History of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in the Philippines Essay

The Philippines connected to the internet in 1994 via the Philippine Internet Foundation (PHNet), the first internet service provider in the country. Penetration increased slowly until 2005, when Executive Order 109 was enacted calling for the expansion of telecommunication services to underserved areas, which in turn promoted competition in the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. Internet use further accelerated after 2008 with the entry of a number of industry players, although the use of mobile phones has remained more widespread.

Penetration of such technologies is higher in urban areas where middle- to upper-income classes are concentrated. People in the Philippines enjoy nearly unrestricted access to the internet and other ICTs. To date, the government has steered clear of blocking access to any type of online content. Currently weak regulations, however, have been at the center of heated debates among citizens and lawmakers, some of whom argue that new threats to the safety of online users call for stricter laws pertaining to child pornography, gambling, and cybercrime.

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Such proposals have, in turn, raised concerns that the government is seeking to institute filtering without blatantly violating the freedom of expression and speech, and when the filtering infrastructure is in place, it could be potentially used for political and social censorship as well. According to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), internet penetration in the Philippines stood at 29 percent as of 2011, up from under 6 percent in 2006. Nevertheless, usage is mainly limited to the national capital region and other urban areas, and it remains largely absent among the lower-income population, most of whom live in rural areas.

An increasing number of users are now accessing the internet from home and workplace, although cybercafes remain popular among those without a personal computer. In contrast, there were over 87 million mobile phone subscribers in 2011, a penetration rate of 92 percent. Subscriptions to fixed telephone lines lag far behind with approximately 3. 5 million. Mobile phone subscriptions increased significantly in recent years, and the SMS application has dominated the market for 2G cell phones since the mid-2000s.

Steep broadband internet subscription fees have stood in the way of a higher penetration rate in a country where 45 percent of the population lives on US$2 a day. The average monthly broadband subscription is between US$7 to US$19, and the penetration of fixed broadband subscriptions stood at only 1. 9 percent in 2011. Internet cafes charge from US$0. 30 to $0. 50 per hour. The national government acknowledged many weaknesses in the development of ICT infrastructure in the Philippine Digital Strategy for 2011 to 2016, a roadmap for ICTs in the country.

Among the weaknesses are limited market competition, poorly dispersed broadband services, lack of ICT training and skills among government leaders, and lack of transparency in the government. The government does not place any restrictions on internet connectivity, and a wide range of Web 2. 0 applications are available in the country. YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, and international blog-hosting services are freely available, and penetration rates of these platforms are among the highest in the region.

However, a significant number of users still rely on dial-up connections as broadband adoption in the country remains slow due to constraints such as access to frequencies, quality of service, and universal access. The opposition of the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT)/Smart to the National Telecommunications Commission’s (NTC) move to reduce interconnection prices has also slowed down broadband services. [ Latest government statistics reported 241 registered internet service providers (ISPs) as of 2009.

The slow growth of the broadband industry is mainly due to the dominance of the privately-owned PLDT that has maintained a stronghold since the late 1920s, owning a vast majority of fixed-lines and, consequently, the most stable backbone. Many local ISPs go through the PLDT because it owns the 10,000-kilometer Domestic Fiber Optic Network (DFON) connected to several international cable routes and has the highest capacity in the country at 250 Gbps. PLDT also owns or manages several international cable landings in the country.

Further, the country’s telecommunications industry in the last decade has been characterized by mergers and acquisitions amid the country’s market liberalization initiatives during the 1980s and the absence of anti-trust laws. By the end of 2010, three privately-owned telecom companies were dominant: PLDT/Smart, Globe Telecommunications, Inc. , and Digitel. With PLDT’s recent acquisition of majority shares in Digitel, the company now controls 70 percent of the country’s ICT sector. To enter the ICT industry in the Philippines, companies must go through a two-stage process.

First, they must obtain a congressional license that involves parliamentary hearings and the approval of both the upper and lower houses. Second, they need to apply for a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity (CPCN) from the NTC. The constitution limits foreign entities to only 40 percent ownership of a business to be established in the country. Internet service is currently classified as a value-added service and is therefore subject to fewer regulatory requirements compared to mobile and fixed phone services.

