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Management Problems in the Fire Service

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    Management Problems in the Fire Service

    Abstract:

    Fire is defined, as there must be combustion or rapid oxidation that causes a flame or at least a glow. Thus scorching heating and charring that occur without a flame or glow are not covered and the fire must be hostile or unfriendly. Major portion of American’s wildlands are deemed as fire-dependent. They need periodic with the objective of maintaining healthy and resilient condition. Fire management goals, objectives, and actions are developed and updated in comprehensive fire management plans.

    Practice of fire science theories discuss the fundamentals of fire protection, fire science management, fire strategies and tactics, building construction for fire protection, fire behavior and combustion, introduction of fire principles, hazardous materials, fire and emergency services. Here in this Research Report we have identified, defined the fire service management and conceptualized the Fire Science Management Theories and the research reports of written and electronic media.

    Introduction:

    Major portion of American’s wildlands are deemed as fire-dependent. They need periodic with the objective of maintaining healthy and resilient condition. Certain kinds of fire are beneficial and there will be adverse impact in absence of fire. Severe wildfire will threaten nearby communities and cause degradation to soil and key ecological component. Three major fire catastrophes causing loss of life and property have rocked the federal fire management services.

    Fighting wild land fires is a dangerous, expensive business and getting more so as we are confronted with today’s complex set of environmental, social, political, and safety concerns. There is no lack of logical recommendations on how to control costs on large fires. In fact, over he last five years or so, the USDA Forest Service and others have produced many well-written reports that outline over 100 ways to improve large-scale fire management, including cost effectiveness The management of fire is not limited to logic. Changes in a number of factors, including weather, access, available resources, the skill level of fire fighters 1.

    Research Methodology:

    From a Critical review of Research Methods I would like to presents four different research methods in as – Experiments; Surveys; Textual Analysis and Ethnography 2. All these methods are the means for theorists to test their theories. The Experiments are the testing of an
    1                Page 141, Risk Management & Insurance

       2                The Scientific Description of the Races of men

    independent   and dependent variable and the cause-effect relationship among them. The Surveys include the use of questionnaires and interviews in order to learn how people will behave in certain situations. The Textual analysis is when a message is studied to evaluate its’ meaning.  The Ethnography is the careful observation and analysis of theorists in order to prove their theories 3.

    Problems Identification:

    a)      Frequent Causalities: Fourteen firefighters died during the operation on the south canyon fire nearby Glenwood Springs in Colorado 4. Four fire fighters died on the thirty mile in West Central Washington State This tragedy exposes the vulnerabilities of fire fighting forces in the transition form initial attack to extended attack phase and prompted a series of actions designed to protect

    b)      Devastation of Resources: Approximately 235 homes and installations were dismantled following the large-scale fire that burned into Los Alamos, New Mexico.

    c)      Undue Expenditure: Lighting strike Northern and Southern California and launch a three month odyssey of wildfire fighting that would eventually consume over 227,000 acres and cost about $178 million. This expenditure holds 30 percent of the total Forest Service fire suppression 5. The initial reason clarify that actual reason for exorbitant cost was a more in-depth examination was called for.
    3      Scientific theorists and the last two by humanists mainly use the first methods

              4         On July 6, 1994

              5       In 1999

    d)     Lack of Transparency: The fund was squandered on a ground, which could not justify its stance. The reason of excessive cost was conducting in-depth examination, but subsequent examination did not identify anything that would substantially reduce the cost of managing 6.

    e)       Lack of coordination in the Fire Management: There has been absence of    Fundamental adjustments in fire management policy, Funding, and organizational barriers.  Some cases the basic implementation of previous recommendations, must take place in order to redeem the role of fire management in the Forest Service for the 21st Century. Without these changes, the problems we face today will be the same ones we will experience well into the future with potentially greater costs and consequences.

    f)       Absence of Appraisal: There has been absence of factors appraisal in the fire management services, which could improve overall efficiency of fire suppression efforts and thus abate some costs. Fire planning tiered to land management and improved integration of risk analysis in fire management decision.

