Labor Welfare Activities in Textile Industry - Labor Essay Example

CHAPTER – I 1 - Labor Welfare Activities in Textile Industry introduction. 1 INTRODUCTION GENERAL Man Management is very vital for any organization. This has to be, followed by providing necessary infrastructure facilities and Welfare Measure to the employees of the organization. Oxford dictionary defines Labour Welfare as “Efforts to Man Life worth Living for Workman”. It operates to centralize the harmful effects of Large Scale industrialization and urbanization. The Welfare is having two dimensions, one in broader sense and other in Narrow sense.

In the broader sense, it is not only the minimum standard of hygiene and labour legislation, but also such aspects of Working life as social insurance schemes, Measures for the protection of Woman & Young Workers, limitation of hours of workers, limitation of hours of work, paid vacation etc. , In the Narrow sense, Welfare in addition to general physical working condition is only conceived with the day to day problem of the workers and the Social Relationship at the place of Work.

Need

essay sample on "Labor Welfare Activities in Textile Industry"

? We will write a cheap essay sample on "Labor Welfare Activities in Textile Industry" specifically for you for only $12.90/page

More Labor, Cotton Essay Topics.

The concept of Labour Welfare originated in the desire for humanitarian approach to the sufferings of the Working class. It also operates to neutralize the harmful effect of the large scale Industrialization & Urbanization. The concept of Labour Welfare can be approached from various Angles. Welfare has been defined as a total concept. It is a desirable state of Existence involving physical, mental and moral well being. All these four elements together constitute the structure of welfare on which its totaling is based.

Welfare is a Relative concept for it is related to time and place. Changes in it have an impact on the system of Welfare as well. Also the characteristics of Welfare vary, for it depends largely on the conscience of the community, the scientific Advancement and development of a Nation in all fields. Its meaning and components differ from country and from place to place. The social concept of Welfare implies the Welfare of Man, the family and his community.

All these aspects are inter related and work together in a three dimensional Approach. It is however, flexible, elastic and from time to time, region to Region, industry to industry and country to country depending on the value of the system, level of Education, Social customs, degree of Industrialization, and general standards of Socio-economic development of the people. It is also relative to the political situation of the country.

Further it depends on the kinds of problems with which the society is confronted as well as on the structure of industry. Labour investigation committee (1944-1946) includes under Labour Welfare Activities as anything done for the industrial, physical, moral & Economic betterment of the Workers whether by the Employer, by the government or by any agencies, over and above, what is laid down by the law, or what is normally expected as part of the contractual benefits for which the workers may have benefited.

The report of the committee on Labour Welfare (1969) includes under it such services and facilities and amenities as Adequate canteen, rest and recreation facilities, sanitary and Medical facilities, arrangement for travel to and from work and for the accommodation of workers employed at a distance from their homes and such other services, amenities and facilities including social security measures as contributing to improve the conditions under which the workers are employed. In brief, Welfare is a desirable state of existence involving physical, mental and moral, emotional well being, it is a total concept.

1. 2 TEXTILE INDUSTRY The Indian Textile Industry has a significant presence in the economy as well as the international textile economy. Its contribution to the Indian Economy is manifested in terms of its contribution to the Industrial production, Employment generation and foreign exchange Earnings. It contributes 20% of Industrial Production, 9% of Excise collections, 18% of Employment in the industrial sector, nearly 20% to the country’s total Export Earning and 4% to the Gross Domestic product. HISTORY OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY:

India has been well known for the Textile goods since very ancient times. The Traditional textile industry of India was virtually decayed during the colonial regime. However, the modern textile industry took birth in India in the early 19th century when the first textile mill in the country was established at fort gloster near Calcutta in 1818. The cotton Textile industry, however, made its real beginning in Bombay in 1850’s. The first cotton textile mill of Bombay was established in 1854 by a parsi cotton merchant then engaged in overseas and internal trade.

Indeed the vast majoring of the early mills was the handwork of parsi merchants engaged in yarn and cloth trade at home & Chinese & African markets. The cotton Textile Industry made Rapid progress in the second half of the Nineteenth Century and by the end of the century there were 178 cotton mills. The two World wars and the Swadeshi Movement provided great stimulus to the Indian cotton Textile Industry. However, during the period 1922 to 1937, the industry was in doldrums and during this period, a number of the Bombay mills changed hands.

The Second World War, during which Textile import from Japan completely stopped, however, brought an unprecedented growth of this Industry. The number of mills increased from 178 with 4. 05 lakh looms in 1901 to 1921 & further to 396 mills with over 20 lakh looms in 1941. By 1945 there were 417 mills, employing 5. 10 Lakh workers. The cotton industry is rightly described as the Swadeshi industry because it was developed with Indigenous entrepreneurship and capital and in the pre-independence era the Swadeshi Movement stimulated the demand for Indian Textile in the country.

After Independence, the cotton textile industry made Rapid strides under the plans. Between 1951 & 1982 the Total Number of Spindles doubled from 11 million to 22 million it increased further to well over 26 million by 1989 – 90. STRUCTURE OF INDIA’S TEXTILE INDUSTRY The Textile Industry sector in India is one of the World’s largest. The Textile industry is divided into 3 segments 1)Cotton Textile 2)Synthetic Textiles 3)Other like Wool, Jute, Silk etc. , All segments have their own place but even today cotton textiles continue to dominate with 73% share.

The structure of cotton textile industry is very complex with co-existence of oldest technologies of hand spinning and hand weaving with the most sophisticated automatic spindles and loom. The structure of the Textile industry is extremely complex with the modern sophisticated and highly mechanized mill sector on the one hand and hand weaving (hand loom sector) on the other in between falls the decentralized small scale power loom sector. Unlike other Textile producing countries, India’s Textile industry is mostly comprised of small scale, Non integrated spinning, Weaving, finishing and apparel making enterprises.

This Unique industry structure is primarily a legacy of government polices that have promoted labour – intensive, small – scale operation and discriminated against large scale firms. COMPOSITE MILLS: Relatively large scale mills that integrate spinning, weaving and, sometimes, fabric finishing are common in other major – textile producing countries. In India however these types of mills now account for about only 3% of output in the textile sector. About 27 composite mills are now operating in India, most owned by the public sector and many deemed financially sick. Most of these mills are located in Gujarat and Maharashtra.

SPINNING Spinning is the process of converting cotton or man made fibre into yarn to be used for weaving and knitting. These mills are chiefly located in North India. Spinning Sector is technology intensive and productivity is affected by the quality of cotton and the cleaning process used during ginning. Largely due to regulation beginning in the mid – 1980’s, spinning is the most consolidated and technically efficient sector in India’s textile industry. Average plant – size remains small, however and technology outdated relative to other major producers. Weaving and Knitting:

The Weaving and knitting sector lies at the heart of the industry. Three distinctive technologies are used in their sector namely handlooms, power looms and knitting machine. Weaving and knitting sector remains highly fragmented, small scale and labour intensive. This sector consists of about 3. 9 million hand looms, 380,000 power loom enterprises that operate about 1. 7 million looms, and just 137,000 looms in the various composite mills. Power looms are small firms, with an average loom capacity of four to five owned by independent Entrepreneurs or Weavers. Modern shuttle less looms accounts for less than 1% of the loom capacity.

Fabric Finishing: Fabric finishing (also referred to as processing) which includes dyeing, printing and other cloth preparation prior to the manufacture of clothing is also dominated by a large number of independent, small scale enterprises. Overall about, 2300 processors are operating in India including about 2100, independent units and 200 units that are integrated with spinning weaving or knitting units. Clothing: Apparel is produced by about 77,000 small – scale units classified as domestic manufacturers, manufacturer exporters and fabricators (Sub Contractors).

