Knowledge is increasingly regarded as central, both to the successful functioning of organizations and to their strategic direction. Managing Information and Knowledge in Organizations explores the nature and place of knowledge in contemporary organizations, paying particular attention to the management of information and data and to the crucial enabling role played by information and communication technology Effective communication requires a good understanding of the people you are communicating with, their needs, motivations and ways in which they prefer to communicate. It also requires careful planning, the use of a variety of techniques to retain people’s interest and attention, and flexibility to adapt the communication in response to feedback and ensure people have received and understood the information and knowledge.
Tescoplc.as organization of focus is a global grocery and general merchandising retailer headquartered in Chestnut, United Kingdom. It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues (after Wal-Mart and Carrefour) and the second-largest measured by profits (after Wal-Mart). It has stores in 14 countries across Asia, Europe and North America and is the grocery market leader in the UK, (where it has a market share of around 30%), Malaysia, the Republic of Ireland and Thailand. Tesco is the biggest private sector employer in the UK. The company has more than 360,000 employees worldwide. In the UK, Tesco stores range from small local Tesco Express sites to large Tesco Extras and superstores.
1) Assessment of information and knowledge needs
1.1) Identify the range of decisions to be taken
Decision-making is a crucial part of any business. At Tesco plc, appropriate decision taken at the right time has led to the success of the organization over the years. Decision-making increasingly happens at all levels of a business. Strategic level: The Board of Directors at Tesco makes the grand strategic decisions about investment and direction of future growth; it concerns long term goal, philosophies and values. They are the least structured and most imaginative; they are the most risky and of the most uncertain outcome, partly because they reach so far into the future and partly because they are of high importance. Tactical level: managers of different department within Tesco are saddled with tactical decisions about how their own department may contribute most effectively to the overall business objectives they tend to be medium range, medium significance, with moderate consequences. Tesco operational level employees are increasingly expected to make decisions about the conduct of their own tasks, responses to customers and improvements to business practice. They are every day decisions, used to support tactical decisions, often structured and their impact is immediate, short term, short range, and usually low cost
1.2) Review the type of information and knowledge needed to ensure effective decision taking A knowledge of what information is needed on a regular basis for decision making purposes, how it is sought and used, and the preference for sources would provide an indication not only of the information-seeking behavioral patterns of Tesco managers but also provide an insight into why pertinent information may not be utilized. Information systems differ in their business needs and the information varies depending upon different levels in organization. Information system at Tesco plc is broadly categorized into following: Transaction processing system: TPS processes information from various transactions gotten at the operational level of the organization; TPS provide high speed and accurate processing of record keeping of basic operations as it substitutes computer-based processing for manual procedures. Operational decisions are mainly small –scale and planned and information is often highly formal and quantitative. Tesco managers make use of operations information systems to obtain sales, inventory, accounting and other performance-related activities accurately and efficiently. Executive Support System (“ESS”): Tesco strategic management is assisted in making strategic decisions from this information. This gathers analyses and summarizes the key internal and external information used in the business.
Management Information System: The MIS at Tesco plc is mainly concern with the internal source of information gotten from the operational level; this is made use by Tesco tactical managers in managerial decision process and assist in problem solving at the lower level management. Tesco tactical management analyzes, interpret and summarize data into series of management report and characteristically MIS support structured decision situation. MIS at Tesco is set of information processing functions where queries are handled as quickly as they arrive. Decision support system: These systems assist Tesco strategic management to make long term decisions and make judgments about particular situation; the systems handle unstructured /semi structured decisions. Reports from the tactical level manager at Tesco aid the strategic management in formulating policies and finding a lasting solution to an identified problem.
1.3) Assess internal and external sources of information and understanding Business data and information comes from multiple sources. The challenge for a business is to capture and use information that is relevant and reliable. Tesco plc. gather its internal information from the course of everyday activities. This ranges from; transport data, financial data, sales report, storage system data to office system and modeling analyses etc. An effective process also used by Tesco in gathering information internally is through the SWOT analysis where Tesco strength, weaknesses, opportunity and threats are identified. Tesco gathers its information externally through various sources. These include market research, PESTLE analysis, Porters 5 forces analysis, benchmarking etc. An example of external information gathered by Tesco is the “Talking Tesco” group. The group strategy was created to help Tesco listen to their customers, suppliers, people and communities. Tesco using external research recently identified an opportunity to improve their range.
