Life of Subhash Chandra Bose Subhash Chandra Bose was born into an affluent Bengali family on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack , Orissa. Subhash’s public prosecutor father ensured that his son availed the best of education in eminent institutions such as Scottish Church College , Calcutta and Fitzwilliam College at Cambridge University . In 1920, at the insistence of his parents, Bose appeared in the prestigious Indian Civil Service and secured the fourth place.
During this period the civil disobedience movement called by Mahatma Gandhi was sweeping across the country and Bose resigned from the ICS in April 1921 to join his fellow countrymen in the freedom struggle.
He joined the youth wing of the Congress Party and soon rose up the party hierarchy by virtue of his eloquence and leadership skills. At an early stage of his life Subhas Bose accepted Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das as his political guru. Over a span of 20 years, Bose was imprisoned eleven times by the British, the first one being in 1921.
In 1924, after a brief period of incarceration, Bose was exiled to Mandalay in Burma . Subhash Bose was imprisoned again in 1930 and deported to Europe . During his stay in Europe from 1933 to 1936, Subhash Bose zealously espoused the cause of Indian freedom while meeting a number of prominent European statesmen. In 1937, Bose married Emilie Schenkl who was his secretary. Subhash Bose was twice elected president of the Indian National Congress (1938 and 1939) but following his disagreements with Mahatma Gandhi he relinquished his post and formed a progressive group known as the Forward Block.
The Second World War broke out in 1939 and Bose launched a campaign of mass civil disobedience to protest against the Viceroy’s decision to declare war on India ‘s behalf. Bose was put behind the bars but because of his hunger strike he was later placed under house arrest. Taking advantage of the laxity of the house guards and aided by his cousin Sishir Bose, Subhash managed to escape and traversing through enemy territories he reached Moscow . Bose tried to garner the help Nazi Germany but due to the indifferent attitude of Hitler and other German leaders he eft for Japan and soon assumed the leadership of Indian National Army (INA) founded by Rash Behari Bose. Bolstered by material assistance from the Japanese forces, the INA attacked the British forces in Manipur and Nagaland in northeastern India and hosted the National Flag in the town in Moirang, in Manipur. But with the defeat of Japan , the invasion by the INA soon petered out and Netaji was forced to retreat to Malaya . Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose allegedly died in a plane crash over Taiwan , while flying to Tokyo on August 18, 1945. Philosophy of Subhash Chandra Bose
The principles and the philosophy of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose were instrumental factors in his embracing of armed revolution in the later part of his political career. Initially Bose was a follower of the Gandhian way of freedom movement but years of travel in European countries during exile and the ripening of mental faculties with age made him disenchanted with the ways of the Indian National Congress. Subhash Chandra’s hatred for the British ran deep and he vehemently called for the immediate ouster of the colonial rulers from Indian soil.
Disappointed with the leniency shown by some Congress leaders towards the British, Bose became increasingly convinced that the goal of achieving freedom would remain a pipedream as long as the British held sway over the land and peaceful protests would never be able to throw the British out. While outlining his vision for a free India, Subhash Chandra Bose proclaimed that socialist authoritarianism would be required to eradicate poverty and social inequalities from a diverse country like India. He openly espoused for an authoritarian state on the lines of Soviet Russia and Kemal Ataturk’s Turkey.
Bose was also an exponent of socialism and opined that industrialization and Soviet-style five-year plans held the key to a vibrant Indian nation INA The Indian National Army was the manifestation of Subhash Chandra Bose’s transformation from a Gandhian freedom fighter to an armed revolutionary challenging the might of the British Empire . Originally the brainchild of expatriate nationalist leader Rash Behari Bose, the INA saw Subhash Chandra assuming the leadership of the outfit as its supreme commander in 1943.
With characteristic vigor and zeal, Bose set about strengthening the fledgling organization and proclaimed the Provisional Government of Free India in Singapore on October 21, 1943. The Indian National Army was also known as the Azad Hind Fauj and it owed allegiance to the Provisional Government which was recognized by nine Axis states. The INA had a combat strength of 40,000 troops comprising mainly of Indian expatriates in South Asia and Indian prisoners of war. The INA also boasted of an exclusive women’s combat unit named the Rani of Jhansi regiment.
