Leadership Style in an Organisation

This research is an investigation into the Role of Leadership Style in attainment of Organizational goals. Its major objectives are to find out whether there is a connection between a leader’s style and goal attainment. If there is, what effect dose it has on the productivity and the general mental attitude of the subordinates toward the goals of the organization. The research covers all organization leadership in Nigeria as its population. However, The Nigeria Army Medical Centre Ojo, was used as representative organization due to the similarities of their leadership style and vision.

As the topic of the research is a management function, attention was concentrated on the span of control circle within the organization for data collection and analyses base on this information from primary and secondary sources were sorted and obtained. Some of the findings that arose from the analysis of data includes: There is for fact a correlation between leadership style and goal attainment in any organization. Organization do not usually adopt one best leadership style, but as the situation demands. However, this research worth is ministered as follows:

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Chapter one will provide: introduction, the background to study, statement of research problems, aim and objectives and this chapter will buttress about significance of the study in a very nutshell. It will also talk about the scope and limitations of the study. Chapter two also take a brief look at the literature by highlighting on the subject matter, as well as related scholarly works done before now. Chapter three explains the research methodology based on the design and development, population, sample of data, sources of data, method of data and o on while. Chapter four will present and analyze the data gotten from the research and on this; Chapter five will be drawn, which will provide the conclusion base on what is drawn out from chapter four and some recommendation will be made available for the organization and for other organization in Nigeria. CHAPTER ONE 1. 0Introduction 1. 1Background to study 1. 2Statement of research problem 1. 3Aims and objectives 1. 4Significance the study: 1. 5Scope and limitation of the study: 1. 6Definition of some basic term: 1. 0 INTRODUCTION:

The bane to development in Nigeria today is the problem of leadership; this is so because successive leaders have failed to work past their Ego and selfishness in addressing real issues, rather they have been busy in adopting divide and Rule Tendency, in moving the nation forward. Since independence in 1960, the nation Nigeria have had about 15 different leaders, unfortunately non has been able to re-write the history of our great Nation positively. Every present leader blames the former for the quagmire and chaos in our polity, economic and other aspect of life for the average Nigeria.

Thus, forgetting to answer the real question of how we can move forward? This as a fact in present day Nigeria environment has also affected other aspect of the Nigeria society, like, Private Organizations, Public Corporations, Religious Organization, Educational Sector and so on. Little wonder why lO’s of Wonder Banks have legitimized fraud within their financial institutions, company CEO’s on waited list, most other private companies folding up, the public sector and it’s bureaucracy, double standard, 10% kickback on contract and so on.

All this , put together have succeeded in mortgaging the future of our great Nation to perpetual self destruction, unless something good is done to put a lasting solution to the present trends. In view of the above, one may rightly say that, “The Role of Leadership Style” is of paramount in every aspect of our life, specifically in attainment of corporate goal, either in the public or private sector of the economy. It should be noted that leadership is not for every “Dick and Harry” (as evidenced in present day Nigeria), and it is not something that even really good leaders necessarily want to do for all time i. Nelson Mandela. Above all else, leaders need to know where it is time to stop leading, to hand over the reigns to someone else, this is so because the leader that outstays his or her willingness or capacity to lead is one that will eventually do poor service to their followers i. e Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe. Moreover, leadership has been said to be about getting “results” for your followers. Thus, if you get results people will support you. Often, without caring too much about how you got them because, without results, all the style or charisma in the world wont retain the support of your follower for long: i. Obasanjo to the South-West community, this is also true for the leader of a Military command, sorts team, a political party, a government department and business organization. In addition to a right leadership structure is one that focuses and motivates a group to enable them to achieve their aims, it also involves being accountable and responsible for a group as a whole. Thus, a leader should: Provide continuity and momentum Be flexible in allowing changes of direction ideally, a leader should be a few steps ahead of their team, but not too far for the team to be able to understand and follow them. 1. BACKGROUND TO STUDY ESTABLISHMENT OF 149 BN MRS The establishment of 149 BN MRS dated back to the commissioning of Ojo Military Cantonment in 1973. At the time the Cantonment was commissioned, the Cantonment was divided into four camps, each camp accommodated 2 NA training school, camp 1 – NAOS and NA S & T school, camp 2 – NASMS & Record office, camp 3 PT school and NAS school while camp 4 comprises of NASMS and MP school. In 1989, 149 BN in Monguno, Borno State rotated 93 BN in Ojo including all its companies and departments. At the time the units were rotated, the MRS was locates in a single building near the BHQ.

However, in 1981, the MRS relocated to its present location at camp 3 and the building was commissioned by President Shehu Shagari. At this point, it is worthy to mention that, the building the MRS is occupying at present was formerly used as classrooms for officers and soldiers of NAS CROPS. From 1981 to date, the MRS has remained unchanged in its present location and the structures have not been replaced. However, over the time, the MRS has witnessed some renovations of the old structure. The latest is by presidential Committee on barracks renovations (PCBR) in 2008, under millennium development Goals and it is yet to be completed.

To meet the health needs of ever increasing population of the cantonment, the MRS being the only health facility that serves the whole Cantonment with medical services, the MRS is always busy and runs a 24HRS services with the few members of staff, since the unit main is on operation at Bayelsa. With a new health scheme called the NHIS, the MRS has also witnessed some changes i. e increase in services rendered, more equipment procument and population of attendee has also increased at every department of the MRS.

DEPARTMENT IN THE MRS The MRS is made up of various departments, all these departments work as a team but with division of labour to achieve a common goal which is recovery of the patients. OUT PATIENT DEPARTMENT (OPD): This is the point of call for any one who is reporting sick. The staff of this department and the MRS as a whole run 24 hours services. WARD: this department is where patient who have been seen by doctor and is booked for admission are attended to. This department is supposed to designated accordingly i. Female ward, Male ward, Children ward and Maternity ward, but due to uncompleted renovation exercise female and children are admitted into one ward. This is not supposed to be. Children are supposed to be in a different ward on their own. There are individual rooms created as amenity wards for officer, these rooms take one bed each. LABORATORY: This department handles all investigations listed in the benchmark modality for investigation by primary health care provider under NHIS. There are some new equipment supplied to the MRS by PCBR but has not yet been installed due to incomplete renovation exercise.

MARTERNITY DEPARTMENT: This department is doing very well and is always busy. Antenatal clinic, delivery room and lying – in ward are under this department and are being handled very well by the med-wives. The shortage of space/ward also affects this department in the sense that first stag and postpartum patient are together in one ward. This is not supposed to be. The antenatal clinic is busy; it is run 3 days in a week; Mondays, Tuesdays and Thursdays. The number of babies delivered in this department every month on the average is 22 and 264 a year. HEALTH DEPARTMENT: This is the department that handles vaccines of various types.

They also immunize children and pregnant women. The environmental condition of this department is not conducive, though they try to put things in order so that equipment can be safe and well maintained when put in place for work. HEALTH RECORDS: This department sees to documentation, filling and keeping records of all client case note. It also record statistics of cases attended to on monthly bases and forward to DHML. DRS: The DRS is working we4ll and all records are kept and submitted to the Battalion HQ who keeps and monitor the DRS. LEADERSHIP: Leadership of any military organization is place as per highest rank in the unit.