This research showed a rapidly growing need for Polish and Eastern European Products and Tesco growing number of excellent Polish staff helped confirm their beliefs. Tesco appointed one of their Polish executives to listen to their customers and held their first ever polish ‘Customer Question Time’. This is to find out which kinds of products their customers would like to buy. After the research information Tesco finalized on their product selection then sourced the products from a new supplier. 1.4) Make recommendations for improvement
At Tesco the capture, retention, distribution and analysis of the organizational operational data, as well as the continuous monitoring of industry intelligence is critical to it continuing success.Tesco will benefit greatly in the use of an information system, where the combination of information technology and the interaction of people with different technologies support operations, management and decision making. Information system make use of different IT system of different function, the of supply chain management software (SCM) will aid and make the supply chain of Tesco more efficient and result oriented. Other systems in the information system include various ICT (information communication technology) software’s that aid efficiency thus will improved decision making process of Tesco. The information systems strategy will increase profits at Tesco by resolving the complexity; it reduces confusion and stress, while increasing understanding of the business and IT. Resources can also be used more efficiently by seeing areas of commonality and the best order to carry out tasks from an efficiency point of view.
(http://www.octium.eu/en/index.php/information-systems/what-is-an-information-system) Task 2) Strategies to improve personal networking 2.1) identify personnel including customers, other stakeholders and other experts. The focus of Tesco business is customers; Tesco work hard to meet their needs and this ensure its success. From small business Tesco has grown to be the most popular supermarket in the UK, this is achieved through the growth recorded over the years through the programme “Talking Tesco” where various stakeholders are engaged to improve business. A key stakeholder of Tesco plc is their employees; Tesco has 472,000 employees who serve millions of customers around the world and over 260,000 employees in the UK. Tesco encourages team work, supports, trust and listen to its employee to aid information in the organization and promote job satisfaction for employees. Suppliers: Tesco sees there employees as very important in the communication of information within its organization.
Tesco takes a partnership approach with its supplier and believe that open and constructive relationship with them is key to a strong and sustainable supply chain. Communities: community engagement is important to Tesco information and communication process. Tesco consult local communities to gather information before building new stores to be sure of gaining understanding of local issues and concerns. Other stakeholders / experts needed in communication of information include investors, government, regulators, non-governmental organisations. etc. Engagement helps Tesco identify new risks and opportunities to ensure that Tesco’s long-term strategy is sustainable; in some instances working with stakeholders help deliver shared goals however engagement need to be on appropriate basis. 2.2) make contact with those identified and develop business relationship Building business relationships is a role every entrepreneur has to play to remain relevant in business and the society at large.
The importance of Corporate Social Responsibility at Tesco is an important program aimed at networking and building business relationship and performing the expected responsibility towards the community/country citizens where they operate. Networking are carried out at Tesco through various ways, an example in recent years is the long-term investment programe embarked on in China by Tesco; this helps to develop business relationship with the china government. Contact was made possible through the UK Trade & Investment organization that is the body responsible for various forum organized for business organization. Tesco can network with suppliers, communities, investors, customers etc. through various business membership organisations such as: Forum for Private Businesses and Chambers of commerce
Trade or industry association
Business clubs etc.
Following a successful networking at Tesco, Tesco is able to build business relationship with its various stakeholders through relationship marketing.
RELATIONSHIP MARKETING AND LOYALTY AT TESCO
The Rise and Rise of Tesco supermarket is basically on relationship marketing employed by Tesco to build business relationship. Tesco’s almost entire
relationship marketing strategy is based on its “Club card” scheme. It has been able to use the Club card very effectively in addressing different customer segments and in attracting and retaining customers of all types. With its Club card scheme it has strengthened its market share year on year in UK. Relationship marketing is the process of creating, maintaining and enhancing strong, value-laden relationship with customers and other stakeholder (Kotler 1997).Tesco has been able to deliver long-term value and measure of long-term customer satisfaction through their loyalty card which earns customers point after purchase from its stores. Business relationship are also built at Tesco with various stakeholders through partnerships with companies like Powergen, National Tyres, Johnson dry cleaners where customers accumulate points on Tesco club card each time a purchase is made from them. 2.3) involve those identified in decision making as appropriate Engaging internal and external stakeholders
Tesco plc engages its Stakeholder to understand their concerns in its activities and decision making processes Understanding stakeholders’ needs and concerns is fundamental to Tesco’s success. Stakeholder feedback helps Tesco identify relevant corporate responsibility issues and enables them to plan their corporate responsibility scheme accordingly. Communities: Tesco consult on potential new store openings, informing local people of plans and inviting feedback. In the UK public exhibitions are held as part of the consultation process with local communities on every planned Tesco superstore or Extra and on major extensions. Government: an example of the government engagement is the 21st of regeneration partnerships is Tesco’s Aston regeneration store, which was opened in Birmingham in 2008. To make this regeneration partnership a success, Tesco worked in partnership with, amongst others, Birmingham City Council, Job Centre plus, the Learning and Skills Council, Aston Pride and other local community other engagement include the environment, skills and regeneration planning, healthy eating and alcohol etc.
