proposed a new solution in his article called the problem-posing instruction where the instructor and pupil become one to state. each teaches the other and both have the opportunity to believe critically every bit good as give one’s reading of the topic ( 242 ) . However. both systems are non wholly perfect and hence both have advantages and disadvantages in the instruction system.
The banking construct of instruction has received many unfavorable judgments particularly from Freire himself.
Freire describes the method of learning where the instructors straight fill the heads of their pupils with information and the pupil themselves accept it without any inquiring as oppressive ( 239 ) . To set it otherwise. the instructor informs. and the pupil listens in return. The pupils are non allowed to dispute the authorization and the credibleness of the instructor. So pupils have no freedom or active engagement in instruction and the exchange of information is one-way. As I see it. this is by and large what people call spoon-feeding. In add-on. Freire explains. “Those genuinely committed to liberation must reject the banking construct in its entireness. following alternatively a construct of work forces as witting existences. and consciousness as consciousness purpose upon the world” ( 241 ) .
This suggests that Freire feels the banking construct leads to an unresponsive head that stands in the manner of men’s look and freedom. This is evidently against the rule of most people in this state which emphasizes on freedom of look or address. He besides adds. “In amount: banking theory and pattern. as immobilization and fixating forces. fail to admit work forces as historical beings” ( 244 ) . To set it otherwise. he feels that the banking construct fails to acknowledge work forces as the ultimate being in this universe that is capable of alone highs. With the banking construct. men’s accomplishments are hampered ensuing to a backward society in the hereafter. Therefore. Freire concludes that there is no advantage to the banking construct of instruction and that it is ne’er utile.
There is. nevertheless. a clip in which this type of instruction is necessary and advantageous. The act of entering. memorizing. and reiterating phrases may hold its advantages after all in certain state of affairss. For case. this banking method would show its necessity when learning a foreign linguistic communication. This is because. for the first few old ages of larning a foreign linguistic communication. the lone method of instruction is the memorisation and repeat of vocabulary. pronunciation. and so on. Likewise this is besides true when learning in an simple school or to younger childs. The pupils need to larn the rudimentss first before utilizing it to believe and explicate their ain positions and thoughts. For illustration. when learning basic math equation. instructors ask their pupils to memorise that 1+1= 2 or 1?2=2 and so on.
In this state of affairs. it is appropriate to utilize the banking construct because there is no point denying truth of the equation. In other words. pupils need the foundation that is passed to them by their instructors to be able to believe critically and be originative in their ain manner. Therefore the banking construct provides basis for pupils to come in another phase where the problem-posing method would be used. On the whole. the banking construct should non be wholly eliminated from the instruction system because it plays an of import function during certain phases of instruction for a pupil.
As a solution to the banking construct. Freire proposed the problem-posing instruction method. The “problem-posing” method is the antonym of the banking construct of instruction. Freire says. “Whereas banking instruction anesthetizes and inhibits originative power. problem-posing instruction involves a changeless unveiling of reality” ( 242 ) . To set it otherwise. Freire says the banking construct prevent a person’s creativeness from bring outing while the problem-posing instruction emphasizes spontaneousness and prepares an person to face world as it is. He feels that the problem-posing method promote an individual’s creativeness thereby promoting the acquisition procedure. While the banking construct of instruction is merely a one-way communicating. the problem-posing instruction emphasizes a bipartisan communicating between the instructor and the pupils.
The instructors therefore non merely learn but besides learn at the same clip from their pupils. In problem-posing instruction. instructors are unfastened to students’ thoughts and hence students’ are encouraged to take part actively in category. Students besides become more enthusiastic to perpetrate themselves to the job and work outing it. Freire besides says. “In problem-posing instruction. work forces develop their power to comprehend critically the manner they exist in the world” ( 243 ) . This suggests that unlike the banking construct of instruction where pupils accept what they are told. in the problem-posing instruction. they are able to believe for themselves or in other words the construct stresses critical thought. In short. the problem-posing instruction gives the pupil much more freedom to voice their thoughts than the banking construct of instruction.
Although problem-posing may look as a better method than the banking construct most of the clip. it is non practical in certain fortunes. For case. image an introductory category such as Chemistry 101. Biology 101. Anthropology 201 or Psychology 100 here at Ohio State. In this state of affairs. the problem-posing method of learning would be impossible or really dearly-won. The ground is that categories of introductory classs by and large teach basic facts of their several field. These information and facts have been tested. recreated and proven over clip to be right and accurate. For case. there is no point for pupils to discourse and province their ain version of the jurisprudence of gravitation since it has already been proven to be true. Discoursing every small spot of the course of study would be a waste of clip. Therefore there is no demand for the problem-posing method in this state of affairs because for the most portion. the information taught is unchangeable and it’s something that a instructor can non larn more about or from the pupils.
Besides the pointless usage of the problem-posing method in certain state of affairss. the method besides gives pupils excessively much freedom. It is this advantage of the problem-posing method that creates other jobs. Students may voice their positions and thoughts when they feel necessary. But when this system emphasizes excessively much on freedom for pupils. pupils may lose regard for their instructors. There may be instances where the pupils are every bit on par in footings of cognition on certain topics but taken as a whole a instructor has more old ages of experience and therefore deserves the regard. Teachers who do non experience respected by their pupils may non be inclined to learn and portion their cognition thereby making an environment non favourable for larning. In other words. larning takes topographic point when instructors and pupils treat each other with regard and niceness instead than choler. ridicule. or confrontation.
In add-on to esteem. a instructor should hold some kind of authorization in category which Freire objects to. This is because. through the problem-posing method. pupils at some point will larn to be cocksure of themselves and therefore may even be chesty to the point they won’t admit their errors. This obstinacy can turn out to be a job and therefore interrupt a category. As a consequence. a disrupted category rob other pupils their right and chance to larn from the instructor and from the remainder of the category. Hence instructors with some authorization will be able to command their students’ behaviour but at the same clip non restrict their students’ ability to show their sentiment. Therefore. problem-posing method should be used without the riddance of hierarchal agreement in the schoolroom.
Although I disagree with Freire at some point sing the banking construct. I do admit the job he has pointed out in his article. Freire has opened the eyes of his readers to the job faced by the current instruction systems around the universe. The banking construct should non be used wholly throughout an individual’s instruction. It should merely be used in certain fortunes. This is the same for the problem-posing method. However. I do admit that the advantages of the problem-posing method outweigh its disadvantages. The problem-posing method would look like the better option in most state of affairss because it encourages critical thought and allows a bipartisan communicating between instructor and pupil. Thus a instructor non merely Teachs but besides learns at the same clip from their pupils. For this ground. there is non one perfect method of learning that can work out the jobs we’re confronting. Therefore. we must larn to integrate both learning methods to suite the state of affairs we’re in.
Freire. Paulo. “The Banking Concept of Education” Writing Lives. Ed. Kay Halasek. Edgar
Singleton. Brenda Boyle. Jennifer Clark. Robert Dunks. Bruce Machart. Michaal Sasso. Lisa Tatonetti. Rebecca Taylor. Boston. MA: Pearson Custom Publishing. 2000. 237-252.
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