Therefore leadership of this unit is placed according to the arm organization. Though it’s a professional unit, and some times the professional head takes the lead, i. e the Doctor is the head of the hospital, but in some cases /situation where the professional ethics seems to be clashing with military ethics, then there is bound to be conflict. SERVICES RENDERED: As stated in the outline of each department, several medical services are rendered in this units MRS. These include: •General out patient care services •Medical services •Mid wifery services •Nursing services Surgical services: Minor surgery like, I&D, Circumcision and repair of minor laceration. •Pharmacy services •Family planning services •Child welfare services BENEFICIARIES OF SERVICES Soldiers and their families Officers and their families Soldiers and officers personal assistance and dependents. Civilians around the Cantonment. 1. 2STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM The issue about leadership dates back to the very existence of man himself. In Nigeria today, our obvious challenge has always been that of leadership. Thus as every organization seek to achieve his goal, a wrong leadership and style will mar its objectives.

One may rightly say the need to unravel the problem associated with goals attainment and leadership style cannot be over emphasized. 1. 3AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To establish a link between leadership style and goals attainment in a forward looking organization. To determine the effect of a wrong leadership style to the aims and aspirations of an organization. To identify the various styles available to organization to organization leaders. To adopt if any one best method of leading an organization can achieving its short, medium and long term goals.

To achieve these aims and objective there are certain question that must be asked and answered. These are; What is the purpose of this organization? What is the product of the organization? Who are the customers/ client of the organization? The vision of the organization, is it in line with the facility and structure of leadership on ground? 1. 4SIGNIFICANCE THE STUDY: Leadership style has been identified as a key factor to any organization success. In face of the many problem and challenges of our great Nation Nigeria, and indeed Sub-Saharan Africa.

The result of the study will therefore form a commendable attempt to make visible the various strategic leadership option and to match, leadership style with situation to enable organization know how beat to achieve their short, medium and long term goals. 1. 5SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY: This study was initially aimed at covering as much indigenous companies as there are in the country. However, time and financial constrains made tit an impossible tasks. Thus, the research is limited to the Nigerian Army Medical Centre, Ojo, because of its dynamic leadership structure.

Also lack of research centers across the country posed a challenge to this research work. However, it is the belief of the researcher that the information obtained from the outcome of the organization (subject matter) the basis on which the outcome of the researched was generalized. Though there might be some slight differences. 1. 6DEFINITION OF SOME BASIC TERM: LEADERSHIP This is the exercise of power and authority in mobilizing resources and influencing the behaviours of the followers to move towards a choose direction and to achieve the organizations objectives and goals. STYLES:

Leadership style refers to a leader’s behaviour. It is the result of the philosophy, personality and experience of the leader. In other sense it is the ways leaders apply their abilities in various situations to lead in an organization. ORGANIZATION: Is the rational coordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common explicit purpose or goal, through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility, with the means of division of labour and functions? SUBORDINATES: A subordinate is anyone that has a lower rank/position to that of a leader. A LEADER:

A leader is anyone that has followers who adhere and commit themselves to the leader’s values system. GOAL: Something an organization hopes to achieve in future or the desire toward attainment of organizational vision. CHAPTER TWO 2. Literature review 2. 0Introduction 2. 1Profile of case study 2. 2An overview of leadership 2. 3Purpose for leadership/roles played by of leaders in an organization 2. 4How leaders influence group members; 2. 5Approaches to Theories of leadership 2. 6Do leaders matter? 2. 7Qualities of a good leader 2. 8 Types of leadership 2. 9 Leadership dimension 2. 10Emergence of leaders . 11Distinguish a leader from manager 2. 12The place of leader’s in the 21st century organization 2. 13The leader and his leadership 2. 14. Becoming a global leader 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0. INTRODUCTION Leadership as a phenomenon has proved to be problematic in the developing parts of the world in spite of globalization, especially here in Nigeria. This is not to conclude that developed countries have entirely overcome the problems of leadership. The social, economic and political situations of the developing nations make it too easy for effects of leadership or a lack of it to manifest itself.

Researchers have not been able to agree on a single definition of leadership, hence, R. M. Stogdil, an American scholar after a literature review of leadership opined that leadership could be defined in the following ways. *Function of group process. *Personality or effects of personality. *The art of inducing compliance. *The exercise of influence *The form of persuasion *A set of acts or behaviours *A power relationship *An instrument of goal achievement *An effect of interaction *A differentiated role *The initiation of structure From the above we can deduce leadership as clearly a role that leads towards goal achievement.

It involves interaction and influence, and usually results in some form of changed structure or behaviour of groups, organization or communities. In view of the vital importance of leadership to corporate organization success, it is not surprising that a great deal of research effort has focused on those qualities, techniques or characteristics o successful leadership. The approach of a leader being born and not made has been abandoned over time; it has however proved not to be an entirely worthless exercise especially when we consider such “charismatic personalities as Wilson Churchill, Adolph Hitler, Obafemi Awolowo and a host of others.

The virtues of these men had sets them apart and as such were seen to e endowed with supernatural, superhuman or at least especially exceptional powers and qualities. The question that often arises is that of succession when the leader dies and authority has to be passed on. 2. 1. PROFILE OF CASE STUDY Every leader leads according to his/her abilities to influence man and materials towards achieving set, determined or predetermined organizational goals. However the way we lead is a matter of personal style and comfort. Leaders typically lead manage, and operate in a way that suits their own personality, giftedness (traits) and experiences.

In some circumstances the way we lead can be very effective, while in others they can be ineffective. Understanding our leadership styles and the styles of others therefore can help us to be more effective in how we apply our leadership abilities in various situations. 2. 2. AN OVERVIEW OF LEADERSHIP. Leadership as a concept dates back to the very begging of mankind itself. Facts from the creationist school of thought proves that every created things had no order, existence, direction and purpose, until God provided the necessary leadership as at the begging even during the dark ages.

Historical facts points that at every point in time, someone, somewhere, some state’s provided leadership for the world as a whole upon which direction, purpose and etc were derived ie Assyria, Chadian , Philistines, Babylon the great, the Greeks, the Roman Empire, the Soviet Union, the British (His Allies) and the most recent United Nations. At one point or another, the aforementioned had been responsible for dictating purpose and direction for a particular set of generation. However, to the 21st century business organization, leadership is one of the major management processes.

It gives direction and purpose to communication and motivation for organizational performance. Leadership is the use of non-coercive, as a process influence to shape a group or organization’s goals, motivate behaviour towards the achievement of those goals, and help define group or an organizational culture. The impact of effective leadership is dramatically demonstrated over and over again on a natural scale in every country’s history and on a local scale in every organization. An organization without effective leadership is in trouble. The importance of good leadership has therefore, always been recognized.

Leadership is a concept that has been defined differently by many scholars. Almost all of these definitions emphasized the leadership function to involve the facilitation of the achievement of group goals. For our purpose, we may define leadership in an organization as a dynamic process whereby one individual in a group is not only responsible for the group’s results, but actively seeks the collaboration and commitment of all the group members in achieving the goals in such a particular context and against the background of a particular organization culture. (G. A. Cole 2004).

According to “Jacobs and Jacques 1991” some view leadership as a series of specific traits or characteristics. Others see it as comprising of certain skill and knowledge and some think of leadership as a process phases on social interactions and relationship; this is the idea that leadership is a type of relationship, one that typically includes influencing others in a certain direction. This leads to their definition of leadership as a relationship that involves the mobilizing, influencing, and guiding of others towards desired goals. These doses not assume that the goals are shared or even explicit.