As the Japanese troops launched a major offensive through Burma , the Azad Hind Fauj soldiers fought alongside them in the frontlines and contributed in many victories. Previously in December, 1943 the Azad Hind government had established its rule in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and renamed them as Shaheed (Martyr) and Swaraj (Self-rule). On 18 April 1944, the INA troops captured the town of Moirang in Manipur and in a glorious display of patriotism, raised an Indian tricolor.
However the INA’s total dependence on the Japanese troops for arms and logistics support proved to be its undoing and as the might of the Japanese began to wane, the INA too was forced to retreat. With the subsequent surrender of Japan the INA resistance collapsed and a number of officers and troops were captures by the British. The government brought these officers to the Red Fort in Delhi for court martial but eventually had to relent in the face of nationwide protests and incidents of mutiny in the ranks of British Indian Army.
Subhash Chandra employed his great oratory skills to inspire the troops of Indian National Army. On July 4, 1944, at a rally of Indians in Burma , Bose famously proclaimed, “Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom. ” “Delhi Chalo,” another phrase attributed to him, became the clarion call of the INA combatants as they marched towards Indian territory . Born: January 23, 1897 Died: August 18, 1945 Achievements: Passed Indian Civil Services Exam; elected Congress President in 1938 and 1939; formed a new party All India Forward block; organized Azad Hind Fauj to overthrow British Empire from India.
Subhas Chandra Bose, affectionately called as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of Indian freedom struggle. Though Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru have garnered much of the credit for successful culmination of Indian freedom struggle, the contribution of Subash Chandra Bose is no less. He has been denied his rightful place in the annals of Indian history. He founded Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) to overthrow British Empire from India and came to acquire legendary status among Indian masses. Subhas Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa.
His father Janaki Nath Bose was a famous lawyer and his mother Prabhavati Devi was a pious and religious lady. Subhas Chandra Bose was the ninth child among fourteen siblings. Subhas Chandra Bose was a brilliant student right from the childhood. He topped the matriculation examination of Calcutta province and graduated with a First class in Philosophy from the Scottish Churches College in Calcutta. He was strongly influenced by Swami Vivekananda’s teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. To fulfill his parents wishes he went to England in 1919 to compete for Indian Civil Services.
In England he appeared for the Indian Civil Service competitive examination in 1920, and came out fourth in order of merit. However, Subhas Chandra Bose was deeply disturbed by the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre, and left his Civil Services apprenticeship midway to return to India in 1921 After returning to India Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose came under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi and joined the Indian National Congress. On Gandhiji’s instructions, he started working under Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, whom he later acknowledged his political guru.
Soon he showed his leadership mettle and gained his way up in the Congress’ hierarchy. In 1928 the Motilal Nehru Committee appointed by the Congress declared in favour of Domination Status, but Subhas Chandra Bose along with Jawaharlal Nehru opposed it, and both asserted that they would be satisfied with nothing short of complete independence for India. Subhas also announced the formation of the Independence League. Subhas Chandra Bose was jailed during Civil Disobedience movement in 1930. He was released in 1931 after Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed.
He protested against the Gandhi-Irwin pact and opposed the suspension of Civil Disobedience movement specially when Bhagat Singh and his associates were hanged. Subash Chandra Bose was soon arrested again under the infamous Bengal Regulation. After a year he was released on medical grounds and was banished from India to Europe. He took steps to establish centres in different European capitals with a view to promoting politico-cultural contacts between India and Europe. Defying the ban on his entry to India, Subash Chandra Bose returned to India and was again arrested and jailed for a year.
After the General Elections of 1937, Congress came to power in seven states and Subash Chandra Bose was released. Shortly afterwards he was elected President of the Haripura Congress Session in 1938. During his term as Congress President, he talked of planning in concrete terms, and set up a National planning Committee in October that year. At the end of his first term, the presidential election to the Tripuri Congress session took place early 1939. Subhas Chandra Bose was re-elected, defeating Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya who had been backed by Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress Working Committee.
Clouds of World War II were on the horizon and he brought a resolution to give the British six months to hand India over to the Indians, failing which there would be a revolt. There was much opposition to his rigid stand, and he resigned from the post of president and formed a progressive group known as the Forward Block. Subhas Chandra Bose now started a mass movement against utilizing Indian resources and men for the great war. There was a tremendous response to his call and he was put under house arrest in Calcutta. In January 1941, Subhas
Chandra Bose disappeared from his home in Calcutta and reached Germany via Afghanistan. Working on the maxim that “an enemy’s enemy is a friend”, he sought cooperation of Germany and Japan against British Empire. In January 1942, he began his regular broadcasts from Radio Berlin, which aroused tremendous enthusiasm in India. In July 1943, he arrived in Singapore from Germany. In Singapore he took over the reins of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia from Rash Behari Bose and organised the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army) comprising mainly of Indian prisoners of war.