    g)      Absence of Sophisticated Fire fighter: Today fire fighting is getting more complex. It is risky and dangerous endeavor with the objective of protecting lives and property. It was indeed a special breed for the people who do this. Modern fire fighters are capable to do this work safely.
    6    the Kirk and Big Bar complexes

    h)      Small scale Arrangement:  The operation of controlling fire become unsuccessful due to small-scale arrangement and it is inoperative to managing a campaign for a fire that has become unmanageable. Every measure is futile to fire planning, fuel reduction, rehabilitation of burned area, to achieve overall stewardship 7 vision of healthy tress, forest and ecological balance.

    i)        Fire Management Inefficiency in building Awareness: Fire management exclusion policies have helped to create vast acreage where ecosystem is threatened. The millions of acres of fire –prone wildlands combat using fire at ecologically appropriates intensities the people who live in the wildland interface has eroded the public tolerance. Any move to launch deforestation is facing with great resistance from homeowners in the interface.

    j)        Absence of Planned Budget: The recent report made by the GAO 8 stated that outside experts and USDA Forest Service officials generally agree. The increased fire suppression efforts will not be successful because such inevitable, large, intense wildfires are generally impossible for firefighters to stop. It has been extinguished by rainfall. There is no more material to burn. This report deals with fire preparedness and spending $178 million on two fire complexes cannot be taken lightly. These two Complexes accounted for about 30 percent of the total USD. A Forest Service fire suppression expenditures in 1999 and represents about 60 percent of the average
    7   Management

               8      General Accounting Office

    annual fire suppression costs over the past twenty years. Controlling costs is the vital concern to the agency; Being sensitive to budgeting for fire suppression and keeping expenditures within planned budgets needs to be a top priority and integral to fire management decision-making.

    k)      Highest Budgetary Allocation: Highest budgetary allocation squandered huge amount of money in every fiscal year every year. This allocation produces no fruitful outcome. Approximately one-tenth of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture’s budget is allocated to fire management operation. The budget item for these activities amounted  $216 million 11. Not included in this amount are the resource losses that result from wildfire. Such losses are always consid­erable in spite of eventual fire control 10. Fires are an even greater management problem than the budget figures suggested. The difficulties of predicting their frequency, behavior, and affect on the natural resource. Factors that influence fire, such as weather and vegetation, are highly vari­able. The fire management system is pervaded by conditions of risk and uncertainty from the context of decision theory. These terms are generally used, as a risk exists when the potential outcomes of an action can be assigned probabilities; uncertainty exists when the probability of the varying outcomes cannot be determined.

    l)        Absence of long term fire Planning: It is needed constructive approach of Probabilistic analytical models and full consideration of the risk con-sequences on alternative management actions for long term fire program planning. The existing rule-of-thumb
    10      U.S. Dep. Agric., Forest Serve. 1980

               11      in fiscal year 1979

     strategies may be expedient in the short run and even cost-effective when decisions must be made in real time .A probabilistic fire management planning model would include all major sources of variation. The fire weather and fire occurrence through fire suppression effectiveness and resource out-put values. Whatever the approach, the risk should be explicit and should be weighted by the decision maker. It should not be embedded in the analytical model. For example, in the National Fire Danger Rating System, fire weather is measured only on exposed southwest slopes at 2 p.m. (Deeming and others 1977). A particular risk stance is determined by the measurement itself. Testing fire program performance against the 90th percentile-burning index in the fourth worst year is another example 12. Both of these measures imply a specific fire hazard that many fire control analysts believe is more severe than generally encountered.

    m)    Non-Availability of Fire Management Installations:  The obstacle of fire management plans are not available in place in all areas which precluding managers from taking advantage of the management options presented by wildland fires. Planning should be available all wildland fires regardless of ignition sources for meeting management objectives. In areas where planning has determined a range of appropriate management actions for the use of wildland fire, there will be more opportunities to safely and cost-effectively reintroduce fire. This approach will also make suppression resources available for the highest-priority situation. The fire management actions will continue to be based
    12      U.S. Dep. Agric., Forest Serve. 1977

    on values to be protected, fire and land management objectives, and environmental conditions.  Fires occurring in highly developed areas and during severe weather it is needed immediate initial attack and prompt suppression will still be required.

    n)      Absence of Collaborative Fire Research programs: There has been lack of predictive understandings wildland fire and its relationship to ecosystem dynamics. Weaken technological capability and organizational framework is another reason of absence of collaborative fire research.