INDIA’S COMPETITIVE POSITION IN STAGES OF TEXTILE MANUFACTURE Process| Determinate of Competitive Advantage| India’s Competitive Position| Emerging Competition| Spinning | Quality, Cotton Price| Medium| Indonesia, Turkey| Weaving | Technology, Automation, Power, Finance| Low| Vietnam, Philippines| Processing| Scale economy technology Environment issues, Finance | Low| China, Vietnam, Philippines| Garmenting| Labour cost, productivity, brand fashion design| Medium| Bangladesh, Srilanka, Morocco, East Europe, Mexico| PROBLEMS FACED BY THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA

The cotton Textile industry is reeling under manifold problems. The Major Problems are the following. Sickness: Sickness is widespread in the cotton Textile industry. After the engineering industry, the cotton industry has the highest incidence of sickness. As many as 125 sick units have been taken over by the central government. Sickness is caused by various reasons like the problems mentioned below. Obsolescence: The plant and machinery and technology employed by a number of units are obsolete. The need today is to make the industry technologically up-to-date rather than expand capacity as such.

This need was foreseen quite sometime back and schemes for modernization of textile industry had been introduced. The soft loan scheme was introduced a few years back and some units were able to take advantage of the scheme and modernize their equipment. However the problem has not been fully tackled and it is of utmost importance that the whole industry is technologically updated. Not many companies would be able to find resources internally and will have to depend on financial institutions and other sources. Government Regulations:

Government Regulations like the obligation to produce controlled cloth are against the interest of the industry. During the last two decades the excessive regulations exercised by the government on the mill sector has promoted inefficiency in both production and management. This has also resulted in a colossal waste of Raw materials and productive facilities for example, the mills are not allowed to use filament yarn in wrap in order to protect the interest of art silk and power loom sector which use this yarn to the affluent section of the society.

Low yield and fluctuation of cotton output: The Cotton yield per hectare of land is very low in India. This result in high cost and price further being largely dependent on the climatic factors, the total Raw cotton production is subject to wide fluctuation. Causing serious problems for the mills in respect of the supply of this vital Raw material. Competition from manmade fibres: One of the serious challenges facing the cotton textile industry is the competition from the man-made fibres and synthetics. These textiles are gradually replacing cotton textiles.

This substitution has in-fact been supported by a number of people on the ground that it is not possible to increase substantially the Raw cotton production without affecting other crops, particularly food crops. Competition from other countries: In the international market, India has been facing severe competition from other countries like Taiwan, South Korea, China and Japan. The high cost of production of the Indian Industry is a serious adverse factor. Labour Problems: The cotton textile industry is frequently plagued by labour problems.

The very long strike of the Textile workers of Bombay caused losses amounting to billions of Rupees not only to the workers & Industry but also to the nation in terms of excise and other taxes and exports. SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY STRENGTHS: Abundant Raw material Availability Allowing the industry to control cost and reduce overall lead times across the value chain. Low Cost Skilled Labour Low cost skilled labour providing a distinctive competitive advantage for the industry Presence across the value – chain

Presence across the value chain providing a competitive Advantage when compared to countries like Bangladesh, Srilanka, who have developed primarily as garmenters. Reduced Lead times: Manufacturing capacity present across the entire product Range, enabling textile companies and garmenters do source their material locally and reduce lead-time. Super Market: Ability to satisfy customer Requirements across multiple product grades – small and large lot sizes specialized processed treatments etc. , Growing Domestic Market: Growing Domestic Market which could allow manufactures to mitigate risk while allowing them to build competitiveness.

WEAKNESS Fragmented Industry: Fragmented Industry leading to lower ability to expand and emerge as world – class players. Effect of Historical Government Policies: Historical Regulations thought relaxed continue to be an impediment to Global Competitiveness. Lower Productivity and Cost Competitiveness: Labour force in India has a much lower productivity as compared to competing countries like china, Srilanka etc. , The Indian Industry lacks adequate economics of scale and is therefore unable to compete with china, and other countries etc. , Cost like indirect taxes, power and interest are relatively high. Technology Obsolescence:

Large portion of the Processing capacity is obsolete. While state of the art integrated textile mills exist majority of the capacity lies currently with the power loom sector. This has also resulted in low value addition in the industry. OPPORTUNITIES: Research and Development and product Development Indian Companies need to increase focus on product Development. Newer specialized fabric – smart, fabrics, specialized treatment etc. , Faster turn around times for design Samples. Investing in design centres and Sampling labs Increased use of CAD to develop designing capability in the organization & developing greater options.

Investing in trend forecasting to enable growth of the industry in India. THREATS Competition in Domestic Market: Competition is not likely to remain just in the exports space, the industry is likely to face competition from cheaper imports as well. This is likely to affect the domestic industry and may lead to increased consolidation. Ecological and Social Awareness: Development in the form of increased consumer consciousness on issues such as usage of child labour, unhealthy working condition etc. , The Indian Industry needs to prepare for the fall out of such issues by improving its working practices.

Regional Alliances: Regional trade blocs play a significant role in the global garment Industry with countries enjoying concessional tariffs by virtue of being members of such blocs / alliances. Indian Industry would need to be prepared to face the fall out in the form of continued barriers for imports. CONCLUSION The Indian Textile Industry is currently one of the largest and most important sector in the economy in terms of output foreign exchange earnings and employment in India. The Textile Industry has the potential to scale new heights in the globalized economy.

The Textile Industry in India has gone through significant changes in anticipation of increased international competition. The industry is facing numerous problems and among them the most important once are those of liquidity for many organized sector units, demand recession and insufficient price realization. The Long-Range problems include the need for sufficient modernization restructuring of the entire industry to cater more effectively to the demands of the domestic and foreign markets for textiles as per the needs of today and tomorrow. 1. 3 AMBATTUR CLOTHING LIMITED Ambattur Clothing Ltd.

, was incorporated in the year 1981 by Mr. Vijay Mahtaney (VIJU) who is a first generation entrepreneur. The Company started with a single factory with a work force of around 150 employees. In just 2 decades the company have grown to an organization which is the fifth largest exporter of garments in India with a total workforce of over 8000 people employed in 10 facilities managed by the company. Ambattur Clothing Ltd. Has a very high reputation in the Global market for its commitment to quality and delivering within the stipulated time equipped with the latest State of Art Technology in the Industry.

Ambattur Clothing Ltd. Specializes in the manufacture of Shirts, Trousers, Ladies wear, Jackets etc. Ambattur Clothing Ltd. Clientele includes GAP, Banana Republic, J Crew, Old Navy. Ann Taylor, Espirit, May Store. Llz Claibome, Next, Kohls, Levis, L. L. Bean, Diesel, A&F to name a few, “COLOUR PLUS” which has very high reputation in the domestic market is a part of the Ambattur Clothing Ltd. Group. ‘Clothes Encounters’ is a retail division of Ambattur Clothing Ltd. Which has got its showrooms in 7 locations across India.

In a highly demanding industry like Apparel Exports, where competition from both domestic and abroad is fierce, Human resource and infrastructure decides sustenance and success of any key player. Ambattur Clothing Ltd. , have the positive edge in both the factors, which is the prime and sole reason for their success. The Company’s Corporate Vision Ambattur Clothing believes in challenges like meeting international Standards of Quality, achieving high levels of production effectiveness and optimizing existing resources through their corporate philosophy. They work towards:

* Being a world class company dedicated to excellence and professionalism. * Customer delight through total quality and Services being their guiding force. * Fostering a spirit of entrepreneurial leadership and being a vibrant organization. The Company’s Corporate Mission * To evolve a corporate work culture supportive of every individual’s pursuit of dreams, equality of human dignity, ownership of organizational effectiveness and open communication for collaborative and cohesive team work. * To constantly foster strong customer orientation, highly accountable role holding and total performance alignment across the organization.