The word “desire” simply means that someone in the relationship, perhaps just the person in a leadership role, wants a particular outcome. In addition to “Jacob and Jacques 1995” leadership can be viewed as a process of giving purpose [meaningful direction] to collective efforts and causing willing effort to be expended to achieve purpose. “Hersey and Blanchard” leadership is the process of influencing the activities of followers in describing leadership; in his opinion “Alan Keith” stated that leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extra-ordinary happen.

In Tom’s De-Macro opinion leadership can only be defined when it is distinguished from posturing. Furthermore, according to “Donelly” in his own word stated that leadership can be seen as an attempt at influencing the activities of followers through communication process and towards the attainment of some goal or goals. “Tannenbaum, et al. in his own contribution viewed Leadership as interpersonal influence, exercised in a situation and directed through the communication process toward the attainment of a specific goal or goals.

From another point of view, after cross examination and Management historical experience’s, many organizational leaders view leadership as a set of specific traits or skill of which lead authority’s like “Benin” to view leadership as a factor of knowing yourself, having a vision that is well communicated, building trust among co-leadership potential. “Richard and Engle” describes leadership as been about articulating vision, embodying values and creating the environment within which things can be accomplished. Bryman” added to this definition by saying leadership is the creating of vision about a desired future state which seeks to enmesh all members of an organization in its net. “Crulla” further added that leadership is a complex moral relationship between people based on trust, obligation, commitment, emotion, and a shared vision of the good. However, many people occupy position that demand leadership, but are struggling with their responsibilities as a leader, due to lack of leadership skill and knowledge of leadership principals that can cause immediate and gradual fellowship and compliance.

Organization no doubt requires leadership to thrive and grow. This section is therefore intended to further more definition on leadership. There are many perception and interception to leadership everyone talks about it but not so many understand it. SUPERVISING Leadership in the1990s was considered as that part of management which deals with direct supervision of subordinates. Though supervising is required across board, it is of a frontline responsibility. DIRECTING In some senses, it could be interpreted simply as ‘getting others to follow ‘or’ getting people to do things willingly’ or as the ‘use of authority in decision making’

MOTIVATING Leadership is an essential quality in manager. It is how you get your team fired on and to follow your plan INFLUENCING John c Maxwell defines leadership simply as influence. The source of this influence may be formal, such as that provided by the possession of managerial rank in an organization. Leadership thus is related to other concept like power, authority, motivation, interpersonal behaviour and communication. It is the relationship through one person influences the behaviour or action of other people to pursue a certain course.

Robert Stephen and judge timothy conceive of l as d ability to influence a group toward d achievement of a vision or set of goals, It can also be describe as the process by which a person exerts influence over other people and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to help achieves group or organizational goals. Finally, leadership is an art of personality, influencing and inspiring subordinates to perform their duties in accomplishment of specific task willingly and enthusiastically 2. 3. THE PURPOSE OF LEADERSHIP

Leadership is necessary in any organization and managers must understand the role. Leadership is a way of focusing and motivating an individual or group of individuals to enable them to achieve their aims, it also involves being accountable and responsible for the group as a whole, leadership provides for continuity and momentum. “Katz, D and R. Kann in The Social Psychology of organization 2nd edition (New York: Wiley), 1978, advances four reasons or functions of leadership. These are: 1. Incompleteness of Organizational Design:

Since there is no perfect or ideal organization designed to take care of every member’s activities at all times, leadership is necessary to co-ordinate and direct behaviour toward goal accomplishment 2. They went further to opine that Leadership functions to maintain the stability of an organization in a turbulent environment by allowing for rapid adjustment and adaptation to changing environmental condition. 3. Another important role played by leadership in the organization by “Katz, D and R. Kann” is that it helps to regulate the internal dynamics within the group.

This it dose by coordinating of activities of the various unites in the organization. It can also act as buffer between conflicting parties. 4. Finally, they argue that, there are different interest groups in the organization with different needs. Leadership can also play a major role in maintaining need satisfaction and personal goal attainment. Leadership therefore plays a very important role in organizational dynamics. The quality of managerial leadership helps to differentiate effective from ineffective organization.

Leadership in an organization performs tasks, direct activities including planning for resources and distribution assignment. A leader must display the ability to motivate followers to achieve determined organizational goal. Leaders are not the only source but they are also the most important means of establishing organizational values. Leaders not only set direction for the organization, they also establish the means of achieve the goals. These represent the beliefs and behaviours that can not be compromised for the sake of results.

It is through this handle of valves that leaders shape people’s behaviour and build organizational culture. 2. 4. HOW LEADERS INFLUENCE GROUP MEMBERS In performing their functions, the leaders exercise great influence on organizational members, and get them to behave in desired ways. There are five sources of leader influence; these are a. Coercion: this flows from the power of the leader to dispense punishment to the individual member. Punishing subordinate by firing or without promotion, or the assignment to less desirable activities. b.

Another way they can influence group is being able to grant or withheld reward. A leader can secure the behaviour of members before releasing the reward. The university professor may have this power to grant or withheld high grades during examination. c. The leader’s expertise in various activities enables him to exert influence over individual member’s behaviour. This is also called the power of knowledge; examples are lawyers, university professor. d. It could also be through reference influence. This is the influence which the leaders exercise because people or member believes in him and his ideas.

It is the issue of personality factor. Martin Luther King had very little legitimate power but he strongly influence the behaviour of many others. e. Lastly, legitimate influence, this is given to an individual officially through an official position of authority. This form of power/influence is formal and organizationally relevant. Example, the leader in an organization exercises legitimate influence over members by giving instructions to subordinates, and they obey or face the risk of unpleasant consequences. . 2. 5APPROACHES TO THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP

The history of leadership is replete with attempt made by theories to identify factors responsible for leadership effectiveness. Leadership theories include: TRAITS THEORY The search for characteristic or traits of leaders has been on for centuries, this date back to the days of great philosophers like Plato, who also added his voice to the debate on “What qualities distinguish an individual as a leader” This search has been boosted by the early recognition of the importance of leadership and the assumption that certain individual attributes t. This gave birth to the TRAITS THEORY

A trait is generally defined as a distinctive physical or psychological character that account for a person’s behaviour. The physical characteristic includes activity, age, appearance, height and weight. Psychological characteristics are adjustment, aggressiveness, alertness, dominance, emotional, balance, enthusiasm, independence, initiative, personal integrity, resourcefulness, self-confidence, sense of humour, tolerance of stress. In other words a trait can be said to be any distinctive physical or psychological characteristics of the individual to which the individual can be attributed.

This view of leadership was explored at length in a number of works prominent among these is the effort of Thomas Carlyle and Francis Galton, in their work:” Heroes and Hero worship (1841)”, Carlyle, identified talents skills, and physical characteristics of man who rose to power. Galton (1869) Hereditary Genius, also examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful man, after showing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when moving from first degree to second degree relatives, Galton concluded that leadership was inherited . In other words, leaders were born and not developed.

Both of these works lent great initial credence for the notion that leadership rooted in characteristic of the leader. The trait approach to leadership studies centers on identifying and distinguishing the characteristics or trait of leaders. Here, a leader is defined as any person holding an office. So many studies have been designed to determine the leader’s intellectual, social, emotional, physical and personal methods, in order to discover if there exist any universal traits in effective leaders that would distinguish them from less effective leaders.

Early studies on leadership believe good leaders are born with some traits; therefore, one should be able to identify those qualities possessed by effective leaders and assume that all persons who are endowed with these traits would be effective leaders. For example the Greek Philosopher Plato was the first to suggest that leaders were born with their greatness. Trait theory, although superficially attractive, is now discredited due to some of the following reason: i. Not all leaders possess the traits and many non leaders have most or all the traits identified by his school. ii.

