Abstraction: With the development of mass media. newspaper is one of the major media for us to acquire information all over the universe. Nowadays English newspaper is really popular and read all over Chine. However. many people still have trouble in understanding English newspaper headlines even for some English big leagues. This is because English newspaper headlines have their ain particular characteristics. civilization backgrounds and different from the day-to-day English we used in many facets. This paper will so concentrate on the lexical. construction characteristics and rhetorical devices of English newspaper headlines. which can assist us to hold a better apprehension when we are reading newspapers. Cardinal words: Newspaper headline. Lexical characteristics. Structure characteristics. Rhetorical devices.
? . IntroductionEvery clip we pick up a newspaper. what come into our sight will be tonss of intelligence headlines. A headline has become an indispensable portion of newspaper. The editor means to pull the reader’s attending through headlines. As a consequence. intelligence paper headlines are normally specially designed to be short. concise. and enlightening to convey different sorts of information. We may be confused by the headlines like “Cater’s War on Waste” . “UFO Sighted” . “Smugglers Get Jail and Fines” . “Weekly Mag for Stamp Lovers to Be Launched” . ECT. Yet without some cognition of intelligence headline characteristics. it is non easy for us to read English newspaper. This paper has summarized the survey of newspaper development in recent old ages and presents the lexical characteristics. construction characteristics and rhetorical devices of English newspaper headlines in inside informations.
II. Literature ReviewThe survey of English newspaper headlines can day of the month back to 1990s. In the past 10 old ages many bookmans in China have carry out many survey refering intelligence headlines and many documents have been published. One of the documents. ?On the Features of English Newspaper Headline? . is written by Zhang Qiong in 2001. That paper covers different characteristics of newspaper headlines but it is non specific plenty. This paper will concentrate on three facets of intelligence headlines. lexical characteristics. construction characteristics and rhetorical devices. which help to some extend make our apprehension of newspaper headlines more profoundly and specific.
III. Lexical Features of English Newspaper HeadlinesLexical characteristics of English newspaper headlines can chiefly include four parts. They are exemplified as follows.
[ 1 ] AbbreviationAbbreviation. which is used in a big measure in English newspaper. means “A shortened signifier of a word or phrase used chiefly in composing to stand for the complete form” . By and large talking there are 3 sorts of Abbreviations used in the newspaper.
? Abbreviation for organisationsExamples: UNESCO = Uinted Nations Educational. Scientific and Culture Organization PLO = Palestine Liberation OrganizationIOC = International Olympic CommitteeNASA = National Aeronautics and Space Administration APEC = Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference FIFA = Federation Internationale de Football Association
? Abbreviation for profession and callingExamples: MP = member of parliament PM = premier curate GM = general director PA = personal helper
? Abbreviation for our familiar thingsExamples: UFO = Unidentified Flying Object DJI = Dow-Jones Index AIDS = Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromeGMT = Greenwich Mean TimesLaser = Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation Radar = Radio Detection and RangingSonar = Sound Navigation RangingTOEFL = Test of English as A Foreign LanguageIELTS = International English Language Testing System
[ 2 ] ShorteningShortening of different words in newspaper purposes to save more infinite or to cut down the length of the headlines. Examples: grad – alumnus hosp – infirmary cig – coffin nail Cell – cellular Sec – 2nd Reps – representatives Info – information Int’l – international Deli– delicatessen Hi-fi – high fidelity Hi-tech – high engineering 3-D – three dimensional G-7 – Group of seven A-bomb – atom bomb V-day – triumph twenty-four hours
[ 3 ] CompoundCompound words in English newspaper are normally formed by two or over two words. By intensifying. we can do complicated construction simpler. what’s more. salvage infinite. Examples: ? “Plan to help school dropouts extended” ( China Daily. Feb. 5. 1998 ) . Here “school dropouts” refers to “the pupil who drops out of school” . ? “Li emphasiss corruptness fight” ( China Daily. Feb. 6. 1998 ) . Here “corruption fight” refers to “fight against corruption” .
[ 4 ] Informal and Small WordsNewspaper headlines are likely to utilize informal and little words because little words have more significances than large words and can be used in many instances. In intelligence English these words are refered to as “synonyms of all work” . Examples: aim——purpose. design. object purpose. etc. meet——assembly. convention. fold. test. etc. pact——compact. contract. understanding. convention deal——negotiationm. dealing. deal. etc.