Institutional arrangements regarding the ICT sector are highly bureaucratic, with much ambiguity and overlapping responsibilities among government bodies overseeing ICT development in the country. Successive government administrations have in one way or another modified the structure of the administrative body for ICTs. The latest changes came through Executive Order 47, issued by President Benigno Aquino, Jr. on June 23, 2011, that created the Information and Communications Technology Office (ICTO) under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), abolishing the Commission on Information and Communications Technology (CICT).

The ICTO is tasked with conducting research, development, and capacity-building in the ICT industry. The National Telecommunications Commission (NTC), created in 1979, regulates the industry with quasi-judicial powers and develops tariff and technical regulations, licensing conditions, and competition and interconnection requirements. All heads of the aforementioned organizations are appointed by the president. The ICT sector is expecting a few more changes after the president signs Senate Bill No. 0, which will create the Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT) and subsequently abolish the National Computer Center (NCC), Telecommunications Office (TELOF) and units in the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) dealing with communications. The new department will be the primary administrative entity of the executive branch tasked to oversee policy, planning, coordination, implementation, and regulation of all ICT matters. It will be composed of a secretary, undersecretaries, and assistant secretaries—all to be appointed by the president.

There are sentiments that these government bodies will not able to operate independently because of their susceptibility to the influence of the incumbent administration and Congress, which determines their budget. http://www. freedomhouse. org/report/freedom-net/2012/philippines ICT Profile in the Philippines Total population| 79,503,675 (2002 projection)| Rural population as a percentage of total population| 42. 32% (1999)| Key economic sectors| Agriculture, services, industry| Literacy in the national language(s)| 93. 9%| Functional literacy| 83. 79%| Computer ownership per 100 inhabitants| 1. 93|

Telephone lines per 100 inhabitants| 8. 70 (December 2002)| Internet hosts per 10,000 inhabitants| 2. 54| Internet cafes/telecentres per 10,000 inhabitants| 0. 165| Internet users per 100 inhabitants| 4. 27| Cell phone subscribers per 100 inhabitants| 15. 897 (June 2002)| Number of websites in the national language(s)| 1,814| Number of websites in English and other language(s)| 181,403| National bandwidth within the country| 31 Mbps partial aggregate data| National bandwidth to and from the country| 367 Mbps partial aggregate data| Ratio of incoming to outgoing Internet traffic volume| 80:20| http://www. apdip. et/projects/dig-rev/info/ph/ Key ICT Information: * The telecommunications industry was deregulated in 1987 after over 70 years under a private monopoly. * By 2001, teledensity stood at 10. 91 per 100 people. This represented a 900 percent jump from 1993. * In 1993, the government implemented the Service Area Scheme, which required the installation within three years of 300,000 land lines by new international gateway facility operators, 400,000 land lines by new cellular licences and 700,000 land lines by firms with both cellular and gateway licences. * There are 6,634,934 land lines installed nationwide by 2002.

However, only around three million of these lines are actually subscribed, due in part to high upfront costs and the growing preference for cellular mobile phones. * The number of cellular mobile users has soared dramatically, from 959,024 in 1996 to over six million in 2000. Currently, the estimated 12 million Filipinos with cellular phones send an average of 130-150 million text messages a day using short messaging service (SMS). * The Philippines’ 240 text messages per subscriber per month is significantly higher than Hong Kong’s 4 text messages PC penetration and Internet access: PC penetration is estimated at 1. 9 for every 100 persons. * Internet penetration is at 6 for every 100 persons (or 4. 5 million of the total 76. 5 million Filipinos). * Of these Internet users, 3. 1 million (about 70 percent) are said to access the Internet using prepaid cards at Internet cafes.

* Two recent ACNielsen reports give a deeper insight on Philippine Internet users (3) Its “Activate” survey show that the majority of Filipinos between 13 and 30 years old access the Internet daily for at least an hour after work or school (and usually before bedtime). The other survey, NETScan, reveals that as of the second quarter of 2002 an estimated 6 percent of the total urban population is using the Internet, almost half of whom are based in Metro Manila (or 11 percent or 900,000 of the population in Metro Manila). Over half of those with Internet access belong to the upper and middle economic classes, although there is substantial representation from “Class D”. This means that the upper and middle economic classes account for almost two out of three users. There are an estimated 191 ISPs nationwide, mostly operating in urban areas, with 20 percent in areas with export processing zone. There are only about five Tier 1 ISPs. There are also three Internet exchanges, which are all located in Metro Manila. * The subscriber base to date of these ISPs is approximately 1,850,000. * It has been noted that “Internet-wise, the Philippines is part of the US Internet at the end of a very long string across the ocean”.