* To incorporate the most effective and progressive training and Development policy which strives to meet the rising demands of the organization, wherein every employee in this organization will undergo a minimum training on technical and behavioral areas in a given calendar year. * To constantly foster a congenial working environment which motivates every employee in this organization to facilitate maximum output. * To align with the changing Business Demands and Goals and accordingly institutionalize the key performance Areas of the functional departments and every individual.

* Employee Welfare is a continuous process and HR concentrates in developing suitable welfare measures, which are on par with the best industrial practices. Commitment to the Employees To build upon the strength of each team member, maintaining an open and honest working environment, providing adequate opportunities for career advancement and inspiring him/her to achieve their personal and professional goals. Corporate Philosophy Ambattur Clothing Ltd endeavors to achieve these corporate objectives through an overall Corporate Philosophy centering on “Value Addition” for individuals & Customers maintaining consistent ethical standards.

Corporate Human Resource Policy * Ambattur Clothing Ltd. Human Resource Policy stems from the underlying belief that Human Resource is one of its greatest assets. These assets appropriately motivated developed and above all professionally managed will be a source for the advancement of Ambattur Clothing Ltd’s Corporate Plans. * Corporate Personal Policy strives to secure job satisfaction for all its employees; good working environment and remuneration commensurate with their performance, career advancement and respect for every individual.

Infrastructure of the Company Infrastructure development is an on-going investment that is required to keep pace with the technology innovations in the market place. With 9 modern units situated in Chennai and one in Bahrain which is equipped with facilities like. * CAD/CAM/Sampling * Materials management Center * Lab/ Fabric Testing * Pre-Production, Research & Maintenance Systems * After Treatment Plant * Embroidery, Quitting & Serigraphy. Expectations towards the Employees Position Vs Capabilities

Executive, Senior Executives, Supervisors, Junior Merchandisers & Management Trainees Functional Knowledge, ability to handle his/her job to the satisfaction of the immediate superior, ability to complete tasks in the stipulated time frame, takes initiative, ability to produce good documents, ability to interact with people within the department and with the other departments, ability to adjust with the team. Assistant Managers, Merchandisers, Senior Merchandisers Sound Functional knowledge, ability to supervise executives working under him/her.

Initiative, ability to plan and implement tasks in stipulated time frame, good communication skills (written and oral) and ability to handle cross-functional tasks within the department. Managers Functional expertise, creativity, cross functional skills, strong motivator, very good team player, excellent planning ability, excellent communication skills, positive attitude, sound decision making and analytical skills, ability to handle crisis, long term planner, ability to interact with the senior management, capable of handling the department independently, reporting skills.

Senior Manager Functional expertise, creativity, strong motivator and a team player, ability to think on a long term and macro basis, sound decision – making and analytical skills, ability to handle the department independently, ability to train and develop teams, ability to take up challenging assignment, cross functional skills, ability to handle senior management and ability to handle crisis. Deputy General Managers In addition to the capabilities mentioned for a senior manager, a Deputy General Manager should possess the following.

Vision, ability to understand the business processes ability to generate, analyze and use the information generated for business decision, ability to make sound and quick decision, maturity to understand the organization peculiarities, ability to manage, organize, direct, delegate and motivate people, ability to accept responsibilities for actions of the department. General Manager In addition to the capabilities mentioned for Deputy General Manager, a General Manager should possess the following.

Ability to understand the business realities and function accordingly, ability to understand organizational dynamics and respond effectively, knowledge on finance and to understand the profitability implications and the ability to lead his team to higher levels of productivity. Performance Assessment Form (PAF) An Employees performance is assessed by his immediate superior and the concerned department head. This process aims at recognizing the contributions and achievements of employees and in turn acts as a tool to determine the increment standards based on their performance.

Welfare measures provided to Employees Medical Facility: The organization has its Medical Center located in SP-24 unit which has an in-house Medical practitioner, with renowned specialists visiting regularly. The service is totally subsidized and the employees have to pay a very nominal amount for registration. The center also provides a Pharmacy that provides medicine at very nominal rates. Creche Facility The Company also offers creche facility to their employee’s children in the age group between 1-6 yrs of age. Certified and well – trained personnel in childcare manage this facility.

The center also provides periodic health checkups for the children. Leave Facility The Employees are entitled to Casual leave with pay of 6 days (six days) per calendar year (Conditions apply). Prior permission of the department head should be obtained in writing before the casual leave is taken. The Employee will be entitled to Privilege leave or Earned leave with pay of 15 days (fifteen days) per calendar year, on completion of six months of service. Earned leave can be carried forward and accumulated for a maximum period of 30 days, leave accumulated beyond 30 day shall lapse automatically.

Library Facility The Company have a corporate tie-up with the British Council Library for taking care of the library needs for their organization. Every employee is eligible to avail this service and borrow books/ periodicals / magazines / videos Safety Measures The company has provided the employees with sufficient number of safety equipments, fire Extinguishers, Emergency Exits to ensure the safety of the employees in their working environment in the organization. 1. 4 EMPLOYEE WELFARE Organizations provide welfare facilities to their employees to keep their motivation levels high.

The employee welfare schemes can be classified into two categories namely statutory and non statutory welfare schemes. The statutory schemes are those schemes that are compulsory to provide by an organization as compliance to the laws governing employee health and safety. These include provisions provided in the industrial acts like Factories Act 1948, Dock workers Act (Safety,health and welfare) 1986, Mines Act 1962. The non statutory schemes differ from organization to organization and from industry to industry. Statutory welfare Schemes: The statutory welfare schemes include following provisions.

Drinking Water: At all the working places safe, hygienic, drinking water should be provided. Facilities for sitting: In every organizations especially factories, suitable seating arrangements are to be provided. First Aid Appliances: First Aid Appliances are to be provided and should be readily assessable so that in case of any minor accident initial medication can be provided to the needed employee. Latrinals and Urinals: A sufficient number of latrines & Urinals are to be provided in the office and factory premises and are also to be maintained in a neat & clean condition. Canteen facilities:

Cafeteria or canteens are to be provided by the employers so as to provide hygienic and Nutritious food to the employees. Spittoons: In every work place, such as ware houses, store places, in the dock area and office premises spittoons are to be provided in convenient places and same are to be maintained in a hygienic condition. Lighting: Proper and, sufficient lights are to be provided for employees so that they can work safely, during the night shifts. Washing places: Adequate washing places such as bathrooms, wash basins with tap and tap on the stand pipe are to be provided in the port area in the vicinity of the work places.

Changing Rooms: Adequate changing rooms are to be provided for workers to change their cloth in the factory area and office premises. Adequate lockers are also to be provided to the workers to keep their clothes and belongings. Rest Rooms: Adequate numbers of rest rooms should be provided to the workers with provisions of water supply, wash basins, toilets, bath rooms etc. Non statutory schemes: Many non statutory schemes may include the following: Personal health are (Regular medical check – ups) Some of the companies provide the facility for extensive health check up.