? . Structure Features of English Newspaper HeadlinesStructure characteristics of English newspaper headlines can be divided into two facets. They are as follows:
[ 1 ] OmissionOmission is one of the major characteristics of English newspaper headlines. By and large talking. skip can be classified 4 types.
? Omission of articlesExamples: Italian Ex-mayor Murdered ( = A Italian Ex-mayor Was Murdered ) Tenth of British Mackerel Catch Ground into Feed ( = A Tenth of the British markerel Catch Ground into Feed )
? Omission of concurrence and pronounExamples: USA. Vietnam Resume Talks ( = USA and Vietnam Resume Talks ) Have Dollars. Will Sell ( = If You Have Dollars. Will Sell )
? Omission of “be ” and subsidiary verbsExamples: Three Dead after Inhaling over Gas ( = Three Are Dead after Inhaling over Gas ) Married Women to Get Care Allowance( = Married Women Are to Get Care Allowance )PNC’s universe positions praised ( = PNC’s universe positions were praised )
? Omission of verbsExamples: Ballots. Not Bullets ( = Algerians Want Ballots. Not Bullets ) Pom peii Reported Seriously Damaged( = Pom peii Reported to Have Benn Seriously Damage )
[ 2 ] Use Noun to Replace Adjective. Phrase. and VerbNouns are often used in newspaper Headlines to replace different words to organize assorted constructions. So nouns are the most alive words in intelligence headlines. Examples: Yugoslav piano player stirring music universe
( “music world” = “musical world” )Corruptness Reports Against Police Rise( “corruption reports” = “reports on corruptness ailments ” ) Female axe liquidator executed( “female axe murdered” = “ a female liquidator who killed with an axe ” ) Export growing to crush crisis( “growth” is used to replace “grow” )
? . Rhetorical Devicess Of English Newspaper HeadlinesRhetorical devices of English newspaper headlines chiefly have six sorts. They are as follows.
[ 1 ] ImitationExamples: The Son Besides Rises To Salvage or Not to SalvageThe Road That Must be Taken Do as Maoris DoThe Great Mall of China Candidate in the Wind iPod. therefore. I am
[ 2 ] MetaphorExamples: A Dove Taking WingWhitewater May Drown DemocratsTrouble Brewing
[ 3 ] AlliterationAlliteration is the repeat of initial indistinguishable consonant sounds in successive or closely associated syllables. clairvoyance. stressed syllables. Examples: Pride and Prejudice Sense and Sensibility
Kill or Cure? Carrots and Clubs?Lone Soldier Tiger Tied Virtual Villains
[ 4 ] RhymeRhyme is the repeat of an indistinguishable stressed vowel sound. followed by indistinguishable consonant sound but preceded by different consonants Examples: Masculine rime: Foe/toe meet/fleet make/brake Feminine rime: Revival/arrival mountain/fountain Eye rime: Brain Gain/Drain Dream Team Wheels and Deals Bubble. Bubble. Toil and Trouble It’s More Than a War
[ 5 ] PunPun is an look that achieves accent or wit by planing an ambiguity. two distinguishable significances suggested either by the same word or by two similar sounding words. Examples: Why is the river so rich? It has two Bankss.
Why are monkeys every bit chatty as adult females? Each monkey has a tail ( narrative ) . Why is that female film star so cool? She has many fans. Which can run quicker. heat or cold? Heat. because everyone can catch cold. What is the worst conditions for mice?
When it rains cats and Canis familiariss.Why is the bride ever luckless on her nuptials twenty-four hours? Because she can ne’er get married the best adult male. What is head? It doesn’t affair.What is the affair? Never head.
[ 6 ] IdiomExamples: Rome is non built in a twenty-four hours.Third clip lucky.The seven-year scabies.
VI. DecisionTo sum up. English newspaper headlines can utilize different sorts accomplishments of lexical characteristics. construction characteristics and rhetorical devices to make many effects. Besides the characteristics mentioned supra. at that place many other characteristics in English newspaper headlines for us to analyse. Understanding the headlines of the intelligence is a gateway to understand the whole intelligence. so intelligence headlines is an country worthwhile for us to travel deep into.