Difficult in deciding how much of any traits a person should have and the extent to which he possesses the trait. iii. Lack of uniformity of identified traits. BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH This approach holds that leaders can best be characterized by behavioral pattern than by individual traits. Traits such as intelligence, emotional, stability, adaptability, or tolerance of uncertainly cannot be readily observed by others but behaviour pattern can. The inherent problems and ambiguities of the trait approach and the growing interest in human factor at work shifted from the trait approach of what effective leaders do. . e how they delegate tasks, how they communicate with and motivate their subordinates and how they carry out their tasks. Thus, the difference in the trait and behavioural approach is that the traits approach attempts to explain leadership on the basis of what leaders are while behavioural approach attempts to explain leadership on the basis of what leaders do. This approach to leadership unlike the trait assumes that behaviours could learn i. e individuals trained in the appropriate leadership behaviours could be effective. Five types of behavioural approaches are: . Supportive leadership Supportive leaders give consideration to the needs of the subordinates. This means that they are concerned with their well being, status and comfort. Such leaders seek to create a friendly and pleasant social climate. They assume that subordinates want to do their beat and that they should make it easy for the subordinates by supporting their effort, by helping them rather than commanding them. Supportive leaders seek to gain acceptance from subordinates by treating them with respect and dignity rather than through the use of authority.

This is also known as paternalistic leadership. Though paternalistic leadership in some instance is too sentimental. The Japanese economic and industrial system is characterized by paternalistic style of leadership, where comfort and welfare of the followers are priority issues to the leader. But Western critics say that though the intentions are usually good, it result in group members not being able to develop self-reliance and independence. It is also asserted that for most part, paternalistic leader’s service. The critics concluded that this type of leaders should discontinue in performance.

The question can be why the leaders should discontinue supplying his services, which are his responsibility and still expect the same standard of performance from the subordinates? However the history of Japanese paternalism in economic and social development has been such as to leave the Western World to describe the Japanese achievement in industrialization as a miracle. That success has maintained its continuity to a point that the Western World is seriously considering what in Japanese paternalism could be adapted in Western practices. So there must be a wider context than the leader’s ability to motivate and integrate.

That wider context is sought in the culture, as Japan has shown. ii. Participative leadership This style is characterized by the sharing of information, power and influence between supervisors and subordinates. This kind of leader behaviour features the treatment of subordinates as equals, and allowance for subordinates to influence actions and decisions. Influence sharing is accomplished by participating in both decision-making and supervision. This is also known as democratic leadership. Its application in management is comparatively new.

Among the behavioural scientist that contributed to make managers conscious or it as a management practice are R. Likert, New Patterns in management. In it the manager discusses with the subordinates before he issues general or broad orders from which subordinates feel free to act on. The leader suggests possible actions with his recommendations but awaits the reaction of the group before putting into effect. Some of the benefits of participative leadership are: The follower who has participated in determining what is to be done will probably understand the decision and degree that a certain course of action is necessary and proper.

He thus exercises his abilities. It motivate people to contribute, and encourages them to accept responsibility. This style of leadership affords the leader opportunity to recognize the follower’s power and expertise which he can solicit and combine with his own to reach joint and perhaps better decision in the interest of the organization. It is recognized however, that most practicing managers are not enthusiastic about participative leadership because they fear loosing power and also because it is difficult to apply and it is time consuming. iii. Instrumental leadership This approach is called effective leadership approach.

Classical management theorists explain effective leadership in terms of the ability of leader to exhibit certain kinds of rational intellectual behaviour. They describe effective managers as those who plan, organize, control and those activities may be described as instrumental leadership activities since they are viewed as functional that leaders perform in order to achieve group accomplishment or organizational objectives. iv. “Great-man” leadership approach. According to the great man theory of leadership, effective co-operation of any group requires two fundamental different kinds of leadership behaviour.

In order for a group to be directed toward attaining its goals, leaders must perform the instrumental activities necessary for planning, organizing, controlling, and co-coordinating the activities of subordinates. Groups also need leaders who will foster member’s interactions and represent and express the group’s moral interactions. Thus, in order for groups to function effectively, co-operation is required between two types of leaders who filled basically different roles and who usually have basically different psychological characteristics are rare and usually referred to as “great-Men”.

According to the Great-Man theory, any one exhibiting both instrumental and supportive leadership behaviour will be an effective leader in any situation. v. Laissez-faire leadership The Laissez-faire style of leadership is at the end of the continuum from the autocratic style. Briefly, the autocratic leadership is boss-centered, and the leader makes decisions on his own without consulting subordinates. With the laissez-faire style, the leader attempts to pass the responsibility for decision making to the group. The leader gives little or no direction and allows group members a great deal of freedom.

Also the group is loosely structured. The decision making process with this type of leadership is slow, and there can be a great deal of buck passing. As a result, the task may not be undertaken; bad conditions may become somewhat chaotic. The leadership style has negative implications. According to Douglas McGregor, in his book the Human Side of Enterprise style appeared to be theory X oriented, avoiding work and responsibility and prefer to be coerced, controlled and directed. One can safely say that Laissez-faire leadership style would not provide effective leadership at all. SITUATIONAL APPROACH

This approach is concerned with studying the interaction between leaders and the many variables. Within the work situation which influence their effectiveness. The situational approach views leadership as the exercise of certain kinds of behavior necessary to command loyalty of followers and to motivate them to accomplish various tasks. Research in this area dose not seeks to identify universal leader characteristics which cause or permit leader behavior and characteristics to be effective. The term situation generally refers to aspects of the environment which affect the individual.

These aspects may be physical objects such as office furniture or they may be social relationship with customers, fellow workers, the boss or subordinates. Finally, the situation may refer to such commonly held attitude or perception in the organization as the custom of taking work home from office, or taking a 20minutes tea/coffee break, or the understanding that nobody ever gets fired. These are intra-organisational variables. Extra-organisational aspects of the situation may include surplus or shortage of labour, the number of competitors or the location of office in a city.

CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP This theory was advanced by Fred Fiedler in A theory of Leadership Effectiveness (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967). The model argues that group performance or effectiveness is dependent upon the interaction of leadership style and the favourablesness of the situation. Favourableness was described in term of three criteria. 1. The leader-member relationship, being the most critical variable. i. e confidence in the leader, and loyalty to him. 2. The degree of task structure, being the second most important variable i. e routine as opposed to structured and undefined.

The more task structure, the easier it is for the leaders to tell group members what to do. 3. The leader’s position powered obtained through formal authority being the third most important variable. Situations are faviorable toward the leader if each of the criteria are ranked high, ie this is well accepted, the task is highly structured, and the authority and power attached to the leaders position is substantial. The situation is unfavorable if the reverse holds true. Through research findings, Fiedler demonstrated that under very favorable and very unfavourable situations, tasks-directed leaders were the most effective.

Whilst in moderately favorable or unfavorable situations the lenient human relations or employee-centered leader was the most effective. Fiedler’s model has significant implications for management as it suggests that a group effectiveness and performance can be affected by changing the leader’s style and /or the degree of favorableness of the situation. A very practical appreciation of Fiedler’s theory lies in the selection and training of supervisors and managers for given types of situation where different leadership style could be appropriate. PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP

The contingency theory focuses on how leaders can be facilitate performance by manipulating power, leaders-member relations, and task clarity or structuring. In contrast, the path-goal theory emphasizes how leaders can facilitate task performance by showing subordinate how performance can be instrumental in achieving desired rewards. The path-goal model builds heavily on the expectancy theory of word motivation. This model of leadership can be traced to the early words of Martin Evans in “The Effects of Supervisory Behaviour of the Path-Goal Relationship”, organization Behaviour and Human Performance, 1970, 5, pp277-298.