    Fire Service Management Theory:

    Fire service management theories have evolved relatively quickly.  The scope and process of land management have had difficulty keeping pace. Ecological processes and changing landscape conditions are often not integrated into land management planning and decisions The existing land management planning is confined within individual agency boundaries and based on single-program goals that are driven by agency missions and policies. Separate incompatible management systems can also preclude the ecosystem perspective in land management planning. This type of planning can result in an inefficient, fragmented, short-term approach to management. Land management agencies now recognize these barriers and seek cooperative, ecologically sound approaches to land management 13.

    13      on a landscape scale

    One way to break down these barriers is to involve all interests including the public, scientists, resources specialists, and regulators throughout the Fire management process. Another establishes a clear link for communication and information transfer between scientists and managers. These measures will help to ensure that management needs are met and that current science is used in Fire management planning at all levels.

    Management must also consider the risks, probabilities, and consequences of various management strategies. In a responsive planning process, management decisions must be monitored, integrated, and supported at each step. In order to carry out critical and effective adaptive management, planners and managers need a nationwide baseline measure of ecological conditions and a compatible method of assessing long-term ecological health by ecosystem type.

    We must understand and accept the need to integrate wildland fire into Fire management plans and activities. This integration must be reconciled with other societal goals and maintaining species habitat, producing commodities, and protecting air quality, water quality, and human health. Information about the consequences of various management strategies is not currently working toward and prioritizing simultaneous goals. FMRG’s 14 must interact and collaborate and rely upon a continuous process of public involvement and feedback to achieve a balance of ecosystem and other societal goals.

    Myriads number of factors intercept the reintroduction of wildland fire on an ecologically. It takes years to reach agreement about appropriate treatments and to take action.
    14      Fire Management And Regulatory Agencies

    Land managers realize the need to wait for scientific certainty before acting. This favors the status quo, and deters investigation of new techniques. There is no information is available about disturbance regimes in the ecological system. The historical fire patterns and response to past management actions. To reintroduce fire includes a well-planned, large-scale scientific assessment of current ecosystem conditions and the consequences of various management strategies.

    The contributing factor is the increasing human settlements that intrude upon wildlands. Such development divides and fragments wildlands and making it difficult to apply ecosystem-based management strategies. This increases the risk of escaped fire and generates complaints about smoke the use of fire may be limited in spatial extent where fire introduction is desirable.

    Smoke is another factor that may affect land managers’ ability to use larger and more frequent wildland fire for restoration and maintenance of fire-dependent ecosystems. Several federal air quality programs under the CAA 15 regulate wild land fire emissions. The EPA 15 should set air quality standards for pollutants that affect public health. States are then required to submit plans to ensure measures will be taken to meet those air quality standards. Local areas may also develop plans that may be more restrictive than state and national standards.

    The responsibility of managing wildland fire in the United States has dramatically increased in complexity and magnitude over the decades. Large wildfires now threaten millions of both public and private acres, especially where vegetation patterns have been altered by development,

       15   Clean Air Act

       16    Environmental Protection Agency

    land-use practices, and aggressive fire suppression both public and private values are at risk.