Suppliers: Regular meetings with suppliers are held to share experiences, and seek their feedback through Tesco annual Viewpoint survey. Information is shared with them through Tesco Link website and other forum on code of ethical trainings andother supply chain issues. Employees: Tesco listen and communicate with their staff constantly. Tesco believe its success rest on its employee thus employees are encouraged to share their view through the Staff Question Time session where feedback are gotten on various issues, and Tesco pulse survey is used to track staffs on how they feel about working for Tesco. However it is to be noted that the degree of staff involvement in decision making depends on the level where the employee belongs. Customers: Tesco customers are being talked to everyday of the year to identify and respond to their changing needs. Customers Question Time meetings are held in stores in all market and enable staff and managers to hear customer views on how Tesco is serving them and Tesco’s role in the community. 2.4) suggest strategies for improvement
Tesco plc. can improve its networking by adopting online engagement that allow multi-stakeholders dialogue where portals create communication networks that support two-way dialogue and instant feedback. Online engagement, offers continuously accessible communication channels; the web is available anytime from anywhere, overcoming the limitations of time and distance that may otherwise deter participation in engagement. Also, it provides stakeholders with a level platform from which to partake in dialogue. E.g. social networking which include face book, twitter etc.This allows anonymity which may encourage greater stakeholder involvement. Alsoestablishment of an effective management structures where business goals are integrated into policies and planning of networking will improve Tesco stakeholder’s participation thus development of business relationship. Improvement on Tesco network can be achieved iffeedbacks from stakeholders are analyzed and result reviewed and information derived embedded into management and reporting structure. Task 3) Develop communication process
3.1) evaluate existing processes of communication in an organization and look to ensure and improve appropriateness
Tesco’s Approach to Strategy Communication
Tesco communicate its new strategy to its employees via a “steering wheel,” a simple symbol and metaphor for a tool intended to drive performance and help employees navigate into the future. The Tesco steering wheel has four 90 degree arcs, representing the four BSC areas of focus: financial, customer, operations, and employee performance. Every store gets a monthly steering wheel update, a summary of its metrics within each of the four arcs, so that all employees in Tesco’s multiple regions and formats get feedback on their performance. Tesco supplements its steering wheel report with “shopping lists” that capture key elements of the strategy in simple forms that employees can follow in their everyday activities. Internal communication at Tesco
Tesco also communicates to its employee through the newspaper – “The One”. It brings breaking company news, entertainment and updates on staff benefits etc. to its employee across its stores. It is widely read, accessible and attractive and it is published fortnightly. Other methods include memos, intranet, e-mail, meetings, telephone, club cards, notices etc. Communicating the Customer Plan at Tesco
Tesco communicate their business plan to its entire employee in a number of different ways: Personal letters sent direct to employees; Two-way sessions in which a head of a function or a director would lead a cross-functional group through the plan; A range of desktop presenter material for use by managers in their regular meetings. It is aimed to ensure employees understand the plan,understand the local implications for them, and be able to commit to taking specific local actions themselves. External communication at Tesco
Communication to the external stakeholders is done through;
Television advertisement etc.
Improving communication process at Tesco
Effective communication at Tesco can be achieved by the removal of any form of barriers that may interfere with the communication process. Internal barriers could be inform of poor listening skill, lack of interest in message, mistrust or negative attitude of the sender or receiver; and the external barrier could be noise or any form of distortion in the communicated information( internet not working or bad phone connection) Tesco managers must ensure that any information to be communicated be: Formulated in the most simple, clear and precise way
Ensure that the channels of communication are working and appropriate. Use Multiple Channels for Communication however keeping in mind confidentiality Make Important Messages Repetitive
Focus on Listening
Get feedback at the end of the communication process to determine the success of communication by prompt action/response from receiver. Usage of pictures and such art forms allows for better understanding and makes for the message being seen through more clearly 3.2) Implement and justify improvements to ensure greater integration of systems of communication in that organisation Globalization and the ever changing economic and business climate have put increased pressure upon communication system. Tesco plc needs enhanced commitment to quality, profitability and ability to manage these changes; thus improvement in Tesco communication system to ensure greater integration can be achieved through: Introduction of new working practice for Tesco employees where more job sharing is encouraged thus multi-skilling will become the standard and increased flexibility.
