Gifted and Talented
What is the general definition of gifted and talented?
Gifted & Talented means children, and wherever applicable, youth who are identified at the preschool, elementary or secondary level as possessing demonstrated or potential abilities that give evidence of high performance capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, specific academic or leadership ability, or in performing and visual arts and who by reason thereof require services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school.
What is Howard Gardner’s overall definition of gifted and talented? Howard Gardner—says giftedness is an ability or set of abilities that permit an individual to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting. Note: *Gardner looks at what’s valued in different cultures.*
What are the possible class placements for students who are gifted and talented? 1. Parents—they provide enriching environment and activities 2. Regular Classroom–gifted students can attend special seminars, resource rooms, work on special projects but spend their day in the regular class 3. Special Class– with opportunities to integrate with regular class. Spend their day in a class with other gifted students but may work with general ed population as well
4. Acceleration—Traditional approach that allows student to achieve at rates equal to their abilities.
5. Enrichment–experience that can extend or broaden a person’s knowledge in a vertical or horizontal fashion
6. Special Programs & School … EX. Visual & Performing Arts
7. Mentoring—student works directly with scientist, college professors, etc. who are conducting studies or investigations
What are the characteristics of students who are gifted and talented? Intellectual Characteristics:
reasons abstractly, conceptualizes, processes information well, solves problems, learns quickly, shows intellectual curiosity, has wide interests,
dislikes drill & routine, may show unevenness in cognitive development, generalizes learning, remembers great amount of material, high level of verbal ability.
criticizes self, plays with older friends, persists, exhibits individualism, leadership abilities.
Why should school districts be careful about using intelligence tests for identifying students who are gifted and talented? – no correlation between IQ test scores and later achievement – don’t test higher mental
– some are culturally biased
– Predication of the child potential, child might not live up to their potential… not actually what they will do, what they’re capable of doing.
Renzulli defines giftedness as an interaction among what?
Giftedness consists of an interaction among 3 basic clusters of human traits: above average general abilities (intelligence)
high levels of task commitment
high levels of creativity
What factors contribute to giftedness?
both heredity & environment lead to giftedness
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence includes what 3 intelligences Analytic Intelligence, Synthetic Intelligence, Practical Intelligence
Physical and Health Disorders
What is the IDEA definition of health disorders?
cause individuals to have limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to
chronic or acute health problems such as a heart condition, tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, nephritis, asthma, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, epilepsy, lead poisoning, leukemia, or diabetes, which adversely affects educational performance.
Physical disorders are what?
1. May interfere with mobility and coordination
2. May affect capacity to communicate, learn, and adjust to the environment
Definition of Orthopedically Impaired
means a severe orthopedic (physical) impairment which adversely affects educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomalies, impairments caused by disease and impairments from other causes.
Cerebral Palsy can range from:
Classified in 2 ways:
paraplegic–lower body and 2 legs
quadriplegic–4 extremities & trunk
diplegia–legs more involved than arms
Definition of Diabetes
a developmental or hereditary disorder characterized by inadequate secretion or use of insulin produced by the pancreas to produce carbohydrates
What is Cystic Fibrosis?
Inherited systemic generalized disease
What organs in the body are affected by Cystic Fibrosis?
lungs, pancreas, sweat glands
Definition of seizure disorder a cluster of behaviors that occur in response to abnormal neurochemical activity in the brain. It alters the individual’s level of consciousness while simultaneously resulting in certain characteristic motor patterns.
Definition of cerebral palsy
-results from damage to the brain before or during birth
What are some symptoms of cerebral palsy?
general physical weakness
Lack of coordination
It is not contagious; ranges from mild to severe
What is quadriplegia?
4 extremities (2 arms, 2 legs) & trunk (whole body) .. whole body involved.
Definition of spinal cord injury
spinal cord traumatized or severed… could happen to anybody at any time.
Definition of Spina Bifida
abnormal opening in the spinal column
Cystica–a tumor-like sac on infants back
Definition of Muscular Dystrophy
group of chronic inherited disorders characterized by progressive weakening & wasting of the voluntary skeletal muscles
In Muscular Dystrophy, what replaces muscle tissue?
fatty tissue gradually replaces muscle tissue
Definition of Sickle Cell Anemia
a chronic disease that has a profound impact on the function & structure of red blood cells
If you are born without a limb (born with an amputation) you have a much easier time adjusting to what? easier to adjust to therapy & prosthetic devices
A tonic clonic seizure affects the entire what?
entire brain is affected
Students with Severe & Multiple Disabilities
Know the characteristics of students with mild, moderate, and severe and profound disabilities Mild Disabilities
Most can be successful in a regular class
Generally see evidence of disability only in school
IQ usually above 75
Mostly LD and BD
Usually not evident at birth
Generally the cause is unknown
Students need more intense level of service
Intellectual deficits are more evident & pronounced
Difficulties are evident in a broader range of environments
Multiple performance deficits
Causes may be more clear
May be identified at birth (Down Syndrome)
Severe and Profound Disabilities
May be impaired in every facet of life
May have severe intellectual, learning and behavioral difficulties and/or may have a physical disability or sensory impairment Most individuals have significant multiple problems
Needs cannot be met by one professional
Often the disability is identified at birth
Know examples of Assistive Technology
Mobility—lifts, adaptive driving controls
Toys and games—switch operated toys
Communication—touch talkers, computers
Know an example of an Augmentative Communication Device (answer…computers, etc. see last page of notes)
Impact on Families
What Characteristics do you see in the primary, secondary and tertiary phase of acceptance when families find out they have a child with a disability? 1. Primary- shock, denial, grief, often accompanied by depression parents may be unable to comprehend information 2. Secondary Phase- ambivalence followed by guilt, anger, shame, embarrassment 3. Tertiary Phase- bargaining, adaptation, reorganization, acceptance
The birth of a child with a disability may cause marital stress because of what? Causes of Marital Stress:
1. child takes too much of wife’s time and attention
3. financial burdens
What do siblings experience?
1. tend to mirror attributes & behaviors of parents
2. may feel anger, loneliness, anxiety, resentment
3. may feel the need to compensate for the child with the disability
What are the DEVELOPMENTAL cycles parents go through in rearing a child with a disability? 1. parent learns of or suspects a disability
2. determine what action should be taken in terms of education 3. child completes education
4. parents become older & are unable to care for child
What can grandparents provide?
1. must deal with how to respond to their own child as well as their grandchild 2. may have difficulty accepting disability
3. can contribute respite care, support, transportation, and sometimes financial assistance
How do fathers respond to a child with a disability different from mothers? 1. more likely to internalize feelings
2. may resent wife’s attention to child
3. may feel his hopes & dreams are shattered
What do professionals need to understand when they work with families of children with disabilities? 1. need to understand the impact they have on the family
2. need to understand the impact the child has on the family 3. need to understand the impact the child & family has on them