    The wild land fire respects no boundaries. The uniform policies and programs are essential, as well as strengthening cooperators’ relationships. The Departments of the Interior and Agriculture are responsible for the protection and management of natural resources on public lands. The firefighting resources become increasingly scarce.  It is more important than ever to strengthen cooperative

    Wild land fire is a critical natural process, which must be reintroduced into the ecosystem. Fire will be allowed to function its natural role to achieve the long-term goals of ecosystem health.
    Wild land fire management decisions and resource management decisions hold the identical terminology 17. Fire managers also have the ability to choose from the full spectrum of fire management options and prompt suppression to allowing fire to function in its natural ecological role.
    Structural fire protection in the wildland interface is the responsibility of tribal, state, and local governments.
    Federal agencies lay more emphasis on educating internal and external audiences about how and why we use and manage wildland fire.
    The success depend on four things: 1) every agency administrator must ensure that these policies
    17       It will depend on approved Fire Management and resource management plans

    are incorporated into all actions 2) Fire professionals must work with agency administrators to make the policies work on the ground.3) Managers and staffs must actively implement the recommendations and work with their constituents to ensure success.4) every employee of every agency must also be committed to follow through on the ground.

    Recommendation: Planning

    Goals & Actions:

    The goals and objectives of fire management including the reintroduction of fire, which is incorporated into, land management planning to restore and maintain sustainable ecosystems. Planning is a collaborative effort to develop and implement management objectives 18.
    Fire management goals, objectives, and actions are developed and updated in comprehensive fire management plans. The use of fire to sustain ecosystem health is based on sound scientific principles and information and is balanced with other societal goals, including public health and safety, air quality, and other specific environmental concerns.
    Federal agencies will:

    A) Federal Agencies will formulate a compatible fire management planning system that recognizes both fire use and fire protection as inherent parts of natural resource
    18       That Cross-Jurisdictional Boundaries

    management. This system will ensure adequate fire suppression capabilities and support fire reintroduction efforts.

    B) Federal Agencies chalk out fire management plans for all areas subject to wildland fires. These plans will emphasize on Launch research programs that will provide a sound scientific basis for integration of wildland fire into land-use and resource management

    Use information about fire regimes, current conditions, and land management objectives as a basis to develop fire management goals and objectives;
    Use new knowledge and monitoring results to revise fire management goals, objectives, and actions;
    Address all potential wildland fire occurrences and include a full range of fire management actions;
    Be linked closely to land and resource management plans
    It should formulate create a system for coordination and cooperation among land managers and regulators that explores options within existing laws to allow for the use of fire to achieve goals of ecosystem health while at the same time protecting individual components of the environment19. This system will:

    Approval for early collaboration during the process of developing new land management plans and provide a mechanism for incorporating input as existing plans are implemented or revised;
    19    For human health, and safety

    Induce land managers and regulators to enter into agreements that set forth the actions each will take before and during the time fire is reintroduced in their area of responsibility.
    Launch ongoing efforts to jointly develop compatible, ecosystem-based, multiple-scale, interagency land management plans that involve all interested parties and facilitate adaptive management. This process will:
    Completely integrate ecological concepts that consider long-term dynamics and cross agency boundaries;
    Efficiently incorporate current fire-related information, including scientific knowledge, risk assessment, social and economic concerns, and public health considerations;
    Conform that existing land management plans are revised or updated to address the above actions.
    Concept of Fire Science Management Theories:

    Fire Science Management is a broad base management program 20  designed to augment and develop managerial skills, which is necessary for a career in the fire service. Introduction to basic management theories, practice and functions with an emphasized on fire services leadership for the perspective of company office. Fire Science management discuss predominantly Fire Service financial management, fire personnel management and applied fire service management.
    20    For human health, and safety

    a)      Fire Personnel Management: It is a comprehensive view of personal policy development with description and analysis of technique within the fire service sector. The human resource management policies are discussed with inters relationship between management and the management function of planning, stuffing, organizing, controlling and directing. The human resources function of recruitment, compensation, integration, development and maintenance of the fire service personnel for contributing to the organization.

    b)      Fire Service Financial Management: The theoretical and conceptual method the fire service financial manager uses to effectively prepare, manage and justify the component of a fire service organization. Steps in planning, decision making and problem solving method.

    c)      Applied Fire Service Management: this will utilize the principles of business management theories, which applies the current concepts and management technique to actual situation in a fire service organization.