Flexi – Time: The main objective of flexi time policy is to provide opportunity to employees to work with flexible working schedules. Flexible work schedules are initiated by employees and approved by management to meet business commitments while supporting employee’s personal life needs. Employee Assistance Programs: Various Assistance Programs are to be arranged like external counseling service so that employees or members of their immediate family can get counseling on various matters. Harassment Policy To protect an employee from harassments of any kind guidelines are to be

provided for proper action and also for protecting the aggrieved employee. Maternity and Adoption leave: Employees can avail maternity or Adoption leave. Paternity leave policies have also been introduced by various companies. Medi – Claim Insurance Scheme: This insurance scheme provides Adequate insurance coverage of employees for expenses related to hospitalization due to illness, disease or injury or pregnancy. Employee Referral Scheme: In several companies employee referral scheme is implemented to encourage employees to refer friends and relatives for employment in the organization.

The project entitled: The summer project on employee welfare schemes with reference to Ambattur Clothing, Chennai is done to find out the various welfare measures provided by the organization to their staff members and the impact of the welfare measures on the loyalty and commitment on the part of the employees to the organization. 1. 5 OBJECTIVES The labour welfare has become essential because if the, very nature of industrial system which is characterized by two basic factors.

* The conditions under which work is carried on are congenial for health and * When a labour joins in an industry, he has to work in an entirely strange atmosphere, which creates problem of adjustments. OBJECTIVE OF EMPLOYEE WELFARE : * To give expression to philanthrophic and paternalistic feelings. * To win over employee’s loyalty and increase their morale. * To combat Trade Unionism and socialist ideas. * To build up stable labour force, to reduce labour Turnover & absenteeism. * To develop efficiency & productivity among the workers.

* To enhance goodwill and enhance public image. * To reduce threat of further government interventions. * To improve industrial relation & industrial peace. * To make workers more effective. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY AT AMBATTUR CLOTHING: * To identify the various welfare measures provided by Ambattur Clothing to the staff. * To analyze the degree of extent to which the welfare measures have benefitted to the Employees of Ambattur Clothing. * To analyze and interpret about the attitude of the workers about the various welfare measures provided by Ambattur clothing.

* To find out the degree of satisfaction towards the welfare measures provided by Ambattur Clothing to the employees. * To find out the drawbacks and give suggestions for improvement to the existing welfare measures of Ambattur Clothing. 1. 6 IMPORTANCE OF LABOUR WELFARE MEASURES Employee welfare is in the interest of the employee, the employer and the society as a whole. For the employee, welfare measures help to counteract the negative effects of the factory system. These measures enable the employee and his family to lead a good life. For the employer, welfare measures lead to higher productivity of labour.

Employee welfare is also in the interest if the larger society because the health, happiness and efficiency of each individual represent the well being of all, thus, employee welfare provides the following benefits. 1. Welfare activities influence the sentiment of the workers. When workers feel that the employer and the state are interested in their happiness, the tendency to grouse and grumble by the employee will steadily disappear. The development of such a feeling paves the way for industrial peace. 2. The provisions of various welfare measures such as good housing, canteen, medical and sickness benefits etc.

makes them realize that they have also some stake in the undertaking in which they are engaged and so they think thrice before taking any reckless action which might prejudice the interest of undertaking. 3. Welfare measures, such as cheap food in the canteen, free or concessional medical and educational facilities, also various allowances for travel, education of their children etc. indirectly increase the real income of the workers. Hence, they will try to avoid industrial disputes as far as possible and do not go on strike on flimsy grounds. 4.

Welfare activities will reduce labour turnover and absenteeism and create permanent settled labour force by making service attractive to the labour. 5. Welfare activities will go a long way to better the mental and moral health of workers by reducing the incidences of vices of industrialization. 6. Welfare measures will improve the physique, intelligence, morality and standard of living of the workers which in turn, will improve their efficiency and productivity. 7. Welfare measures help to improve recruitment. As the job becomes more attractive, more efficient workers can be recruited. 8.

Improvement in material, intellectual and cultural conditions of life protects workers from social evils like smoking, drinking, gambling, prostitution etc. 9. Welfare measured help to improve the goodwill and public image of the enterprise. Voluntary efforts for the welfare of workers reduce the threat of further intervention. 1. 7 PRINCIPLE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY PRINCIPLE: For the successful implementation of any welfare programme, in an organization, the following principles should be kept in mind. * The labour welfare activities should provide the entire hierarchy of the organization. Management should be welfare oriented at every level.

* The employer should not bargain labour welfare as a substitute for wages or monetary increments. * There should be proper co – ordination, harmony and integration of all labour welfare services in an organization. * The labour welfare of an organization must be administratively viable and essentially development oriented. * The Management should ensure co – operation, active participation of unions and workers in formulating and implementing labour welfare programmes. * There should be periodical Assessment or Evaluation of Welfare measures and necessary and timely improvement on the basis of feedback. SCOPE:

* The scope of labour welfare can be interpreted in different ways by different countries with varying stages of economic developments, political outlook and social philosophy. * The scope therefore Cannot be limited to facilities within or near the, undertaking, nor cannot be so comprehensive as to embrace the whole range of social welfare or social service * It follows therefore that all intramural and extramural welfare activities as well as statutory and non statutory welfare measures undertaken by the employers, the government, trade union or voluntary organization fall within the scope of labour welfare. 1. 8 LIMITATIONS

The study is restricted only to 150 workers in Ambattur clothing, so the opinion of the entire population is not known. The opinion of the entire population may vary. Some of the respondents hesitated to give the correct information. Few of the respondents discussed among themselves before answering. It is difficult to know whether willing respondents are truly representative. The data required was collected using questionnaire method this method can be used only when respondent are educated and cooperating. In Ambattur Clothing nearly one-third of the employees are uneducated and are employed for performing work of low-skilled nature.

Therefore difficulty was encountered in getting the responses from them. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Review of literature is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge and or methodological approaches on a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. A well structured literature review is characterized relevant reference with consistent appropriate referencing style; proper use of terminology and an unbiased and comprehensive view of the previous research on the topic.

Conventions and Recommendations on ILO (1949) set forth a fundamental principle at its 26th conference held in Philadelphia recommended some of the measures in the area of welfare measures which includes additional protection for life and health workers in all occupations, provision for child welfare, and maternity protection , provision of adequate nutrition, housing and facilities for recreation and culture, the assurance of equality of educational and vocational opportunity. Etc. According to Mark Columbus in his study.

“Welfare facilities towards shoe makers in Chicago”. 1964 specifies that, welfare measures is one of the most important factors for overall well being. Welfare measures will make the workers more contented in their job and therefore more productive. International labour organisation in its resolution of 1947 defined ‘labour welfare’ as :- Such services, facilities and amenities as adequate canteens, rest and recreational facilities, arrangements For travel to and from work and for the accommodation of workers employed at a distance from their houses and such other services.

Amenities and facilities as contribute to improve conditions under which the workers are employed. The labour investigation Committee stated that “Anything done for intellectual, physical, moral and economic betterment of the workers, whether by employers, by government of by other agencies over and above what is laid down by law, or what is normally expected on the part of the contracted benefits for which workers may have bargained”. The Committee on Labour Welfare stated that “Today, welfare is generally accepted by employers.

The state steps in to widen the area of applicability only. Welfare is being looked at as a social right of workers. The committee described it as social security measures that contribute to improve the conditions under which workers are employed in India. (1969 Report). Labour welfare includes both statutory as well as non-statutory activities under taken by employers, trade unions and both the central and state governments for the physical and mental development of workers.

Shoba Mishra and Manju Bhagat in their “Principles for Successful Implementation for Labour welfare activities” stated that Labour absenteeism in Indian Industries can be reduced to a great extent by provision of good housing, health and family care, canteen, educational and training facilities, and provision of labour activities. The principle of successful implementation of labour welfare activities is nothing but an extension of democratic values in an industrialized society. The Committee on Labour Welfare, 1969, recommended the provision of transport facilities to workers so that they can reach the workplace punctually and comfortably.