There has been further modifications to this theory ever since, for example Robert House in “A path-goal Theory of leader Effectiveness Administrative Science Quarterly, 1972, 16, pp 321-331. Essentially, focuses on how managers influence subordinate perceptions of work, personal goals, and various paths to goals attainment. The basic emphasis is on the extent to which managerial behaviour is motivating or satisfying to the extent that it increases goal attainment by subordinates and clarifies the paths of these goals. Evan’s Original formulation identified four distinctive leadership types: . Directive Leadership Provides specific guidance, standards, and schedules of work, as well as rules and regulations; let subordinates know what is expected of them. 2. Supportive Leadership Shows concern for the status, well-being and personal needs of subordinates; focuses on developing satisfactory interpersonal relations among group members. 3. Achievement-oriented Leadership Sets challenging goals, emphasizes improvement in performance, and establishes high expectations of subordinate ability to meet higher standards of excellence. 4. Participative Leadership

Consults with subordinates solicits suggestions and advice in decision making. In contrasts to Fiedler, House asserts that these four styles can be practiced by the same manager at varying times and situations. Fiedler, it was noted, argues that managers have great difficulty changing styles. Basic Proportion of Path-Goal Theory: The path-goal theory of leadership rest on two primary propositions: i. Leader’s behaviour will be acceptable and satisfying when subordinates perceive it as an immediate source of satisfaction or as instrumental in future satisfaction. i. Leader behaviour will be motivating to the extent that it makes subordinate satisfaction contingent upon effective performance and to the extent that it complement the subordinate’s work environment by providing necessary guidance, clarity of direction, and reward for effective performance. 2. 6. DO LEADERS MATTER? In the past, some researcher have argued that the actual influence of leaders on organizational outcome is over rated as a result of biased attributions about leaders, (Meind and Ehrilich 1987).

Despite their assertions however, it is largely recognized and accepted by practitioners and researchers that leadership is important and research support the notion that leaders do contribute to key organizational outcomes (Avy and lord 1987; Kaiser and Hogan, Craig, 2008). Identifying” the relationship and organizational outcomes often becomes more difficult because of the manner in which leadership performance is been measured and organizational outcomes are rarely accounted for (Kaiser et al 2000). 2. 7. QUALITIES OF LEADERSHIP We defined leadership, as one’s ability to get others to willingly follow.

Every organization needs leaders at every level. Leaders can be found and nurtured if you look for the following character traits. A leader with vision has a clear, vivid picture of where to go, as well as a firm grasp on what success looks like and how to achieve it. But it’s not enough to have a vision; leaders must also share it and act upon it. Jack welec, former chairman and CEO of General Electric Co. , said, “Good business leaders create a vision, articulate the vision, passionately own the vision and relentlessly drive it to completion.

A leader must be able to communicate his or her vision in terms that cause followers to buy into it. He or she must communicate clearly and passionately, as passion is contagious. A good leader must have the discipline to work toward his or her vision single-mindedly as well as to direct his or her actions and those of the team toward the goal. Action is the maker of a leader. A leader dose not suffers “analysis paralysis” but is always doing something in pursuit of the vision, inspiring others to do the same. Integrity is the integration of outward actions and inner values.

A person of integrity is the same on the outside and on the inside. Such an individual can be trusted because he or she never veers from inner values, even when it mighty be expeditious to do so. A leader must have the trust of followers and therefore must display integrity. Honest dealing, predictable reactions, well-controlled emotion and an absence of tantrums and harsh outbursts are all signs of integrity. A leader who is centered in integrity will be more approachable by followers. Dedication means spending whatever time or energy is necessary to accomplish the task at hand.

A leader inspires dedication by example, doing whatever it takes to complete the next step toward the vision. By setting an excellent example, leaders can show followers that there are no nine-to-five jobs on the team, only opportunities to achieve something great. Magnanimity means giving credit where it is due. A magnanimous leader ensures that credit for successes is spread as widely as possible throughout the company. Conversely, a good leader takes personal responsibility for failures. This sort of reverse magnanimity helps other people feel good about themselves and draws the team closer together.

To spread the fame and take the blame is a hallmark of effective leadership. Leaders with humility recognize that they are no better or worst than other members of the team. A leader is not self-effacing but rather tries to elevate everyone. Leaders with humility also understand that their status dose not make them a god. Mahatma Gandhi is a role model for Indian leaders, and he pursued a “followers-centric” leadership role. Openness means being able to listen to new ideas, even if they do not conform to the usual way of thinking.

Good leaders are able to suspend judgment while listening to others’ ideas, as well as accept new ways of doing things that someone else thought of. Openness builds mutual respect and trust between leaders and followers, and it also keeps the team well supplied with new ideas that can further it vision. Creativity is the ability to think differently, to get outside of the box that constrains solutions. Creativity gives leaders the ability to see things that others have not seen and thus lead followers in new directions. The most important question that a leader can ask is, “What if….? Possibly the worst thing a leader can say is “I know this is a dumb question…” Fairness means dealing with others consistently and justly. A leader must check all the facts and hear everyone out before passing judgment. He or she must avoid leaping to conclusions based on incomplete evidence. When people feel they that are being treated fairly, they reward a leader with loyalty and dedication. Assertiveness is not the same as aggressiveness. Rather, it is the ability to clearly state what one expects so that there will be no misunderstandings. A leader must be assertive to get the desired results.

Along with assertiveness comes the responsibility to clearly understand what followers expect from their leader. Many leaders have difficulty striking the right amount of assertiveness, according to a study in the February 2007 issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, published by APA (American Psychological Association). It seems that being under-assertive or overassertive may be the most common weakness among aspiring leaders. A sense of humor is vital to relieve tension and boredom, as well as to defuse hostility. Effective leaders know how to use humor to energize followers.

Humor is a form of power that provides some control over the work environment. And simple put, humor fosters good camaraderie. Intrinsic traits such as intelligence, good looks, height and so on are not necessary to become a leader. Anyone can cultivate the proper leadership traits. 2. 8. TYPES OF LEADERSHIP The attributes of leader are not always the same, because a great deal depends on the kinds of leadership called for. The kind of leadership will depend on the philosophy of top management, on the personal character of the leader, and on the circumstances of the business (the type of staff, type of work etc. . Three kinds of leadership have been described, and there are various degrees between each of them, but for the sake of simplicity, these can be described as: AUTOCRATIC This is a situation where by the leader is the only one that makes decisions and gives orders. In theory, he superior wisdom to all, and the staff are there to obey his every order. In order words, an authoritarian leader is one who gets things done through the use of fear threats. Unfortunately, no human being is infallible, and in time it is necessary to use fear and the threat of force to obtain acquiescence.

The leader (or dictator) who relies almost entirely on force to obtain his wishes is not really a leader and he is likely to come to a sudden end. PATERNAL Where the leader act as a father, giving guidance and instruction; using force when necessary, but then only rarely, he tried to exert influence by setting a good example and inspiring rather than giving orders. DEMOCRATIC Where, as much as possible, the leader puts decisions to the vote of those under his control. This is the image of the leader who merely advises and inspires his sub-ordinates and tries to aim their respect and co-operation.