    The variety of fire management strategies was improved for these Complexes. The limited access hot, dry weather made firefighting extremely hazardous. Concern firefighter safety was always paramount. Indications were from the very beginning. The containment of these two incidents would take much longer than normal. Both of these 21 have since had cost reviews from national and regional teams. The reviews have documented incremental and valid reasons for the high costs; the contextual issues suggested a more in-depth and rigorous examination of these two incidents.
    21    California fires

    Some activists draw conclusion that the culture annexation with emergency funding for fire suppression .The discipline, and incentives for more efficient decision-making. This represents only the tip of a much larger and more complex problem. Some of the facets of the problem include:

    a) Changes of ecological system from 100 years of reasonably successful fire suppression, leading to large expanses of heavy fuel loading.

    b) Increased human mobility into wild lands, producing a larger wild land interface.

    c) Trim in budgets and subsequent reductions in workforce and equipment for all aspects of fire prevention, pre suppression, and suppression, including the general availability of all personnel.

    Practice of Fire Science Management Theories:

    Practice of fire science theories discuss the fundamentals of fire protection, fire science management, fire strategies and tactics, building construction for fire protection, fire behavior and combustion, introduction of fire principles, hazardous materials, fire and emergency services.

    a)      Fire Services Management: It emphasized on introducing the role of company officer. It will provide an introduction to basic management theories, practices and functions that will emphasize on fire service leadership 22. The introduction to the organization and management of fire department and relationship of government agencies fire services.

    22   from the perspective of company officer

    b)      Fundamental of Fire Protection: It will provide an overview to fire protection, philosophy and history of fire protection, fire loss analysis, fire departments as part of local government, law and regulation. It will affect fire service, fire service nomenclature, specific fire protection functions, and introduction to fire protection systems, introduction to fire strategy.

    c)      Building Construction of Fire Protection: It will carry on studied the components of building construction that relate to fire and life safety. The elements of construction and design of structure are shown to key factors when inspecting, building, fire operations and operating at emergencies.

    d)     Hazardous Materials: It provides personnel who are operating at the technician level of hazardous skills needed to evaluate the direct release of hazardous materials.

    e)      Introduction to Fire Prevention principles: It will provide fundamental information regarding the history and philosophy of fire prevention, organization and operation of a fire prevention bureau. The utilization of fire codes, identification and correlation of fire hazards and the relationship of fire prevention with built in fire protection systems, fire investigation and fire safety education.

    f)       Fire Strategies and Tactics: It emphasized on basic principal and methods associated with fire ground strategies and tactics that is needed of the company officers. It emphasized the incident management system, fire behavior, basic fire fighting size-up, pre-fire planning, and engine company 23. Fire Behavior and Combustion: It emphasized the theories and principles of how and why fire start, spread and are brought under control.
    23            truck company organizations.

    Fireman will be able to relate the principles by which fires spread with the appropriate method of control.

    g)      Fire and Emergency Services instruction: It will provide instruction to individuals in fire and emergency services. It ensures basic fundamentals in human relation, method of instruction and proper methods of writing lesson plan.

    The fire science management practice reviews the fundamental principles of fire management and recommends   its practice.  Mission of agencies goes in operations.   Some key practices have been analyzed

    Protection of human life is the first priority in the fire science management theories practice. Once firefighters were the first priority. Property and resources value were the second priority. The management decisions based on values to be protected.
    Where fire cannot be safely reintroduced because of hazardous fuel building ups. Some form of pretreatment must be considered.
    Wildfire is a critical natural process, which must be reintroduced into ecosystem. Fire will be allowed to function as nearly as possible in its natural role to achieve the goal of ecosystem.
    Fire science management policy practice introduces hand in hand and is based on approved fire science management and resource management plan. Fire managers have the ability to choose the full spectrum of fire management options, from prompt suppression to allow fire to function in its natural ecological role.
    24     particularly in urban interface areas.