Report of National Commission on Labour (2002), Government of India, made recommendations in the area of labour welfare measures which includes social security, extending the application of the Provident Fund, gratuity and unemployment insurance etc. The Indian Labour Conference in 1963 recommended the setting up of consumer cooperative stores in all industrial establishments including plantations and mines employing 300 or more workers. The employer is expected to extend help in the form of share capital, working capital, loans at concessive rates etc.

The Industrial Truce Resolution, 1962 aimed at keeping prices of essential items low by opening a sufficient number of fair price shops for workers. Tripathi (1999) quoted the Labour welfare measures and social security as employee service programs or fringe benefits. Employees enjoy these services without any reference to the specific work done by them. In case of economic benefits, their amount is not predetermined and can be ascertained only after the event. G. Sekar (1985) in his study in SPIC, Chennai, found that valuable suggestions from the employee side should be encouraged through suggestion boxes, rewards, etc.

Medical insurance scheme should be implemented specially for acute diseases such as cancer. Conveyance allowance for employee’s children may be implemented to encourage and motivate workers. S. Rajamohan (1993) in his study in Labour welfare measures in Neyveli lignite Corporation found that the concentration was needed in hygienic aspects, medical aid and transport. Improvement in toilet, canteen facility and security arrangements required much attention as the general well being of the workers is much of importance.

Gowri Shankar (1993) in his study in Indian Aluminium Company Lts, Hirakud analyzed the intramural and extramural welfare activities provided in the company. The study throws light on the economic conditions and social background of workers and concludes that most of the workers were illiterate, but otherwise loyal to the management. Workers relations were cordial and peaceful. Rawat (1988) stated that welfare activities is divided into three groups which include: Welfare facility within the premises of an establishment (medical aid, creches, canteen, supply of drinking water)

Welfare facility outside the establishment (provision for indoor and outdoor recreation, housing, adult education, visual interaction) Social security. Ravi Verma (2001) stated that employee welfare activities should be coupled with motivation factor because that is what which brings about employee satisfaction and enhanced productivity. Amit Garg (2003)stated that Organizations which want to do business even after the downturn is over would need to continuously create and maintain the bond between its employees goals and welfare. REFERENCES:

Shobha Mishra & Dr. Manju Bhagat, Principles for successful implementation of labour welfare activities from police theory to functional theory Retrieved June 10, 2010, from http://www. tesionline. com/intl/indepth. jsp? id=575. Personnel Management and Industrial Relations – Tripathi ,19th edition, reprint 2008 26 th Conference of ILO,Conventions and Recommendations of ILO (1949) Retrieved June 11, 2010, from http://www. workinfo. com/free/sub_for_legres/ILO/index. htm. Report of National Commission on Labour, Government of India, 2002 Rawat, V.

(1988). Job involvement, need satisfaction and organizational climate. Indian Journal of Applied Psychology, 17, pp 56-59 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology describes how the research study was undertaken. This includes the specification of research design, sources of data method of primary data collection, the sampling method completed etc. RESEARCH DESIGN Research design in purely and simply the framework or plan for a study that guides the collection and analysis of the data. The research design indicates the methods of research i. e.

the method of gathering information and the method of sampling. Fundamental to the success of any formal research project is sound research design. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH Descriptive research design included surveys and fact finding enquiries of different kinds, it is one that simply describes something such as demographic characteristics of employees and it deals with the description of the state of offers, on ex post fact and the researchers has no influence on them. DATA COLLECTION Primary data were collected by conducting direct structured interview using schedule.

All the respondents were asked the same questions in the same fashion and they were informed the purposes of study. METHOD OF COLLECTING DATA Primary data are original source from which the researcher directly collects data that not been previously collected. It is obtained from the prospective employees by administrating a well structured and detailed questionnaire. SAMPLING PLAN: Data source : Primary data Research approach : Survey method Research instrument :Questionnaires Method of contact : Personal or in person Sample size : 150 SAMPLING

When field studies are undertaken, the consideration of time and cost almost invariably lead to a selection of respondents. Selection of only a few items. The respondents selected is the representatives of the total population in order to reduce a immature cross section. The selected respondents is sample and the process is called sampling technique. Convenience sampling technique was adopted for this study. CONVENIENCE SAMPLING Convenience sampling refers to the collection of information from members of the population who can be approached conveniently by the researcher. By

using this sampling techniques 200 samples were selected. SAMPLE SIZE: Sample size of the study that was selected from the sampling unit size is 150. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA: The data collected through schedule had been tabulated-By using the percentage analysis tools, mean score value, chi- square test, the data had been analyzed interpretation have been drawn based on the analysis. The finding and observation are the result and outcome of the interpretations made during the course of analysis. PRESENTATION OF THE REPORT: Tables and figures have been used wherever to facilitate the analysis and interpretation.

Explanations for the tables were given wherever necessary. SCHEDULE DESIGN: A standardized schedule to collect data on beliefs, feelings and attitudes form the respondents is being used and also researcher had contributed these efforts in framing the schedule. The purpose of the study is explained clearly to the respondents. CLOSE ENDED QUESTION: In this question the respondents are given five choices in which he/she has to select one. AREA OF SAMPLING: The study was carried out in Ambattur Clothing, Chennai. DATA COLLECTION TOOL: The tool used for collecting data is a well-structured standard questionnaire.

The data has been collected with this schedule by approaching directly the employees. To collect primary data’s detailed questionnaire was designed and administrated to respondents. This was done by both open ended and closed ended questions. The closed ended questions were given in order to evaluate the objectives; the open ended questions were given in order to bring out the reasoning and suggestions. The questionnaires were formulated in advance, clear, easily understandable and sample. TOOLS USED FOR THE STUDY: * Percentage analysis * Mean Square Value * Chi- Square Test.

PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS: Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio. Percentages are used in making comparison between two or more series of data to describe the relationships. Percentages can be also be used to compare the relative. The distribution of two or more. SERIES OF DATA: No of Respondents % = X 100 Total no of Respondents MEAN SCORE ANALYSIS: Score value = No of respondents* score Mean Score value= Score value/ No of respondents. SCORE GIVEN: Very Good| 5| Good| 4| Neutral| 3| Satisfactory| 2| Unsatisfactory| 1| ABBREVIATIONS: VG| Very Good| G| Good|

N| Neutral| SA| Satisfactory| USA| Unsatisfactory| NOR| No of respondents| %| Percentage| MSV| Mean score value| CHI- SQUARE TEST: Chi- square test is applied to test the goodness of fit, to verify the Distribution of observed data with assumed theoretical distribution. Therefore it is a measure to study the divergence of actual and expected frequencies. Chi- Square Test(X2) = (O-E)2/E Degrees of Freedom= V= (R-1) (C-1) Where ‘O’ = Expected Frequency. ‘E’ = Expected Frequency. ‘R’= Number of Rows ‘C’= Number of Columns. CHAPTER – IV DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

DATA ANALYSIS: The next step after data collection is the Analysis of data. The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories, application of these categories to raw data through coding, tabulation and drawing statistical inferences. The unwieldy data should be necessarily condensed into a few manageable groups and tables for further analysis. Analysis work after tabulation is generally based on the computation of percentages, coefficients etc. by applying various well defined statistical formulae.

In the process of analysis, relationships or differences supporting or conflicting with the original or new hypotheses should be subjected to tests of significance to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate any conclusion. In this study, the statistical tools used for data analysis is Percentage Analysis, Mean Score analysis, Chi- Square Analysis. INTERPRETATION: The next step to collecting and analyzing the data, is the task of drawing inferences. Interpretation refers to the task of drawing inferences from the collected facts. Interpretation is a search for a broader meaning of the research findings.

