Methods and Instruments of Research - Research Essay Example

Methods and Instruments of Research



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The Woodberry, Abdur Rahim, Mitchell, Carr, Williams Constants Organization had been a victim to some violations made by the employees within the organization against federal rules for access and use of personal data. This is why the organization has already decided to perform a company training for employees regarding the said issue to avoid any situation such as this to occur in the future business affairs of the organization.

Yes it is very important for a company to take care of the personal data that should be kept within the company alone. As the revealing of the said personal data may in any way be a cause for an organization’s destruction. This is a collection of the things and tools to be used as ways of implicating the federal rules regarding the access and usage of the company’s personal data in a training.

The training should cover the needs of the company regarding the knowledge on how each policy on access and usage of different personal data which includes the managers and other higher officials within the organization. Each of this personnel should be trained for the said responsibilities.

Below are some of the main topics and issues to be considered during the training:

A.                Discrimination Attitudes

The whole training period must be able to identify the authorized people to have an access towards personal

data. What are this personal data? This includes the in depth informations about the organization as well as the personal profile of the people who organized it. There are though only some specific personnel who are allowed to have an access to these data and thus have a usage of it for

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a reasonable cause. For example, the HR personnel are allowed to have an access to the profiles of the employees especially those who are applying for an open position within the organization. Aside from this, the HR personnel should also be allowed to have some access to a number of company papers which they may need in deliberating some company decisions, although this access has a certain limitation to its power.

“As an addition to that the higher level of management such as the board of directors and the president of an organization should also have their own access to the said data as to be able to track how the organization is running ( Martinez, 52). Discrimination attitudes though may also include the different divisions within the organization so as to determine who has to have authority over the usage of the data. Sometimes even the lower level of employees are allowed to have access to the personal data but this only happens on specific occasions that the organization policies permit.

B.                 Auditing

Auditing comprises of the different transaction records done by the organization in

connection to its external and internal business activities. This data includes the company’s business and financial status, which makes it a very private one where only the accounting personnel and the higher level of management should have an access to it.

During the training period, it should be clearly stated how the audited transactions should be kept and who should have the authority of keeping it.

C.                 Data Access Rules

There should be some points to consider when access of personal data is being talked about.


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a.        Data should be kept by a person who is appointed by the company or the officials of the organization.

b.      Before the data could be accessed, permission should be asked by the one keeping it. And if the person who is in charge of keeping the data should ask for some information as a requirement before the data could be used, the employee asking for it should comply.

c.       Once a person has been given the privilege on having an access to the data, the employee should keep the data to himself alone unless he has been authorized or permitted to uncover it to other body of employees.

d.                  Enforcement

If incase the above statements of authority and responsibility would not be followed or

for instance, an employee mistakenly sees or have knowledge about a personal data of the company there should be a  consequential result in a disciplinary form to avoid situations as such to happen.

The said disciplinary measures may include three stages of offences such as:

Fist offence: A verbal confrontation should be done to help the employee explain himself on the matter and be given a chance to reprove himself for the company. This should also serve as a warning for the employee to be aware of his actions as the situation might happen again.

Second offence: A written memo should be handed to the employee committing the mistake and a salary deduction of at least 5% could work as a second warning.

Third offence: Demotion of level from his present position he is in should be implemented to help him and his co-workers as well to realize the serious grievance he has incurred.

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The above samples of disciplinary measures could still be developed as the training would be opened to suggestions by the employees being trained themselves. But changes would only be applied if they would be approved by the decision makers.

e.                   Employee Regulations

Employees as said earlier are at times given a chance to have access to the personal data of the organization.

This privilege though is limited and kept as barely as possible. Considering this privilege, there would be some regulations to be implemented for the employees to comply with.

a.       An employee must at all times ask permission before having an access to any personal data belonging to the company or to any data viewed as a personal property of the organization they are working for.

b.       Each employee who are permitted to have an access to the said data should have a clear understanding on the responsibly he has over the information he has been able to know about.

These regulations though could still be added upon as the training goes on to its

completion depending on the observations of the makers of the regulations.

f.                   Workplace Monitoring

With all these regulation to be implemented, a certain person, it might as well be an employee who will serve as

the eye of the higher management within the workplace to monitor other employees who are trying to have access to the personal data of the organization. Note that the employee to be appointed should be trustworthy and responsible enough to do the said appointed task and that he


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or she shouldn’t tell anyone within her colleagues that he or she is the one appointed by the higher management.


