The ambition of SW and HOW prevents this, State of the art computer architecture Difference between a tape and a disk: A tape is cheaper and has more data room but you have to check it every 2 years A disk is more expensive and has less data room but you don’t have to check it that much Online (real time) transaction and batch job (Q: What is the difference between online and batch? ) Batch processing: The running of jobs on the mainframe without user interaction.
They are processed on the mainframe without user interaction. A batch job is submitted on the computer, reads and processes data in bulk (perhaps terabytes of ATA), and produces output, such as customer billing Statements. A DOS batch job might process millions of records. While batch processing is possible on distributed systems, it is not as commonplace as it is on mainframes, because distributed systems often lack: sufficient data storage, available processor capacity, or cycles, expels. Did management of system resources and job scheduling. During batch processing, multiple types of work can be generated. Consolidated information, such as profitability of investment funds, scheduled database backups, processing of daily orders, and updating of inventories, are moon examples. Online transaction processing: Transaction processing that occurs interactively with the user is referred to as online transaction processing (ALTO).
Typically, mainframes serve a vast number of transaction systems, These systems are often mission-critical applications that businesses depend on tort their core functions. Transaction systems must be able to support an unpredictable number of concurrent users and transaction types. Most transactions are executed in short time periods (fractions of a second in some cases). One of the main characteristics of a transaction system is that the interactions between the user and the system are short.
The user performs a complete business transaction through short interactions, with an immediate response time required for each interaction. These systems are currently supporting mission-critical applications; therefore, continuous availability, high performance, and data protection and integrity are required. Online transactions are familiar to most people. Examples include: ATM machine transactions, such as deposits, withdrawals, inquiries, and transfers Supermarket payments with debit or credit cards Purchase of merchandise over the Internet
Some industry uses of mainframe-based online systems include: Banks: Atoms, teller systems for customer service, and online financial systems Insurance: Agent systems for policy management and claims processing Travel and transport: Airline reservation systems Manufacturing: Inventory control and production scheduling Government: Tax processing, and license issuance and management Online transactions usually have the following characteristics: A small amount of input data, a few stored records accessed and processed, and a small amount of data as output Immediate response time, usually less than one second
A large numbers of users involved in large numbers of transactions Round-the- clock availability of the transactional interface to the user Assurance of security for transactions and user data Mainframe/SO-architecture Systems Network Architecture (SAN): A description Of the logical Structure, formats, Protocols, and operational sequences for transmitting information units through, and controlling the configuration and operation of networks. Introduced by MM in 1974 Enables a logical view on the network Is more or less replaced by TCP/IP Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (VITA):
A set of programs that maintain control tooth communication between terminals and application programs running under z/SO. Hides physical dependencies behind a standardized API VITA enables communication between mainframe and periphery (terminals) or between programs running on different machines or partitions Transmission Control protocol/Lenten Protocol (TCP/IP): A hardware independent communication protocol used between physically separated computers. It was designed to facilitate communication between computers located on different physical networks.
Standardized communication rotator based on 2 layers IP and ETC, OSI Layer Today most of the communication on mainframes is based on TCP/IP (sockets! ) (very often SAN is emulated on top if TCP/IP) Resource Access Control Facility (RACE): An IBM security manager product that provides for access control by identifying and verifying the users to the system, authorizing access to protected resources, logging the detected unauthorized attempts to enter the system, and logging the detected accesses to protected resources. Which program has Which privileges Job Entry Subsystem (JESS: A system facility for spooling job queuing, and managing 1/0.
JESS: A z}SO subsystem that receives jobs into the system, converts them to internal format, selects them for execution, processes their output, and purges them from the system. In an installation with more than one processor, each JESS processor independently controls its job input, scheduling, and output processing. Contrast with JESS, Time Sharing Option/Extensions (TTS/E): The facility in z/SO that allows users to interactively share computer time and resources, So people can use information on the same moment Customer Information Control System (CICS):
An online transaction processing (ALTO) system that provides specialized interfaces to databases, files, and terminals in support of business and commercial applications. CICS enables transactions entered at remote terminals to be processed concurrently by user-written application programs. Data Base Generally, one of a family of MM relational database management systems and, specifically, the system that runs under I/SO_ Webster Application Server (Middleware) It is a comprehensive, sophisticated, Java 2 Enterprise Edition (PEE) and web services technology-based application system.
Webster Application Server on z/SO is a JOKE implementation conforming to the current Software Development Kit (SAD) specification supporting applications at an API level. As mentioned, it is a Java Application deployment and runtime environment built on open standards-based technology supporting all major functions, such as Servest, Java server pages (JSP), and Enterprise Java Beans (EJB), including the latest technology integration of services and interfaces, In order to process a lot of information on the internet, you need an application server Hypermarkets (-High Speed Sockets):
Enables in-memory communication between different partitions on a single machine (If the partitions are on different machines then communication will be achieved by TCP/IP sockets, program code doesn’t need to be changed). Coupling links (=Expels communication links): High speed communication links in order to provide high performance and high availability mainframe clusters. HOOCH links (=Fiber Connection): An optical fiber communication method offering channels with high data rate, high bandwidth, increased distance, and a large number of devices per control unit for mainframe systems.
It can work with, or replace, SECONDS links. High speed connection links in order to attach external devices like disk arrays etc, Hardware based parallel processing of many external devices at one time, which means extreme 1/0 throughput Open Systems Architecture (OSHA): Enables high performance Ethernet connections to mainframe systems up to CIVIC Ethernet connections possible Simple information: In simplest terms, an operating system is a collection Of programs that manage the internal workings of a computer system.
Operating systems are designed to make the best use Of the computer’s various resources, and ensure that the axiom amount of work is processed as efficiently as possible. Although an operating system cannot increase the speed of a computer, it can maximize its use, thereby making the computer seem faster by allowing it to do more work in a given period of time. A computers architecture consists of the functions the computer system provides.
The architecture is distinct from the physical design, and, in fact, different machine designs might conform to the same computer architecture. In a sense, the architecture is the computer as seen by the user, such as a system programmer. For example, part of the architecture is he set of machine instructions that the computer can recognize and execute, In the mainframe environment, the system software and hardware comprise a highly advanced computer architecture, the result of decades of technological innovation. Operating System Features (SO e. G.
ISO, Android, Linux, ZOOS) Multitasking/ Multiuse (egg_ Windows 8 has no multiuse availability (it can’t be used by many users)) Fertilization Support (SO-V Fertilization, Hypothesis-Fertilization) Virtual Importunateness (Swappable) Virtual storage means that each running program can assume it has access to all Of the storage defined by the architecture’s addressing scheme. The only limit is the number of bits in a storage address. Integrated Wrong-headedness For z/SO, the management Of system resources is the responsibility Of the workload management (WALL) component.