The usefulness and utility of the research findings lie in proper interpretation. It also serves as a theoretical conception which can serve as a guide for further researches. TABLE NO| TABLE NAME| STATISTICAL TOOL USED| 1. | Gender of the Respondents| Percentage analysis| 2. | Marital status of the Respondents| Percentage analysis| 3. | Nature of work of the respondents| Percentage analysis| 4. | Age of the respondents| Percentage analysis| 5. | Work Experience of respondents| Percentage analysis| 6. | Qualification of the respondents| Percentage analysis| 7.

| Monthly income of the respondents| Percentage analysis| 8. | Opinion of employees about the welfare measures in the organization generally| Percentage analysis| 9. | Opinion of employees about various facilities provided by organization| Mean Score Analysis| 10. | Opinion of employees about Work Atmosphere in the organization| Percentage Analysis| 11. | Opinion of employees about various safety measures provided by organization| Mean Score Analysis| 12. | Opinion of employees about various benefits provided by organization| Mean Score Analysis| 13.

| Opinion about the Employee- Employer Relationship in the organization| Percentage Analysis | 14. | Opinion about the work of the welfare officers in the organization| Percentage Analysis| 15. | Opinion of the employees about the status level provided by the job in the society| Percentage Analysis| 16. | Relationship between welfare measures provided by organization and monthly income of respondents| Chi Square Analysis| TABLE 1 Table showing the Gender of the respondents S. NO| GENDER| NO. OFRESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| Female| 81| 54| 2| Male| 69| 46| | Total| 150| 100| Source: Primary Data

Tools: Percentage Analysis Out of the 150 respondents surveyed 54 percentage of the respondents are found to be female; 46 percentage of the respondents are found to be male. Based on the gender of the respondents, it is evident that Ambattur Clothing has a recruitment policy such that they give priority to both male and female workers for employment in their organization. TABLE 2 Table showing the Marital status of respondents S. NO| MARITAL STATUS OF RESPONDENTS| NO. OFRESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| Married| 70| 47| 2| Non-married| 80| 53| | Total| 150| 100| Source: Primary Data Tools: Percentage Analysis

Out of the 150 respondents surveyed 47 percentage of the respondents are found to be married; 53 percentage of the respondents are found to be non – married. From the above data it is evident that Ambattur Clothing does not consider Marital status of the candidate as an important factor during the selection of employees for their organization. TABLE 3 Table showing the Nature of Work of the respondents S. NO| NATURE OF WORK OF THE RESPONDENTS| NO. OFRESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| Technical| 92| 62| 2| Non – Technical| 58| 38| | Total| 150| 100| Source: Primary Data Tools: Percentage Analysis

Out of the 150 respondents surveyed 62 percentage of the respondents are performing work of technical nature; 38 percentage of the respondents are performing work of non -technical nature. The above data shows that the nature of the work in Ambattur clothing is highly technical. Most of the workers in Ambattur clothing have a work nature which is technical. Only few members in the Ambattur clothing is engaged in Non Technical work. TABLE 4 Table showing the Age of the respondents S. NO| AGE OF THE RESPONDENTS| NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| Below 30| 65| 44| 2| 30 -40| 30| 20| 3| 40-50| 30| 20|

4| Above 50 | 25| 16| | Total| 150| 100| Source: Primary Data Tools: Percentage Analysis Inference: Out of the 150 respondents surveyed nearly 44 percentage of the respondents are in age group of below 30 years, 20% of the respondents are between 30 – 40 years, 20% of the respondents are between 40 – 50 years and 16% of the respondents are above 50 years. The above table is an evidence that Ambattur clothing prefers in employing people in younger age group with most of them below 30 years. The Assumption of Ambattur clothing is that people of younger age group are required for performing technical work accurately.

TABLE 5 Table showing the Work Experience of the respondents S. NO| WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE RESPONDENTS| NO. OFRESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| Below 5 years| 50| 33| 2| 5-15 years| 51| 34| 3| 15 -25 years| 25| 17| 4| Above 25 years| 24| 16| | Total| 150| 100| Source: Primary Data Tools: Percentage Analysis Out of the 150 respondents surveyed nearly 33 percentage of the respondents have work experience below 5 years, 34% of the respondents have a work experience of 5 – 15 years, 17% of the respondents have a work experience of 15– 25 years, 16% of the respondents have a work experience of above 25 years. TABLE 6

Table showing the Qualification of the respondents S. NO| QUALIFICATION OF THE RESPONDENTS| NO. OFRESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| Below SSLC| 37| 25| 2| SSLC/Matric| 46| 31| 3| Diploma| 25| 17| 4| Degree and above| 42| 27| | Total| 150| 100| Source: Primary Data Tools: Percentage Analysis Out of the 150 respondents surveyed nearly 25 percentage of the respondents have a qualification of below SSLC, 31 percentage of the respondents have a qualification of below SSLC/Matric, 17 percentage of the respondents have a qualification of Diploma, 27 percentage of the respondents have a qualification of degree and above.

Nearly one third of the employees have SSLC/Matric Qualification. The Ambattur Clothing recruits people with the above Qualification for performing low skilled jobs with some work related training given to them. Another one third of the employees have a qualification of degree and above. The Ambattur clothing employs people with the above qualification in work requiring employees with high skills, self decision making ability and creativity. TABLE 7 Table showing the Monthly income of the respondents S. NO| MONTHLY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS| NO. OFRESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| Below 5000| 69| 46|

2| 5000 – 10000 | 39| 26| 3| Above 10000| 42| 28| | Total| 150| 100| Source: Primary Data Tools: Percentage Analysis Out of the 150 respondents surveyed nearly 46 percentage of the respondents have a monthly income of below 5000, 26 percentage of the respondents have a monthly income between 5000 – 10000, 28 percentage of the respondents have a monthly income of above 10000. The Ambattur clothing provides salary of below 5000 to employees performing low skilled job. The organization provides salary between 5,000- 10,000 to employees performing jobs requiring moderate skills and which is of repetitive nature.

The company provides salary of above 10,000 to employees performing high skilled jobs . From the above data it is evident that the company requires more employees in the low skilled job performing sections and requires relatively less employees in the medium and high skilled job performing sections. TABLE 8 Table showing the Opinion of the respondents about the Welfare measures in the organization generally S. NO| OPINION ABOUT THE WELFARE MEASURES| NO. OFRESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| Very good| 35| 24| 2| Good| 47| 31| 3| Neutral| 0| 0| 4| Satisfactory| 59| 40| 5| Unsatisfactory| 9| 5|

| Total| 150| 100| Source: Primary Data Tools: Percentage Analysis Inference: The above table shows that 24 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the welfare measures provided by the organization is very good, 31 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the welfare measures provided by the organization is good, 40 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the welfare measures provided by the organization is satisfactory, 5 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the welfare measures provided by the organization is unsatisfactory.

TABLE 9 VARIOUS FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION S. No| FACILITIES| NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS| | Statement| V G5| G4| N3| SA2| USA1| MSV| 1. | Opinion of the respondents about working facilities| 56| 42| 0| 46| 6| 3. 78| 2. | Opinion of the respondents about cleanliness facilities| 24| 52| 0| 59| 15| 3. 62| 3. | Opinion of respondents about drinking water facilities| 37| 42| 0| 56| 15| 3. 57| 4. | Opinion of the respondents about sanitation facilities| 17| 47| 0| 59| 27| 2. 43| 5. | Opinion of the respondents about Leave facilities| 47| 49| 0| 47| 7| 3.