Martinez, E. (1987). Management and Human Relations Program. Manila: Rex Publishing Company.



















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With all this guidelines to be followed for the training proceedings, there are also other issues to consider as a part of the implementation of the policies and regulations to be used regarding the access ad usage of personal data. The following paragraphs should answer the said questions.

What are some legal issues you would need to address regarding the use of personal data that might be an issue?

In this area of consideration, data posted through the net about the organization could be among the issues to address. It is very obvious how widely used the net is in the entire world. Meaning, the information being posted in the internet should be strictly protected to avoid any unauthorized person having an access to the said personal information.

And if anybody is to give any personal information through the site, the organization as well should assure that customer of the privacy he has over sending his personal data. As the Privacy Act of 1974 states that: “No agency shall disclose any record which is contained in a system of records by any means of communication to any person, or to another agency, except pursuant to a written request by, or with the prior written consent of, the individual to whom the record pertains…” (Privacy Act 1974).

Justice Department. (2003). THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974.   (22 June 2006).

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What attitudes might be displayed that would need to be discussed in your training sessions?
True, some people who think they should have an access to the personal data of the organization and yet are not authorized to have the said privilege may display inconsiderable attitudes towards the policy.
To be sure that the said attitudes could be controlled the following considerations the following principles should be applied:
Notice – is a person entitled to be told what information is being collected or used, and must the notice be given before or at the time of collection, or can it be given at some later date?
Collection limits – must the collection be confined to data relevant to a particular purpose and what are the standards for access or collection?
Retention limits – how long can data be kept?
Data quality – is there a right to insist that data be accurate?
Access – are individuals entitled to see what data is held about them?

With the application of the said principles, the persons trying to access the said personal informations who are not authorized would understand the reasons of the company.
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The Center For Democracy & Technology. (2005). PRIVACY RULES FOR ACCESS TO PERSONAL DATA.  (22 June 2006).
What kinds of data would you need to gather to know what attitudes and misuse of personal data  are occurring and who would need training on these topics?
The Human Resources Management has to be specially trained in this area of consideration in the company as they are the ones who are to implement the necessary policies for the said issue governing the employees. The data that is needed to be gathered in determining the attitudes and misuse of personal data would be the necessary levels of privacy each document or data requires. According to the Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age the said division could be done as follows: there could be charts to be used to indicate privacy level. “The charts use colors to roughly describe the level of protection: red for high privacy protection, yellow for modest privacy protection, and green for little or no privacy protection” (Privacy Rules…).
With these charts, a record on who’s checking the personal data files could be tracked down regularly for reports.
Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age. (2005). Explanatory Notes.  (22 June 2006).

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What tools would work best for each kind of data to be gathered?
It is very important to be sure if the persons reported to be making misuse of the private data should be confirmed first. A way to do this is using a regular check up through questionnaires of inspection given to everyone in the company. As an Internet source puts it this way: “The questionnaire is most frequently a very concise, preplanned set of questions designed to yield specific information to meet a particular need for research information about a pertinent topic. The research information is attained from respondents normally from a related interest area. The dictionary definition gives a clearer definition: A questionnaire is a written or printed form used in gathering information on some subject or subjects consisting of a list of questions to be submitted to one or more persons” ( Questionnaire and Interview… )
Research Design in Occupational Education. (1997). QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW AS DATA-GATHERING TOOLS.  (22 June 2006).

Sample questionnaire for an Interview:

Interviewer: Human Resources Manger

Interviewee: Accused Employee of using and accessing a personal data belonging to the


A.    Have you ever tried opening or even using any personal data of the organization?

B.     Did you have any idea on the policies regarding the usage of the personal data of the organization?

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C.     How were you able to access to the data?

D.    Did anybody put you into doing such a thing?

E.     Were you briefed about the rules on the said act?

F.      Are you willing to answer for what you have done as it is a grave shortcoming that you have incurred against company rules?

G.    If given any chances to be reproved, are you willing to change your attitude towards the matter?

These questions could help the Human Resource Managers to be able to judge if the person accused has actually done the act and finally decide on what to do with regards to the disciplinary action to be implied on the employee.




Research Design in Occupational Education. (1997). QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW AS ATA-GATHERING TOOLS.  (22 June 2006).

Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age. (2005). Explanatory Notes.  (22 June 2006).
The Center For Democracy & Technology. (2005). PRIVACY RULES FOR ACCESS TO PERSONAL DATA.  (22 June 2006).




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