Flatter management structures at Tesco: Tesco working environment will become more dynamic and interactive resulting to closer and more personal communication which further contribute and maintain competitive position. Establishment of global information system: this system will integrate Tesco employees with differing cultures, languages and operating system throughout the organization effectively. Meetings/ Conferences: Tesco communication systems will improve tremendously if regular meetings that will highlight the important aspects of the company policies are hold where Tesco employees are allowed to speak their minds out if there is any doubt whatsoever. 3.3) on a personal level, identify weaknesses and develop a personal plan to improve communication skills
Criteria for judging success
Unprofessional approach, little or no confidence and not well structured. Professional
Using mind map to generate ideas
And capture audience attention
2012 at the completion of degree
Ability to present clearly and well-structured with confidence, positive body
Possess good grammar, but too much wordy, not well organized and writing not well legible A clear and legible writing, organized thought to write using power pointing words, a well legible writing and good conclusion writing skills Reading as much as possible, learn basic writing guides(styles), writing often to improve .
Better writer with
Teachers and colleagues
Team working skill
Good team member, a shaper,
Implementer and finisher,
To be a planter and
An excellent relationship
Become more of an extrovert, undergo learning more in leadership training a
Better leadership styles, ability to
And motivate team
Task4) Design and improve appropriate system
4.1) Evaluate existing approaches to the collection, formatting, storage, disseminating information and knowledge Data consist of raw facts, such as customer names and addresses. Information is a collection of facts organized in such a way that it has more value beyond the facts themselves Tesco turns data collected through various methods into information for defined outcome. This process of defining relationships at Tesco between various data requires knowledge; Knowledge is the body or rules, guidelines, and procedures used to select, organize, and manipulate data to make it suitable for specific tasks. Tesco collects data which are later processed to give information through: Tesco club card loyalty program
Point of sale information system (POS) which make use of the human activity system Transaction processing system e.g. ATM withdrawal, product return Eco-software monitoring: used to track its carbon emission and gather information on how to improve system. Hard system approach
System life cycle
Tesco uses the software development life cycle system during formatting of information. It is a computer-based system, which comprises a combination of hardware, software, and telecommunications networks used by Tesco to collect, create, and distribute useful data in a manner that will support the operation and management of all business functions.
(http://sharpertutorials.com/system-development-life-cycles-sdlc) On concluding data formatting using the SDPC system at Tesco, processed data are stored at the database to utilize by various users within the organization. Information from the database is disseminated for use at Tesco through: Software packages e.g. Lotus Notes. This enables various users within Tesco to have same information on their screen and use together at the same time. E-mail
Tesco intranet etc.
4.2) Implement and justify appropriate changes to improve the collection, formatting, storage, disseminating information and knowledge
Automation: Tesco can use the computerized working method to speed up the performance of existing task. Office automation system will ensure fast dissemination of information at Tesco as most computers are networked thus making work easier. Rationalization: Tesco can streamline its operating procedures to enhance its efficiency. Information and knowledge will become efficiently disseminated as streamlining eliminates obvious bottlenecks in IS. Re-engineering: Tesco can reorganize its business around processes to improve information system. Re-engineering at Tesco can be done by: Developing business vision and process objectives
Identification of processes to be redesigned
Understand and measure the existing processes
Identify the IT levers
Design and build a prototype of the new process.
Paradigm shift: Tesco can rethink the nature of the business and the nature of the organization itself. Paradigm shifts in term of knowledge and knowledge management is the transformation of the old world of Tesco business to the new e-business.
4.3) Implement a strategy to improve access to system of information and knowledge to others as appropriate. Tesco plc can improve access to system of information and knowledge through the use of information Communication Technology (ICT). ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data. Most importantly, it is concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other. Digital communication technologies will allow Tesco management to communicate and share information digitally with its stakeholders. Tesco can build websites, manage database, publish new letters, organize workshop and find their own information through the use of ICT strategy. Other benefits for Tesco from the use of ICT include:
Efficiency that will support the development and creation of sustainable businesses while reducing the cost of doing business. It enhances Tesco’s services delivery to customers.
Growth for Tesco reaching new market and provide platform for new innovation. Encourages collaborative working and improve information sharing. Conclusively,
The use of ICTs at Tesco will make access to information easier and dissemination of information needed to aid job completion and achievement of organizational goals realistic. On-line stakeholders’ engagement has proved to provide solution for late feedback which most likely results from distance and timing and delayed decision making; an automated system will go a long way to improve efficiency of information and communication at Tesco. However Tesco has been known over the years to be a successful supermarket, an improvement of the information system in place will not improve communication and information flow only but the mission and goals of Tesco will be achieved.