He was hailed as Netaji by the Army as well as by the Indian civilian population in East Asia. Azad Hind Fauj proceeded towards India to liberate it from British rule. Enroute it lliberated Andeman and Nicobar Islands. The I. N. A. Head quarters was shifted to Rangoon in January 1944. Azad Hind Fauj crossed the Burma Border, and stood on Indian soil on March 18 ,1944. However, defeat of Japan and Germany in the Second World War forced INA to retreat and it could not achieve its objective. Subhas Chandra Bose was reportedly killed in an air crash over Taipeh, Taiwan (Formosa) on August 18, 1945.
Though it is widely believed that he was still alive after the air crash not much information could be found about him. The archivist, who was suspicious of me in any case as I was a journalist and not the sort of academic he normally dealt with, thought I would be more interested in such tabloid tales of why many people were still convinced Bose had not died but would one day return. He was surprised when I told him I was interested in what Bose had done in his life and keen to publish his first full-length biography, using all the available archival material, something that had not been done until that stage.
Later when I met Uttam Chandra Malhotra, who had sheltered Subhas Bose in Kabul as he escaped from India and I told him in 1977 that Subhas Bose would be over 80 or so and, even if he reappeared he would be very old, Malhotra replied, “But he is Krishna. He could live to be 150. He is immortal! ” It reinforced my convictions that I should look for a Subhas Bose who was a great Indian nationalist but not a Krishna, but very much a mortal man with a mortal man’s virtues but failings as well.
More through luck than judgement I had chosen the right time to write about Bose. The effect of the thirty-year rule brought in by Harold Wilson, Britain’s Prime Minister meant documents relating to Bose in the 1940s were being declassified. India had followed the British example, and in the 1970s there were still many people alive who knew Bose and had worked with him. As it happens within a year of the publication of my book, interest in Bose began to rise in quite a dramatic fashion.
I would like to think this was down to my book — in reality it was due to factors beyond my control. Richard Attenborough brought out his film on Gandhi and then Granada serialised Paul Scott’s Raj novels under the title Jewel in the Crown. The novels dealing with the last years of British rule in India made reference to Bose and his Indian National Army. Granada felt its viewers would be puzzled by references to Bose and his army and, before the Jewel in the Crown series began, they aired a documentary to introduce British viewers to Bose.
A rather nice lady, having read my book, duly came to see me and picked my brains over lunch at an Italian restaurant in Islington. In the two decades since, the Subhas Bose industry has mushroomed. There have been two more television documentaries in the UK about him and now Shyam Benegal has made a film about him whose title the Last Hero is not all that far removed from the title I gave the first edition of the book The Lost Hero. Meanwhile the Netaji Research Bhavan, which when my book went to press had published three volumes of Bose’s Collected Works, has published nine more volumes.
They bring to light much new material not previously known such as the intimate letters between Bose and his wife Emilie. Major Iwaichi Fujiwara, the idealist Japanese intelligence officer who was the father of the first Indian National Army, published his memoirs a few years after my book came out and this was followed by others who has first hand knowledge of Bose and his life and times. Also the British government, which twenty years ago was in the middle of publishing the Transfer of Power Papers, has completed this mammoth task.
Milan Hauner, whose epic study of the Axis strategy during the Second World War I had consulted as an unpublished manuscript, has since published it and it remains the last word on the Axis view of the Indian freedom movement. Then a decade after my book others, both Indian and foreign, mainly Americans, have published their books on various aspects of Bose, all of which would have made my taking another, look at my book desirable. However, what has made it essential is the release of hitherto, classified material on Bose in the last few years. Most valuable are the iles of the Indian Political Intelligence, the Raj’s MI5; whose classified papers were released just as India was celebrating its fiftieth year of freedom. I have been the first author to examine the IPI’s Bose files in detail and they throw new and fascinating light on the Raj’s allegation that he was a revolutionary and leader of the Indian terrorist movement. They also demonstrate how much the Raj feared him. They shadowed Bose right from the start of his political career to his end. Indeed it is the refusal of the British to release a letter from these files which has much exercised the latest judicial enquiry into Bose’s death.