A democratic leader is one who considers the feelings of persons and encourages their participation in decision making. OTHER TYPES INCLUDE; Charismatic leader this is someone whose influence springs mainly from personality. TRADITIONAL leader this is a leader whose position is assured by birth e. g King, A SITUATIONAL leader this type of leader influence can only be effective by being in the right place at the right time. 2. 9. LEADERSHIP DIMENSION This refers to the various concerns and focus of machineries and efforts found among leaders.

It is the different role which leaders deliberately or involuntarily set out to play, the critical issues they decide to focus on, the different image they evoke and their achievement at the end of day. It could also be seen as the various concerns and focus of machineries, manipulations and efforts geared toward achieving desired results. I have developed two models to explain the leadership dimension framework. They are 1. Binocular Model 2. The tricycle Model s 1. BINOCULAR MODEL Leadership dimension

Here Leadership dimensions are group according to the roles played by the leaders (what is done) 2. TRICYCLY MODEL 2. 10. EMERGENCE OF LEADERS Generally, a leader emerges through one of four sources: i. Established Tradition A leader can emerge through inheritance, as heir apparent, tradition, custom, or spiritual ordination. A leader can also emerge though an administrative bureaucracy. This occurs where leadership is obtained by: Rational analysis of laid down administrative procedures, promotional procedures or law ii. By Conquest person can emerge as a leader by taking control of a place or a people with the use of force or military might, imposition-through military coup or act of God, impoverishment or de-empowerments in ways that them with no option than to involuntarily accept the event or invite the manipulator to lead them A leader emerges by conquest if the people’s preferential choice is denied, muzzled or manipulated. The sub-types include: -Imposition – through military coup, act of God Employment of undue influence, power, authority or use of force or intimidation in any form.

Impoverishment or de-empowerments in ways that leave them with no option than to involuntarily accept the event or invited the manipulator to lead them. Electoral fraud or malpractices. iii. By Election or political process A leader can emerge through a process of election or selection depending on the system of government A leader is duly elected when he/she is preferentially chosen in an atmosphere that is free and fair. iv. By Personal Qualities These qualities set a person apart from and above other people in the group and cause them to accept him as a leader and voluntarily accept this leadership-charisma, altruism, apathy or service.

How a leader emerges usually does not necessarily determine his leadership performance and his leadership outcome. 2. 11. DISTINGUISHING A LEADER FROM A MANAGER The debate between leadership and management has been raging for a number of years. The distinction between management and leadership is useful one, in that it helps us gain a better understanding of leadership and causes us to reflect on our own behaviour, asking ourselves, “Are we really leading? ” There is profound difference between leadership and management, and both are important.

To manage means to bring about, to accomplish, to have change of or responsibility for, and to conduct. Leading is influencing, guiding in direction, course, and action opinion. Warren Beninns, in his book “On Becoming a Leader”. He describes his view of the differences between leaders and managers as follows: •The leader innovates; the manager administered. •The leader is an original; the manager is a copy. •The leader develops; the manager maintains. •The leader focuses on people; the manager focuses on system and structure. •The leader inspires trust; the manager relies on control. The leader investigates it; the manager accepts reality. •The leader has a long-range perceptive; the manager has a short-range view. •The leader asks what and why; the manager asks how and when. •The leader has his or her eye on the horizon; the manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line. •The leader originates; the manager imitates. •The leader challenges it; the manager accepts the status quo. •The leader is his or her own person; the manager is the classic good soldier. •The leader dose the right thing; the manager dose things right. The leader is followed; the manager rule. Further to the above, a leader is a person with power over others; who exercises this power for the purpose of influencing their behaviour. While manager over see the process of both mental and physical whereby subordinates are brought to execute prescribed formal duties and to accomplish certain given objectives. A leader is the process whereby one person exerts social influence over other members of a group. The manager in contrast goes beyond managing just but also materials and money.

He combines and utilizes all these with men to achieve organizational goals. Leadership involves more than the personal characteristics of the leader, the effectiveness of a group of followers is a matter of interaction between the members of the group on the other. F. E. Fiedler, Martin . M. Chemers and Linda Maka in their work”Improving Leadership Effectiveness” The leader Match Concept (New York: Wiley) 1976. Concluded that everyone whose work involves direction and supervision of other people is in a leadership position. So also managers who supervise people are leaders.

On the other hand, while most managers are indeed leaders, the leadership functions that they perform are only a part of their managerial job. Managers have to prepare budgets and negotiate with customers, superiors and colleagues; they have to write letters, sign requisitions, and perform many similar functions which do not directly or even indirectly involve the supervision or the subordinates. Finally, leadership represents one of the most important dimensions of managerial accomplishment. In other words, leadership is part of management, but not all of it.

While managers are required to plan and organize, leaders are expect to influence others to achieve organizational goals. In summary This table summarizes the above (and more) and gives a sense of the differences between being a leader and being a manager. This is, of course, an illustrative characterization and there is a whole spectrum between either ends of these scales which each role can range. And many people lead and manage at the same time, and so may display a combination of behaviours. SubjectLeader Manager EssenceChangeStability FocusLeading peopleManaging work HaveFellowesSubordinate

HorizonLong-TeamShort-Team SeeksVision Objectives ApproachSets direction Plans detail DecisionFacilitatesMakes PowerPersonal charismaFormal authority Appeal toHearthHead EnergyPassionControl CultureShapes Enacts DynamicProactive Reactive PersuasionSell Tell StyleTransformational Transactional ExchangeExcitement for workMoney for work Likes Striving Action WantsAchievement Result RicksTakes Minimize RuleBreaks Makes ConflictUses Avoids DirectionNew roadsExisting right TruthSeeks Establishes ConcernWhat is right Being right CreditGives Takes Blame Takes Blame 2. 12. THE PLACE OF LEADERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY ORGANISATION

The place of leaders in the 21st century organization includes guiding the organization to deal with constant change. Every leader that wants to be effective and compliant with the 21st century realities must always brace up to embrace change. This leader must acquire the skills of shaping the organizations culture to fit with opportunities and challenges that change affords. The second role of the 21st century organizational leader goes further beyond acquiring skills for coping with change, but building capacity to provide management support to cope with all the ramifications of constant change.

Thirdly, the 21st century leader must provide the organization with the leadership to guide and shepherd toward a vision over time and developing that organization with future leadership and organizational culture. 2. 13. THE LEADER AND HIS LEADERSHIP. Strong leadership skills are important for every leader. These skills are veritable tools acquired by leaders to give them ease in the place of managing, directing and influencing people to their bidding. How most leaders achieve their goals of motivating others to achieve a esired goal or outcome depends largely on the leader and his style and the style of others therefore can help the leader to be more effective in how he applies his leadership abilities in various situation. In his book “A Fish out of Water” (Integrity Publisher) 2002, George Barna. Identified four leadership styles: The Directing, The Strategic, The Team Building and The operational. THE DIRECTING LEADERSHIP STYLE This type of leader is typically a visionary person who focuses on result and not details. THE STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP STYLE

The strategic leader style is that leader who likes to analyze information and evaluate different scenarios, he specializes in developing and shaping plans for his set vision. THE TEAM BUILDING LEADERSHIP STYLE The team building leader is that leader who is more concerned with people relationship and induction of people than tasks. He is adept at organizing people to achieve the vision. THE OPERATIONAL LEADER The operational leader likes to develop processes to implement the vision. He builds systems and monitor results.