    Fire science management theories emphasized on educating internal and external audiences about how and why we use and manage wild fire.
    The success of theories depends on four things. Every agency manager must ensure that these policies are incorporated into all actions. Fire personnel must work with energy. The managers should make the policies work on ground. Managers and staffs actively execute the recommendations to ensure success.  Every employees of every agency must be committed to follow through on the ground. Finally, public must change their expectation that all wildfire can be controlled. No agency, technology can provide absolute protection when unusual fuel build-ups, extreme weather condition and multiple ignitions periodically come together 25.

    Education

    Goal & Actions:

    Transparent information is provided to internal and external audiences about existing conditions. The role of management goals and objectives in achieving these objectives is inevitable. It will inform audiences participate fully in the land and fire management planning process.
    Federal agencies will:

    Establish an interdisciplinary team that includes all agencies, regulators, and other partners to design a consistent fire-role and use-message for decision makers and the public. This message will:
    25   to and form catastrophic event

    Clarify issues such as ecosystem conditions, risks, consequences and costs in open dialogue with internal and external constituents;
    Formulate designed to maximize open communications and reduce polarization among conflicting interests regarding the use of fire.
    Make interagency efforts to develop and implement a strategic plan that educates the general public and agency personnel about the role of fire. As part of this effort, agencies will:
    Improve and widely transmit a clear message about the important role of fire as a natural process and the risks and consequences of its use and exclusion;
    Incorporate this message into existing agency communication systems, and all external outreach efforts, including television, magazines, newspapers, and public meetings;
    Create incentive and coordinate partnerships to achieve consistency in messages, build public trust, and obtain public opinion;
    Formulate mandatory national and regional interagency training programs to instill in all employees an understanding of the role of fire 26.
    Reintroduction of Fire

    Goal

       The objective of fire management is based upon sound scientific information and land resource and wild land fire is used to restore and maintain healthy ecosystems and to
    26   in natural systems

    minimize undesirable fire effects. Fire management practices are consistent for areas with similar management objectives, regardless of jurisdiction.

    Actions

    Federal agencies will:

    Federal agencies will accelerate the decision-making process by jointly developing criteria for evaluating ecosystem conditions by ecosystem type and for prioritizing areas for the reintroduction of fire to meet resource objectives and reduce hazards. This process will identify those ecosystems:
    Where fire does not need to be reintroduced
    Where fire is unlikely to succeed
    Where treatment with fire is essential or potentially effective
    It formulates Jointly implement ecosystem-based fire management programs to accomplish resource or landscape objectives when consistent with land management plans. These programs will:

    Endeavor to maintain the long-term integrity of the natural resource and minimize the undesirable effects of fire;
    Assess the highest priority need in ecosystem assessment, monitoring, and management, and determine the appropriate scope of fire use, consistent with historical fire regimes, including extent, timing, and risks 27.

       27   as well as consequences also.

    Utilize existing tools and develop new ones to address today’s more fragmented landscapes, and to enhance our ability to manage wild land fires of varying size and intensity;
    Highlight the management actions and their results by establishing or expanding fire management demonstration areas.

    ·         Launchings collaborative fire research programs to improve the predictive understanding of wild land fire and its relationship to ecosystem dynamics, and to strengthen the technological capabilities and organizational framework necessary to sustain the role of fire 28.

    Written and Electronic Media research role in Fire science Management Theories:

    Introduction to library resources, electronic media resources and formal academic writing styles relate to fire science management research. Introduction to basic theories, concepts and practices are pertinent to fire science management. The role of written and electronic media resources is relevant to Fire science management research 29. The use of written and electronic media research resources to produce a written problem solving report.