In addition to this there has been release of other classified documents by the Public Record Office in London relating to Bose and the Second World War, in particular, the confession to the Raj’s police by people like Bhagat Ram Talwar and other Bose associates. They throw a most vivid light on the war years and require us to revise our accepted version of that period. We can no longer accept the self serving memoir of Talwar and we have fascinating details of how the British through their war-time intelligence at Bletchley followed Subhas Bose’s epic journey via submarine from Germany to Japan and even considered picking him up.
Finally, a few documents have begun to emerge from the Soviet archives which are tantalising and indicate the intricate web between the British, the Russians and the Axis powers during the Second World War. The result has been that I have added three more chapters and considerably revised some other chapters. This new material does not change our view of Bose but they considerably add to our picture of the man and his times. Bose emerges as an even more substantial figure and we know a lot more about the political and revolutionary activities both before and during the Second World War than we did: when I published my book back in 1982.
This has also made me give my book a new title: Raj, Spies, Rebellion, The Life and Times of Subhas Chandra Bose. In focusing more on his time we learn how remarkable a man Subhas Bose was and how much he affected the times he lived in. I came to write about Subhas Bose in the first place due to a drink one early evening in the autumn of 1976 with William Miller, quite the most remarkable publisher I have ever met. I told him the Bose story in a Goodge Street pub, he was fascinated and it led to his giving me a book contract.
For this edition I have incurred many more debts. It has meant I have renewed my links with Milan Hauner and, cannot thank him enough for his insights and the kindness with which he has shared them with me. I have also been privileged to know Hugh Toye, who must have the greatest treasure trove of material relating to Bose and the Second World War, in his Wheatley home. Toye, an incredible British intelligence officer, never met Bose but interrogated the members of the INA and Hugh has been kind enough to say publicly that he thinks my biography on Bose is the best.
That shows the great generosity of his spirit and his unfailing courtesy to my many demands on his time and his absolute mastery of facts and details, even at the age of 87, demonstrate what a remarkable man he is. As a young boy in Bombay I read his Springing Tiger, his study of Bose’s war-time activities, and I hope his revised edition will soon be published. Although I am not related to Subhas Bose, my family comes from east Bengal, his from west, I grew up in Bombay, a midnight’s child, very aware of him.
My father was in business with his youngest brother Sailesh, his wife remains my mother’s best friend and their son was at college with me. So I was always aware of the Bose lore. It was through them that I first met Anita Bose, Subhas’s daughter, who came to our Bombay house when she visited India in 1961. In the course of the research for this edition I have renewed my acquaintance and also met her husband Martin, both of whom have been very helpful.
I am as ever grateful to archivists and librarians all over the world for, once again, helping me find material. I can never forget the kindness of my uncle Dhiren, whose MP’s flat in Delhi proved such a home away from home when I did my research there. I am grateful to Philip Knightley, not only for writing the foreword to this edition, but introducing me to Susan and Colin Chapman, who were brave enough to take on the book. Ashok Kumar’s encouragement and advice was always a spur and Daljit Sebhai was ever helpful.
Diane Clarkson found a way of getting my first edition, which was originally printed in the days before computers, scanned, Nicky Braganza and Alyson Hazelwood were extremely helpful and my brother-in-law Tapan enterprisingly found material which shed new light on Bose. Above all I owe a debt I cannot repay to my wife Caroline who has had to revise all her ideas of Raj history to come to terms with Subhas Bose. The fact that she has managed it with such good humour is a testimony both to her ability to assimilate new information and her intrinsic grasp of diverse subjects.
Mihir Bose’s revised, expanded edition of the life of Subhas Chandra Bose called Raj, Spies, Rebellion: the Life and Times of Subhas Chandra Bose is published by Grice Chapman in the UK in September 2004 Contributions Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was a freedom fighter of India. He was the founder of the Indian National Army. During pre-independence period Netaji had visited London to discuss the future of India, with the members of the Labor party. His sudden disappearance from Taiwan, led to surfacing of various theories, concerning the possibilities of his survival.