George Barna went further to say that each leader tends to be dominant in one of these styles. However, all leaders have some aspects, of each style. 2. 14. BECOMING A GLOBAL LEADER The button to press to crystallize the transformation process of an individual to becoming a global manager begins with the adoption of the 1-2-3 framework of: Manage the present Selectively forget the past Create the future. As a global manager, you will be expected to function as a business, country, functional and corporate manager, hence, the need to be: Business Manager: Strategist Architect

Co-coordinator Country Manager: Sensor Builder Contributor Functional Manager: Scanner Cross Pollinator Champion Corporate Manager: Leader Talent Scout Developer The key purpose of management and leadership is to provide direction. Gain commitment, facilitate change and achieve results through the efficient creative and responsible deployment of people and other resources. In facilitating change, the leader/manager should be able to lead innovation and manage change. He should be equipped towards providing direction for the organization towards higher profitability.

He must be imbued with qualities that can develop a vision for the future, gain commitment and provide efficient leadership through reliable and sustainable corporate government. Besides, an efficient and effective leader/manager must be capable of achieving results by leading business operations, projects, and meeting customer’s needs. In addition, he must be able to build relationships, develop network and partnerships. His knowledge of financial resources management must be superb, he should develop skills of procurement of products and services and the ability to manage physical resources, technology, information and knowledge.

An efficient global leader/manager must be able to manager self and personal skills and above all learning from the world. A glossary of remunerations and benefits of most of our corporate leaders/manager reveals that their rewards are grossly inadequate. Corporate organizations must develop a reward system that is fair, transparent, protecting critical corporate values especially merit that allow differentiation in favour of performers. The package should be that of first class standard comparable to anywhere in the worked.

Incessant changes in leadership, styles and techniques and its attendant adverse effect on output and corporate organization should be avoided. Besides, conscious effort should be made for training of subordinates, grooming them to step into leadership positions with little or no difficulty. This will no doubt enhance continuity, growth and high level of output/productivity is sustainer and improved upon. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: This chapter will focus on the structure, design, development and strategy for conducting the investigation into the identified subject matter.

In a broad sense, this will include the major methodological activities employed in both the theoretical and empirical investigation into the acceptance and application of principle of strategic leadership by leaders in an organization, it will aim at proffering answer to some essential questions with a view to repeating the general awareness, utilization in business organization generally. The methodology will be treated under the following heading: The population of the study. Selection of sample size and respondent. Method of data collection. Validity of data POPULATION:

The research was actually for all business organization in Nigeria, but narrowed down to one organization The Nigeria Military Medical Center, Ojo, because of its unique nature of leadership. The topic under study is actually an important aspect of progressive formal/informal organization and as such those responsible for leading, following and attaining set targets directly were used as he respondent for this study. SAMPLE SIZE AND RESPONDENT: The sample size and respondents will include the various level management staffs and their supervisors in Nigeria Military Medical Center, Ojo, giving a total of 23 workers in all.

SOURCES OF DATA: The vehicle employed in this study for collection comes under two categories, namely; primary and secondary sources of data collection. The primary sources of date consist of oral interviews, questionnaire and teleinternet, conference charts with the respondents. QUESTIONNAIRE: In designing the framing the questionnaire, certain factors were taken into cognizance due to the dynamic nature of the subject and organization under study. These factors include: The objective of the study. The research hypotheses. The convenience of the respondent.

The structure, nature and communication of the organization under study. In line with these therefore, the questionnaire were well constructed. The objectives of the research work, constructed to either validate or invalidate. The research hypothesis and simplified for easy apprehension by respondents. The questionnaire have two (2) sections: part one (1) with the general questions and part two (2) with the research hypotheses testing questions, the distribution of the questionnaire covers the top management executive, their assistants and the subordinates whom are directly involved in carrying set targets.

ORAL INTERVIEW: Oral interview conducted by the researcher afford the research direct discussions with some of the leaders {H. O. D’s/Managers} of the organization. It also provides the opportunity to observe the span of control organization flow of communication of the organization. INTERNET CHAT /TELECONFERENCING This method although limited to a few selected in the organization under study, but was very helpful, because questions that were not pre determined was asked and answers were derived as it affects the subject matter.

Thanks to advancement in Tele communication world. SECONDARY DATA SOURCE The major secondary sources of information/data for this study includes but limited to human resource leadership. Textbooks, previous research works conducted, reports, journals and of course publications from the internet also Lecture notes from various leadership seminars/workshop attended in time past. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION Personal distribution by hand of the questionnaire was done by the researcher to all the respondents. The returned ones were also collected by hand the ame personal touch was given to the interview session, teleconferencing, internet charts where the researcher notes down the points as she interviews the respondents by the questions. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF DATA A good question possesses two important qualities reliability and validity. A question is reliable if it evolves consistent responses, on the other hands validity of data means that such data have relevance for the subject matter under studies. Such data asks the questions; “Dose the design really produce adequate responses to the question raised by the research hypothesis?

Validity also refers to the degree to which the result of a given study can be generalized to s broad or target population. The reliability and validity of the data collected and the entire research can be guaranteed, as the instrument of data collection were less sentimental and went a long way in validating and invalidating the hypothetical assertion of the research. This means that the result of the data analysis will indicate the degree of awareness and application of concept styles of leadership and its roles in attaining set goals by both the leader and the followers. HYPOTHESIS 1 QUESTION

This is to test the hypothesis question of knowing whether their is relationship between leadership style and goal attainment HYPOTHESIS 11 QUESTIONS This is to test the hypothesis question of knowing whether there is relationship between the patients and the leadership style. CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA As stated earlier, questionnaire formed major vehicle in the course of this research works. A total of twenty five questionnaires were made for the management and staff of Nigeria army medical centre, ojo, to enlist leadership behaviour among the officers and staff.

This is to test the hypothesis question of knowing whether there is relationship between leadership style and goal attainment. Out of which twenty three were distributed to them and returned back. Another set of questionnaires was prepared for the patients of the medical centre to know if there is relationship between the leadership style of the medical centre and the goal attainment. Total of fifty questionnaires were prepared for the patients. Forty six were distributed, while forty two was returned bank to the researcher.

The data collected through this returned questionnaires are hereby presented, analyzed and discussed as reflected below in percentage formula. HYPOTHESIS 1 QUESTION Tables Table one: Frequency distribution of respondents in their qualifications. Qualification of respondents’ percentage SSCE/NECO/WASCNil- ONDNil- HND313. 04 BSC/OTHERS2086. 94 From the above table 1, it is clear that no SSCE/NECO/WASC and ONH were employed, why 3 are having HND, 20 out of the t23 staff were having BSC/others. This is to above shows that the medical centre has highly qualified personnel. Table two:

Frequency distribution of respondents by their sexes. Number of respondents’ percentage Male1356. 42 female1043. 48 From the above table 2, it is clear that the number of male officers dominate the number of female officers. This shows that more men are in this centre than women. Table three: Frequency distribution of respondent to know the purpose of establishing the organization in question. What is the purpose of establishing this organization? a. To meet the health needs of ever increasing population of the cantonment. b. As a way of creating more revenue for military c.

To create more rooms for sick people a. 23100 b. nil- c. nil- From table three above, it is observe that the sole aim or purpose of establishing the MRS is to meet the health needs of ever increasing population of the cantonment. Table four: Frequency distribution of respondent to know the product of the organization What is the product of this organization? a. Purchase and sells. b. Rendering health services to cantonment people c. Production of goods a. Nil- b. 23100 c. nil- From table four above, the respondent is that the organization renders health service to people.