58| 6. | Opinion of the respondents about medical facilities| 92| 40| 0| 15| 3| 4. 65| 7. | Opinion of the respondents about first aid box facilities| 57| 51| 0| 37| 5| 4. 51| 8. | Opinion of the respondents about creche facilities| 48| 26| 50| 22| 4| 3. 42| 9. | Opinion of the respondents about canteen facilities| 33| 39| 0| 61| 17| 2. 98| Statistical Tool: Mean Score Analysis From above table it is evident that the Ambattur clothing has good working facilities, cleanliness facilities, drinking water facilities, leave facilities, creche facilities.

The respondents feel that the Medical facilities, first aid box facilities are very good in the organization. The respondents feel that the sanitation and canteen facilities are only satisfactory. CHART 9 VARIOUS FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION TABLE 10 Table showing the Opinion of the respondents about the Work atmosphere in the organization S. NO| OPINION ABOUT THE WORK ATMOSPHERE| NO. OFRESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| Very good| 40| 27| 2| Good| 52| 35| 3| Neutral| 5| 3| 3| Satisfactory| 44| 29| 4| Unsatisfactory| 9| 6| | Total| 150| 100| Source: Primary Data Tools: Percentage Analysis

The above table shows that 27 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work atmosphere in the organization is very good, 35 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work atmosphere in the organization is good, 3 percentage of the respondents are neutral, 29 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work atmosphere in the organization is satisfactory, 6 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work atmosphere provided by the organizations is unsatisfactory. TABLE 11 OPINION OF THE EMPLOYEES ABOUT THE VARIOUS SAFETY MEASURES PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION

S. no| SAFETY MEASURES| NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS| | Statement| VG| G| N| SA| USA| MSV| | | 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| | 1. | Opinion of respondents about Safety measures| 82| 32| 3| 29| 4| 4. 71| 2. | Opinion of respondents about Safety equipments | 88| 32| 3| 23| 4| 4. 62| 3. | Opinion of respondents about number of fire extinguishers| 68| 42| 0| 33| 7| 4. 53| 4. | Opinion about respondents about the emergency lighting facilities| 68| 49| 6| 21| 6| 4. 51| 5. | Opinion of respondents about the number of emergency exits | 61| 57| 10| 17| 5| 4. 51|

Statistical tools: Mean Score Analysis. From the above data it is evident that Ambattur clothing provides very good safety measures to the employees in the organization. The mean score value of all the factors grouped under safety measures provided by the Ambattur clothing to their employees is above 4. 5 which falls under the very good category. Almost all the employees feel that the safety measures taken by the Ambattur clothing towards the protection of their employees is very good. CHART 11 CHART SHOWING THE OPINION OF THE RESPONDENTS ABOUT THE SAFETY MEASURES PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION

TABLE 12 OPINION OF THE EMPLOYEES ABOUT THE VARIOUS BENEFITS PROVIDED BY THE ORGANISATION S. NO| BENEFITSStatement| NO OF RESPONDENTSVGG N SA USA MSV 54 3 2 1| 1. | Promotion/ transfer policies| 53| 46| 20| 25| 6| 4. 55| 2. | Legal claims, settlements provided by organization| 89| 42| 0| 15| 4| 4. 71| 3. | Post retirement benefits| 44| 34| 40| 21| 11| 4. 53| 4. | ESI/Gratuity schemes | 71| 56| 0| 20| 3| 4. 73| 5. | Employee grievance handling procedures| 72| 50| 0| 21| 7| 4. 68| Statistical Tools: Mean Score Analysis

From the above data it is evident that the respondents feel that various benefits provided by the Ambattur clothing is very good and all the benefits are provided to the employees in time without any delay. CHART 12 VARIOUS BENEFITS PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION TABLE 13 Table showing the Opinion of the respondents about the Employee – Employer Relationship in the organization S. NO| OPINION ABOUT THE EMPLOYEE – EMPLOYER RELATIONSHIP| NO. OFRESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| Very good| 69| 46| 2| Good| 28| 19| 3| Neutral| 30| 20| 4| Satisfactory| 18| 12| 5| Unsatisfactory| 5| 3| | Total| 150| 100| Source: Primary Data

Tools: Percentage Analysis The above table shows that 46 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the Employee – Employer Relationship in the organization is very good, 19 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the Employee – Employer Relationship in the organization is good, 20 percentage of the respondents are neutral, 12 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the Employee – Employer Relationship in the organization is satisfactory, 3 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the Employee – Employer Relationship in the organization is unsatisfactory.

TABLE 14 Table showing the Opinion of the respondents about the work of the welfare officers provided by the organization S. NO| OPINION ABOUT THE WORK OF THE WELFARE OFFICERS | NO. OFRESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| Very good| 68| 45| 2| Good| 45| 30| 3| Neutral| 0| 0| 4| Satisfactory| 30| 20| 5| Unsatisfactory| 7| 5| | Total| 150| 100| Source: Primary Data Tools: Percentage Analysis

The above table shows that 45 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work of the welfare officers provided by the organization is very good, 30 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work of the welfare officers provided by the organization is good, 20 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work of the welfare officers provided by the organization is satisfactory,5 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work of the welfare officers provided by the organization is unsatisfactory.

TABLE 15 Table showing the Opinion of the respondents about the status level provided by the job in the society S. NO| OPINION ABOUT THE STATUS LEVEL PROVIDED BY THE JOB IN THE SOCIETY| NO OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| Very good| 48| 32| 2| Good| 50| 33| 3| Neutral| 14| 9| 4| Satisfactory| 36| 25| 5| Unsatisfactory| 2| 1| | Total| 150| 100| Source: Primary Data Tools: Percentage Analysis

The above table shows that 32 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the status level provided by the job in the society is very good, 33 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the status level provided by the job in the society is good, 9 percentage of the respondents are neutral,25 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the status level provided by the job in the society is satisfactory, 1 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the status level provided by the job in the society is unsatisfactory.

CHI- SQUARE TEST TABLE 16 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE WELFARE MEASURES PROVIDED BY THE ORGANISATION AND THE MONTHLY INCOME OF THE EMPLOYEES. Ho: There is no relationship between welfare measures provided by the organisation and the monthly income of the employees. H? : There is relationship between the welfare measures provided by the organisation and the monthly income of the respondents. Factors| Observed| Expected| Oi- Ei| (Oi-Ei)2| (Oi-Ei)2/Ei| Very Good| 35| 37. 5| -2. 5| 6. 25| 0. 17| Good| 47| 37. 5| 9. 5| 90. 25| 2,41| Satisfactory| 59| 37.

5| 21. 5| 462. 25| 12. 33| Unsatisfactory| 9| 37. 5| -28. 5| 812. 25| 21. 66| | | | | | 36. 57| CALCULATION: Calculated Value = 36. 57 Degrees of freedom = (4-1) (2-1) = 3×1 = 3 Level of Significance= 5% Table Value = 7. 815 The calculated Value is greater than the value. The result, thus, does not support the hypothesis Ho. There the hypothesis Ho is rejected. H? is accepted. Thus it can be concluded that there is relationship between the welfare measures provided by the organisation and the monthly income of the employees.

CHAPTER V FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION FINDINGS PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS: GENDER : * Out of the 150 respondents surveyed 54 percentage of the respondents are found to be female; 46 percentage of the respondents are found to be male. Based on the gender of the respondents, it is evident that Ambattur Clothing has a recruitment policy such that they give priority to both male and female workers for employment in their organisation. MARITAL STATUS:

* Out of the 150 respondents surveyed 47 percentage of the respondents are found to be married; 53 percentage of the respondents are found to be non – married. From the above data it is evident that Ambattur Clothing does not consider Marital status of the candidate as an important factor during the selection of employees for their organization. NATURE OF WORK: * Out of the 150 respondents surveyed 62 percentage of the respondents are performing work of technical nature; 38 percentage of the respondents are performing work of non -technical nature.