Life Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23 January, 1897 in Cuttack (Orissa) to Janakinath Bose and Prabhavati Devi. Subhash was the ninth child among eight brothers and six sisters. His father, Janakinath Bose, was an affluent and successful lawyer in Cuttack and received the title of “Rai Bahadur”. He, later became a member of the Bengal Legislative Council. Subhash Chandra Bose was a very intelligent and sincere student but never had much interest in sports. He passed his B. A. in Philosophy from the Presidency College in Calcutta.
He was strongly influenced by Swami Vivekananda’s teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. He also adored Vivekananda as his spiritual Guru. British Professor Thrashed After reading so many incidents about the exploitation of the fellow Indians by the British, Subhash decided to take revenge. In 1916, Subhash reportedly beat and thrashed one of his British teachers E F Otten. The professor made a racist remark against the Indian students. As a result, Bose was expelled from the Presidency College and banished from Calcutta University. The incident brought Subhash in the list of rebel-Indians.
In December 1921, Bose was arrested and imprisoned for organizing a boycott of the celebrations to mark the Prince of Wales’s visit to India. Indian Civil Service His father wanted Netaji to become a civil servant and therefore, sent him to England to appear for the Indian Civil Service Examination. Bose was placed fourth with highest marks in English. But his urge for participating in the freedom movement was intense that in April 1921, Bose resigned from the coveted Indian Civil Service and came back to India. Soon, he left home to become an active member of India’s independence movement.
He, later joined the Indian National Congress, and also elected as the president of the party. Subhash with Congress Initially, Subhash Chandra Bose worked under the leadership of Chittaranjan Das, an active member of Congress in Calcutta. It was Chittaranjan Das, who along with Motilal Nehru, left Congress and founded the Swaraj Party in 1922. Subhash would regard Chittaranjan Das as his political guru. While Chittaranjan Das was busy in developing the national strategy, Subhash Chandra Bose played a major role in enlightening the students, youths and labors of Calcutta.
He was eagerly waiting to see India, as an independent, federal and republic nation. Dispute in the Congress People began to recognize Bose by his name and associated him with the freedom movement. Bose had emerged as a popular youth leader. He was admired for his great skills in organization development. In 1928, during the Guwahati Session of the Congress, a difference in the opinion between the old and new members surfaced. The young leaders, as against the traditional leadership, wanted a “complete self-rule and without any compromise”. The senior leaders were in favor of the “dominion status for India within the British rule”.
The differences were between moderate Gandhi and aggressive Subhash Chandra Bose was swelling. The state was so intense that Subhash Chandra Bose had to defeat Pattabhi Sitaramayya, a presidential candidate, nominated by Gandhiji himself. Bose had won the election but without any second thought he resigned from the party. He, then formed the Forward Bloc in 1939. Formation of INA During the Second World War in September, 1939, Subhash Chandra Bose decided to initiate a mass movement. He started uniting people from all over the country. There was a tremendous response to his call and the British promptly imprisoned him.
In jail, he refused to accept food for around two weeks. When his health condition deteriorated, fearing violent reactions across the country, the authority put him under house-arrest. During his house-arrest, in January, 1941, Subhash made a planned escape. He first went to Gomoh in Bihar and from there he went on to Peshawar (now, Pakistan). He finally reached Germany and met Hitler. Bose had been living together with his wife Emilie Schenkl in Berlin. In 1943, Bose left for south-east Asia and raised the army. The group was later named by Bose, as the Indian National Army (INA). Visit to England
During his sojourn to England, he met with the leaders of British Labor Party and political thinkers including Clement Attlee, Arthur Greenwood, Harold Laski, G. D. H. Cole, and Sir Stafford Cripps. Bose also discuss with them about the future of India. It must also be noted that it was during the regime of the Labor Party (1945-1951), with Attlee as the Prime Minister, that India gained independence. Disappearance Although it was believed that Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose died in a plane crash, his body was never recovered. There have so many theories been put forward regarding his abrupt desertion.
The government of India set up a number of committees to investigate the case and come out with truth. In May 1956, the Shah Nawaz Committee visited Japan to look into the situation of Bose’s assumed death. Citing their lack of political relations with Taiwan, the Centre, did not seek for the assistance from their government. The reports of Justice Mukherjee Commission, tabled in Parliament on 17 May, 2006 said, “Bose did not die in the plane crash and the ashes at Renkoji temple are not his”. However, the findings were rejected by the government of India.ф
Cite this Life of Subhash Chandra Bose
Life of Subhash Chandra Bose. (2016, Oct 26). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/life-of-subhash-chandra-bose/