Table five: Frequency distribution of respondent to know those who are recipients of the organization. Who are the recipients of this organization? a. Soldiers, officers, their families and Civilians around the Cantonment. b. Soldiers, officers, their families and animals around the Cantonment. c. Only wounded soldiers from the way. a. 23100 b. nil- c. nil- From table five above Soldiers, officers, their families and Civilians around the Cantonment were their recipients. Table six: Frequency distribution of respondent to know who sponsor or finance the project of the organization.

Who is the sponsor or financier of this organization? a. Non Governmental Bodies. b. Government. c. Individual private. a. nil- b. 23100 c. nil- From the sixth table above, respondent responded that the project is been sponsored and financed by government. The following scale will be used to determine the respondent of the rest questionnaire and the percentage will be used in calculating the result. NEVER SOMETIMES ALWAYS Table seven: Frequency distribution of respondent to know if team participation is encourage.

Do you encourage team to participate when it comes to decision making? Number of respondent’s percentage NeverNil- Sometimes730. 43 always1869. 57 From the above table seven, it is clear that the medical centre encourages team participation in decision making, which shows that optimum leadership style is welcome. Table eight: Frequency distribution of respondent to know if the suggestions and ideas, suggested by other officers are being implemented. Do you implement the suggestions and ideas given by other officers? NeverNil Sometimes939. 13 always14|60. 7 The above table eight shows that suggestions and ideas from other officers are welcome and this gives room to more development and for the leadership style not to be the autocratic type since their end product is to ensure good quality of health services. Table nine: Frequency distribution of respondent to known what is more important to them than accomplishment of goal or task. Do you consider the accomplishing of the goal or task of the organization more important than your own self ambitious and ambition? NeverNil Sometimes313. 04 always2086. 96

From the above table nine above, finding shows that the goal or task of the organization is of more important to them than their own self ambitious and ambition. Table ten: Frequency distribution of respondent to know if schedules are closely monitored to ensure that task or project are been completed in time. Do you closely monitor the schedule to ensure that task or project are been completed in time? NeverNil- Sometimes417. 39 always1982. 61 From the above table ten, it is noted that majority monitor the schedule to ensure that task or project are been completed in time.

Table eleven: Frequency distribution of respondent to know if officers enjoy subordinate on new task and procedure. Do you enjoy coaching subordinate on new task and procedures? Never– Sometimes313. 04 always2086. 96 From the table eleven above, leaders enjoy coaching subordinate on new task and procedures Table twelve: Frequency distribution of respondent to know if both officers and subordinate enjoy challenges that are becoming difficult. Do you enjoy challenges that are becoming more difficulty to attained Never2 8. 70 Sometimes834. 78 always1356. 52

From the table twelve above, 56. 52% enjoy challenges that are becoming more difficulty to attained, while sometimes 34. 78% enjoy challenges that are becoming more difficulty to attain and 8. 70% do not. Table thirteen: Frequency distribution of respondent to know if there is encouragement among officers to become more creative. Do you encourage other officers to be more creative on their job? Never– Sometimes521. 74 always1878. 26 From table thirteen above, it is noted that, 78. 26% of the respondent encourage other officers to be more creative on their job, while sometimes 21. 4% do. Table fourteen: Frequency distribution of respondent if officers and subordinate account for ever detail in relation to goal attainment. Do you ensure that you account for every detail in relation to goal attainment? Never– Sometimes313. 04 Always2086. 96 From table fourteen above 86. 89% ensure that, they account for every detail in relation to goal attainment, while 13. 04% sometimes do. Table fifteen: Frequency distribution of respondent to know if both officers and subordinate find it easy to carry out several tasks at the same time.

Do you find it easy to carry out several tasks at the same time? Never1147. 82 Sometimes834. 78 always417. 40 From the table fifteen above, it could be observe that, 47. 82% don’t find it easy to carry out several tasks at the same time, while 34. 78% sometimes find it easy. 17. 40% always find it easy. Table sixteen: Frequency distribution of respondent if training is encourage. Do you encourage training for your self and the other staff in general? Never– Sometimes626. 09 always1773. 91

From table sixteen above, it is noted that, both officers and subordinates encourage training for themselves and the other staff in general Table seventeen: Frequency distribution of respondent to know if officers mind or get worried about jeopardizing relationship when correcting mistake. When correcting mistake do you mind or get worried about jeopardizing relationship? Never1669. 57 Sometimes626. 08 always1 4. 34 From the above table seventeen, it is noted that, 69. 51% never mind jeopardizing relationship when correcting mistake, 26. 8 sometimes mind, while 4. 34 always mind. Table eighteen: Frequency distribution of respondent to know if officers and subordinate efficiently manage their time. Do you manage your time efficiently? Never– Sometimes834. 78 always1565. 22 From the eighteenth table above, 65. 22% manage their time efficiently, while 34. 78% sometimes manage their time efficiently. Table nineteen: Frequency distribution of respondent to know if officers enjoy explaining the intricacies and detail of a complex task to both the person involved and those you are leading.

Do you enjoy explaining the intricacies and detail of a complex task to both the person involved and those you are leading? Never313. 04 Sometimes834. 78 always1252. 18 From the nineteenth table above, 13. 04% never enjoy explaining the intricacies and detail of a complex task to both the person involved and those he/she is leading, 34. 78% sometimes enjoy explaining the intricacies and detail of a complex task to both the person involved and those they are leading and 52. 18% enjoy explaining the intricacies and detail of a complex task to both the person involved and those they are leading

Table twenty: Frequency distribution of respondent to know if the officers like to build a great team Do you like to build a great team? Nevernil- Sometimes626. 09 always1773. 91 From table twenty above, 73. 91% like to build a great team, while 26. 09 sometimes dose. HYPOTHESIS11 QUESTIONS. Table twenty one: How often do you visit this facility? a. Whenever the need arises. b. Everyday. c. I don’t know. a. 3480. 95 b. 511. 91 c. 3 7. 14 From twenty first table above, 80. 95% of the patients visit the facility Whenever the need arises, 11. 1% visit the facility everyday, while 7. 14% done know. This is to say that most people visit facility when the need arises. Table twenty two: Do you enjoy the services rendered here/are you satisfied with the service rendered to you here? a. Yes. b. No c. Sometimes. a. 3687. 71 b. 1 0. 38 c. 511. 91 From twenty second table above, it is observed that, majority of the patients enjoy or are satisfied with the service rendered to them. Table twenty three: Why do you prefer this facility to others outside?

Is it because they meet up with your need a. Yes. b. No c. Sometimes a. 3687. 71 b. 1 0. 38 c. 511. 91 From twenty three table above, prefers the MRS ojo to others health centre around them because they are able to meet up with their needs Table twenty four: Which of the management staff do you prefer to attend to you? a. Nurses b. Doctors c. All the staff a. 511. 91 b. 716. 66 c. 3071. 43 It is observed that this table above, agree that they prefer all the staff to attend to them, this is shows that, the leadership style used is effective.

Hence since the primary aim is to meet up with the health need of the people, it could be said that their leadership style is in line with the organizational goal. Table twenty five: Do you always feel adequately cared for anytime you visit this facility? a. Yes. b. No c. Sometimes a. 3687. 71 b. 1 0. 38 c. 511. 91 The table above shows that, most patient feel adequate cared for anytime they visit the facility. Table twenty six: In your assessment do you feel this facility should have been better managed?

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