1) Using your own words but referencing the literature, define the terms, ‘ontology ‘epistemology’ and research ‘paradigm.
The ontology of this study examines the workplace experiences in discount store retailing environment and compares the equivalent to workplace experiences in supermarket retailing. The theory or nature of the results indicate the workplace experiences data yielded in the retail management settings are some what less satisfying when compared to other marketing positions, i.e. supermarkets.
The epistemology realized is most of the supermarket and food services employees are more satisfied with current compensation.
Thus, by comparing incentive programs, there was strong evidence that such plans play a distinct element of pay satisfaction across the two retail sectors. Also, it’s not uncommon for employees to informally conduct income comparison inside and outside of their industry.
The correlation methodology paradigm demonstrated results indicating that pay level comparison is positively related to a higher pay level satisfaction in the UK grocery retail industry. To facilitate measurement of equivalence, when combining the discount store and supermarket samples as a matter of quantitative measurement, it was expected the two store types would be mutually exclusive.
Within a given model “an inclination to decide the canons of theory with reference to philosophical, comparative, scientific, and aesthetic considerations” (Gayley, p419)
2) Explain why it is important for the users of management research to understand these terms.
Decision assessment and making tools provide management the necessary understanding to solve their problem by evaluating, rating, and comparing different alternatives on multiple level criteria. “Operations research, to a lesser extent, perhaps, than some of the more established and more specific sciences, has a small kit of techniques which are used
quite widely.” (Cabell, p4)
In order to evaluate and determine the results from such a study, in this case employee satisfaction with their pay, it’s critical to have in place the necessary assessment tools or Descriptive statistics to explore the salary scales as a distinct quantifiable dimension of pay satisfaction that is measureable via interdependent analysis. Not only are pay scales and measuring comparing pay are examined but group incentives plans are taken into account in the testing process.
Decision analysis looks at the nomenclature in which decision making management determines a plan of action, as in the case, a retail or food market environment. The practical and decision theory assist in identifying the greatest the success rate at the highest level of anticipated outcomes. The theory of management research and analysis is designed to aid not only in choices but streamline options among a set of ad-hoc and specified alternatives that management must choose from.
3) Provide an explanation of the ontological and epistemological stance taken by the author/s of your selected article and comment on the author/s research paradigm using short extracts from your selected article (no one extract should be more than 80 words) as evidence to support your claims.
“Oblique rotation was assumed as there is increasing empirical evidence supporting the inter-correlations of the pay satisfaction dimensions” describes the ontological aspect prescribed by the authors. “ (Shittu )…the measures are equivalent in the two sectors (the supermarket and discount store sectors),”
“Low pay in this sector continues to generate an intention among employees to constantly seek alternative employment. In this environment, retail employment becomes only a step ladder to career advancement”(Shittu) depicts the epistemological position of the authors while supermarket employees assume the opposite view point of career advancement within the same sector.
4) What is the relationship between theory and empirical data in the selected article?
Empirically, the matrices of single factors and theoretical equal factors are analyzed by comparing conclusive data supporting mutual results that supermarket employees enjoy overall satisfaction over retail employees. Operational retailers and owners have to develop and maintain objectively their pay systems while supporting, along with numerous positions across a variety of specialty areas, many factors were considered with several mission critical tasks, their corporate objectives.
While theoretical models supported by data, indicated the pay system must remain cost effective, in food supermarkets and retail outlets, only such a scientific model can address highly complex and hierarchical firms. Adding into the required tasks of the companies financial obligations internally and externally, the perfect scenario must provide an agreeable work environment that not only attracts new highly desired employees but also retain existing valued workers.
The clear relationship between observed data and postulate is supported by the mutual targeted result of determining the employee friendly industry sector environments.
5) Briefly evaluate the epistemological and ontological assumptions upon which the article is based for investigating the research topic / question.
Even though the results of this study was restricted to the UK food retail sector the broader sense of the findings indicated that supermarket retail UK represented an indication to general workers thoughts and opinions regarding pay and wage. Additionally from the owners and operators of grocery retailer’s position, this could be seen as a call to review their current bonus and reward plans in place. Job satisfaction is clearly associated with pay level approval.
The determination of expectancy and instrumentality is impacted by personal experience thus the reinforcement theory comes into play. Described as central component to behavior modification, the influences on an employee in is clearly driven by prior experiences and information that drives the individual to level of attachment and interest with has a direct relation to job performance. It is highly likely that the desired outcome is behavior driven.
6) Using your own words, describe what is meant by ‘research standards’.
A practical description suggests as to the scope and methods of inquiry. It is not merely investigation or searching through documents and raw data as the primary purpose, and completed works of manuscripts as the secondary. The material of research in this case takes advantage of modern research techniques. It is important to note standards must take “gradually taken distinct shape in operations research, i.e. inventory, replacement,
waiting lines, competitive strategies, allocation and sequencing,” (Sasieni, p4) In addition to making recommendations based on an understanding of research within one’s
own discipline, the researcher has an opportunity to produce new knowledge within his
discipline. (MacPhee, p9)
A fundamental aim of the research standards is to ensure that the information is communicated to the business, employee and research communities while maintaining the informed opinion and research knowledge value is of high quality. It is important to note that a quantitative procedure designed to create conditions of information gathering employs a relevant format for respondents in order to assess results.
7) Assess the research standards of your selected article using short extracts to evidence your discussion.
“Some of these questions are very difficult of solution, and may require years of study.” (Blakeslee, p91) “This study compares pay referent and pay level satisfaction among supermarket and discount store employees (DCS) in the UK.” (Shittu) The study has been able to show the comparative relationships between pay levels of comparison, satisfaction, advancement. Overall the two sectors, food supermarkets and general retail, have been shown to focus on equally satisfied with their compensation irrespective of industry sector.
A choice of “particular considerations that organizational research,” (Bryman, p2), can be provided by focusing on the central questions. “Reinforcement and expectancy theories emerged to shed additional light on how a pay scale influences the behavior of employee” indicates the type of research that supports how industry sector comparisons relate to a similar tasks or jobs internally or externally of the company structure. Therefore the research ratio is in direct support of similar data ratios indicating greater the satisfaction. A fine point illustrated here “benefiting from collaborators figuring out better research methodologies.” (Groat, xvi)
The study contineues by stating,” reinforcement theory suggests that pay acts as a general rein forcer because of its repeated pairing with primary reinforces,” (Shittu) which is a true indicator of performance based on past results. Even though additional theories assert that an initial necessity such as food can be satisfied when money is obtained, clearly indicating that through similar experiences a drive for money is developed and maintained.
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Pay referent comparison and pay level satisfaction
Ola Shittu, Business School, Barking College, Romford, Essex, UK
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Management research methods. (2016, Dec 29). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/management-research-methods/