The above data shows that the nature of the work in Ambattur clothing is highly technical. Most of the workers in Ambattur clothing have a work nature which is technical. Only few members in the Ambattur clothing is engaged in Non Technical work. AGE: * Out of the 150 respondents surveyed nearly 44 percentage of the respondents are in age group of below 30 years, 20% of the respondents are between 30 – 40 years, 20% of the respondents are between 40 – 50 years and 16% of the respondents are above 50 years.

The above table is an evidence that Ambattur clothing prefers in employing people in younger age group with most of them below 30 years. The Assumption of Ambattur clothing is that people of younger age group are required for performing technical work accurately. WORK EXPERIENCE * Out of the 150 respondents surveyed nearly 33 percentage of the respondents have work experience below 5 years, 34% of the respondents have a work experience of 5 – 15 years, 17% of the respondents have a work experience of 15– 25 years, 16% of the respondents have a work experience of above 25 years.

QUALIFICATION: * Out of the 150 respondents surveyed nearly 25 percentage of the respondents have a qualification of below SSLC, 31 percentage of the respondents have a qualification of below SSLC/Matric, 17 percentage of the respondents have a qualification of Diploma, 27 percentage of the respondents have a qualification of degree and above. Nearly one third of the employees have SSLC/Matric Qualification. The Ambattur Clothing recruits people with the above Qualification for performing low skilled jobs with some work related training given to them.

Another one third of the employees have a qualification of degree and above. The Ambattur clothing employs people with the above qualification in work requiring employees with high skills, self decision making ability and creativity. MONTHLY INCOME: * Out of the 150 respondents surveyed nearly 46 percentage of the respondents have a monthly income of below 5000, 26 percentage of the respondents have a monthly income between 5000 – 10000, 28 percentage of the respondents have a monthly income of above 10000.

The Ambattur clothing provides salary of below 5000 to employees performing low skilled job. The organization provides salary between 5,000- 10,000 to employees performing jobs requiring moderate skills and which is of repetitive nature. The company provides salary of above 10,000 to employees performing high skilled jobs . From the above data it is evident that the company requires more employees in the low skilled job performing sections and requires relatively less employees in the medium and high skilled job performing sections.

WELFARE MEASURES: * Approximately, 24 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the welfare measures provided by the organization is very good, 31 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the welfare measures provided by the organization is good, 40 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the welfare measures provided by the organization is satisfactory, 5 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the welfare measures provided by the organization is unsatisfactory. WORK ATMOSPHERE: * .

Nearly 27 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work atmosphere in the organization is very good, 35 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work atmosphere in the organization is good, 3 percentage of the respondents are neutral, 29 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work atmosphere in the organization is satisfactory, 6 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work atmosphere provided by the organizations is unsatisfactory. EMPLOYEE- EMPLOYER RELATIONSHIP:

* Nearly, 46 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the Employee – Employer Relationship in the organization is very good, 19 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the Employee – Employer Relationship in the organization is good, 20 percentage of the respondents are neutral, 12 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the Employee – Employer Relationship in the organization is satisfactory, 3 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the Employee – Employer Relationship in the organization is unsatisfactory.

WELFARE OFFICERS: * Approximately,45 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work of the welfare officers provided by the organization is very good, 30 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work of the welfare officers provided by the organization is good, 20 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work of the welfare officers provided by the organization is satisfactory,5 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the work of the welfare officers provided by the organization is unsatisfactory. STATUS LEVEL:

* Nearly,32 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the status level provided by the job in the society is very good, 33 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the status level provided by the job in the society is good, 9 percentage of the respondents are neutral,25 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the status level provided by the job in the society is satisfactory, 1 percentage of the respondents have the opinion that the status level provided by the job in the society is unsatisfactory. MEAN SCORE ANALYSIS: S.

NO| STATEMENT| MEAN SCORE| 1. | Opinion of the respondents about working facilities| 3. 78| 2. | Opinion of the respondents about cleanliness facilities| 3. 62| 3. | Opinion of the respondents about drinking water facilities| 3. 57| 4. | Opinion of the respondents about sanitation facilities| 2. 43| 5. | Opinion of the respondents about leave facilities| 3. 58| 6. | Opinion of the respondents about medical facilities| 4. 66| 7. | Opinion of the respondents about first aid box facilities| 4. 51| 8. | Opinion of the respondents about creche facilities| 3. 42| 9.

| Opinion of the respondents about canteen facilities| 2. 98| 10. | Opinion of respondents about safety measures| 4. 71| 11. | Opinion of respondents about safety equipments| 4. 62| 12. | Opinion of respondents about number of fire extinguishers| 4. 53| 13. | Opinion of respondents about emergency lighting facilities| 4. 51| 14. | Opinion of the respondents about the number of emergency exits in the organisation| 4. 51| 15. | Opinion of the respondents about the promotion/ transfer policies| 4. 55| 16. | Opinion of the respondents about the legal claims, settlements provided by the organization.

| 4. 71| 17. | Opinion about the post retirement benefits provided by the organization| 4. 53| 18. | Opinion of respondents about ESI/Gratuity schemes| 4. 73| 19. | Opinion of respondents about employee grievance handling procedures| 4. 68| CHI- SQUARE ANALYSIS: Chi square analysis was conducted to find out the relationship between the working facilities provided by the organization and the monthly income of the respondents. The null hypothesis stated is that there is no relationship between welfare measures provided by the organisation and the monthly income of the employees.

The alternate hypothesis stated is that there is relationship between welfare measures provided by the organisation and the monthly income of the employees. The level of significance was taken as 5% . The calculated value is 36. 57. The table value is 7. 815. The calculated value is greater than the tabular value. From the chi square test it is found that there is relationship between the welfare measures provided by the organisation and the monthly income of the employees. SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

* From the study it is understood that almost all the employees are satisfied with the welfare measures provided by the Ambattur Clothing. * Though the respondents are satisfied to some extent, the following items shall be taken into account for the improvement of existing welfare measures. * Improvements or modifications are required in the field of sanitation facilities,canteen facilities as the number of respondents having the opinion that the sanitation facilities,canteen facilities is very good is relatively less when compared to the other fields under study.

* Modification shall also be initiated in improving the drinking water facilities provided by the organization. * Majority of the respondents have the opinion that the medical facilities,safety equipments,safety measures provided by the organization is very good. Therefore, no major modifications or betterments are required in these fields. * Similarly most of the respondents have the opinion that the fire extinguishers,emergency exit facilities provided by the organization is very good. No major modifications are required in these fileds.

* Administration can think of formulation of a problem solving committee comprising the employees and administration for the better solution of the welfare problems of the employees. * The committee can conduct hearings from the employees or they can conduct surprise visits, to the different work spots,for proper understanding of the problems andthereby solving the problems . CONCLUSION The main objective of the project is to understand the effectiveness of various welfare measures provided by the Ambattur Clothing Ltd.

The data collected from the employees were recorded, analyzed & interpreted. The findings from the study revealed that the Ambattur clothing Organization is highly welfare oriented and seeks to motivate the employees through various welfare measures. It can be concluded that most of the employees are satisfied with the existing welfare measures provided by the Ambattur Clothing Ltd. The suggestions from the employees conveys that a minor attention in some areas will improve the satisfaction of workers in a better manner.

Haven't found the Essay You Want?

Get your custom essay sample

For Only $13/page