    The role of written and electronic media is important for fire science management theories. Written and electronic media is termed as a research wing. There are numerous problems in application of fire science management theories. There is no alternative to emphasize on written and electronic media role in resolving the problems of fire science management. The problem of
    28   in natural ecosystems

    29   and bibliography also.

     fire science management comprise of frequent causalities, devastation bof resources, undue expenditure, lack of transparencies, lack of coordination in the fire management, absence of appraisal, absence of  Sophisticated fire fighter, small scale arrangement, fire management inefficiency, absence of planned budget, highest budgetary allocation, absence of long term fire planning, non availability of fire management installation and absence of collaborative 30.

    Written and electronic media has been dubbed as a research wing. Written and electronic media conducting research on fire management theories how to resolve frequent causalities, proper utilization of resource, efficient fire management, accurate appraisal, ensure sophisticated fire fighters, ensure planned budget, long term fire planning, ensure of availability of fire management installation and collaborative fire research program.

    The Goals and objective written and electronic media research is a collaborative effort to restore and maintain sustainable ecosystems. This research is collaborative effort to develop and implement management objectives this written and electrical media research is to develop and updated in comprehensive fire management plan. The use of written electrical media is to sustain ecosystem health is based on sound scientific principles and information.

    The written and electronic media research will formulate a compatible fire science management system that recognize both fire use and fire protection as inherent parts of natural resource management. This research will maintain long-term integrity of natural resource. Electronic media research shows how to improve predictive understanding of wild land fire and ecosystem and work out modalities how to strengthen the technological capabilities and organizational

    30      fire research program

    framework. This research shows to develop and implement a strategic plan that educates agency personnel about the role of fire.

    Written and Electronics media research analysis show how to reduce expenditure and capable to trim unnecessary expenses. This analysis emphasized on coordination of fire management. Electronic media research analysis emphasized data analysis for improvement of efficiencies of fire management services and depict perfect appraisal of fire science management services. This analysis shows how to build sophisticated fire fighter. Written and electronic media research analysis make suggestion on planned budget. Highest budgetary allocation squandered huge amount of money every year. This allocation produces no fruitful outcome in this regard. Approximately one tenth of the budget 31 is allocated to fire management operation. Such losses are always considerable inspiration of eventual fire control. Therefore, Written and electronic media research also suggest long term planning.

    Written and Electronics media research show that this type of planning can bring an inefficient, fragmented, short term approach and indicate to establish a link for communication and information transfer between researchers and managers. These measure ensure that fire science management needs are met and that current research is used in fire science management planning at all level. Management must consider the risk, probabilities and consequence of various management strategies. The research also emphasized that fire science management decision must be monitored, integrated and supported at all level. Fire management and regulatory agencies must interact and collaborate and rely on continuous process of public involvement and
    31   The Forest Service US department of agriculture’s budget

    feedback to achieve a balance of ecosystem and other societal goals Research shows that every agency manager must ensure that these policies are incorporated into all sectors.  Written and electronic media research show that fire professionals must work agency manager to make the policies on the ground. Manager and staff actually implement the recommendation.

    Conclusion:

    The dissertation is Management Problem in the Fire Services. We identified major problems in the fire service management which comprise of frequent causalities, devastation of resources, undue expense, lack of transparency, lack of coordination of fire management, absence of sophisticated fire fighter, fire management inefficiency, absence of planned budget, absence of long term planning and non availability of fire installation. We also discuss management problem, which affect the fire service industry.  It analyzed fire service management theories, concept and practice, which relate to identify problem and provide solution to the problem. We carry on comprehensive research report highlighting the fire science management theories, concept and practice. The roles of written and electronic media on fire science management theories are significant to the society.

    Reference:

    1          Principal of Risk Management & Insurance, George E. Rejda, Edition Eighth, Pearson Education Inc (2003).

    2.         Strategy for the Implementation of Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy (2003)            http://www.nifc.gov/fire_policy/pdf/strategy.pdf

    3.         http://www.fs.fed.us/fire/management/Large_Fire_Mgt.pdf

    4.         http://www.fs.fed.us/fire/management/policy.html

    5.         Policy Planning Recommendation

                http://www.nifc.gov/preved/comm_guide/wildfire/fire_12.html

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