This observation is based on the fact that “foreign (mostly US) traffic makes up 90 percent of the consumers’ consumption” and that “connectivity to other Asia-Pacific countries is a small fraction compared to the US connection. ” Computer in the Philippines Definition of Computer: A computer is a device that accepts information in the form of digitalized data and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed. Complex computers also include the means for storing data including the program, which is also a form of data for some necessary duration.

A program may be invariable and built into the computer (and called logic circuitry as it is on microprocessors) or different programs may be provided to the computer (loaded into its storage and then started by an administrator or user). Today’s computers have both kinds of programming. Most histories of the modern computer begin with the Analytical Engine envisioned by Charles Babbage following the mathematical ideas of George Boole, the mathematician who first stated the principles of logic inherent in today’s digital computer.

Babbage’s assistant and collaborator, Ada Lovelace, is said to have introduced the ideas of program loops and subroutines and is sometimes considered the first programmer. Apart from mechanical calculators, the first really useable computers began with the vacuum tube, accelerated with the invention of the transistor, which then became embedded in large numbers in integrated circuits, ultimately making possible the relatively low-cost personal computer. History of Computer in the Philippines: Computers were introduced in the Philippines in the late 60’s by IBM Philippines, Inc. this computer was big and a whole room was needed to accomodate this computer ,more commonly known as main frames ,their basic function was more on data storage ,and not just anyone can operate the computer ,it needed a highly trained technician to use it and translate its data ,the language used by these computers were Binary language a series of 0’s and 1’s,it was not a user friendly machine and it was very expensive,in the Philippines only multi-national companies had one,in the mid 70’s a highly evolved computer came in to the scene,

Apple with its Apple1 had a great impact on the Philippine market, this new computers were compact and space needed was very small ,these computers were called mini’s or personal computers popularly called PC’s, this started an era of computerization in the Philippines, because of its affordability and the introduction of a new Operating System developed by Mr. Bill Gates ,who’s company was soon to be known as {microsoft),made the use of computers very easy and almost all the companies as well as individuals made full use of them in their homes and in their business, the Windows 3-11 was born a new operating system that was very easy to use, during the 80’s and 90’s control for the computer market in the Philippines was intense ,Apple came out with their Apple 11,Apple 11+,Apple 11 C’s and the Apple ac’s,

In which IBM retaliated with their 256,286,386,486 and eventually with their Pentium class units P-1,P-2,P-3,which made IBM predominant in the field of computers in the Philippines, Before the turn of the century computers was a necessity rather than an luxury in the Philippines more and more schools are incorporating computer as part of their curriculum, the filipinos has evolved to a new breed of men women and even children who are dependent on computers for their researches and school activities, companies in the Philippines are now relaying on these computers in their day today activities from payroll to communication via E-mail to their clients ,and filipinos are more and more aware of the importance of these gadgets in business and the countries economy, In the early part of the 21rst century more and more different types of computer are being introduced to the Philippines, there are now laptop’s ,mini desktop’s and more, proving the Philippines and its people the filipinos are now part of the hi-tech community.

Picture of First Computer: http://en. wikipilipinas. org/index. php? title=Computer_in_the_Philippines Information and Communication Technologies(ICT) for Development Refers to the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the fields of socioeconomic development, international development and human rights. The theory behind this is that more and better information and communication furthers the development of a society.

Aside from its reliance on technology, ICT4D also requires an understanding of community development, poverty, agriculture, healthcare, and basic education. The term ICT4D contains a divisive disciplinary discussion by Richard Heeks. According to Heeks, the I, is related with “library and information sciences”, the C is associated with “communication studies”, the T is linked with “information systems”, and the D for “development studies”. It is aimed at bridging the digital divide and aid economic development by fostering equitable access to modern communications technologies. It is a powerful tool for economic and social development. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Information_and_communication_technologies_for_development

The Tools or Technology that can be used in Information Communication Technology (ICT) to the Philippines First What is ICT? The term, information and communication technologies (ICT), refers to forms of technology that are used to transmit, store, create, display, share or exchange information by electronic means. This broad definition of ICT includes such technologies as radio, television, video, DVD, telephone (both fixed line and mobile phones), satellite systems, computer and network hardware and software; as well as the equipment and services associated with these technologies, such as videoconferencing, e-mail and blogs. List of tools that can be used in ICT:

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