Marijuana 2 Research Paper Consuming marijuana Essay

Marijuana 2 Essay, Research Paper

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Devouring marihuana is damaging to one s wellness - Marijuana 2 Research Paper Consuming marijuana Essay introduction. 1. Consumption= Smoking or eating marihuanas. 2. Marijuana= Psychoactive head changing substance, besides known as hemp. 3. Detrimental= Serious injury. Smoke or feeding marihuana is likely to make serious wellness jobs for most single users or society. Since the 1920 s protagonists of marihuana prohibition have exaggerated the drugs dangers. Many of the joint lunacy narratives that were used to convey support for early anti- marihuana Torahs, continue to look in studies today. The most of import surveies of recent times took topographic point in the 1970 s in Greece, Costa Rica and Jamaica. These trials reported on the effects of marihuana on its users in there natural environment. The studies covered marijuana s consequence on the encephalon, immune and generative systems. ( 1 ) These surveies didn t answer all the inquiries about the effects of marihuana on the user, but supported the thought that marijuana for the bulk of its users was non damaging to the wellness of the users encephalon, immune or generative system. In looking at all the studies that are published there are possibly, random surveies which may bespeak greater toxicity of the drug. But in all of these instances, the research was flawed or inaccurate since the findings can non be duplicated by other scientists. Contention I: Marijuana does non damage encephalon cells. A. Claim: Use of marihuana does non do memory loss. 1. Evidences: In a recent survey Macaca mulatta monkeys were exposed to the equivalent of 4-5 articulations per twenty-four hours for an full twelvemonth without any change of hippocampal architecture. ( 2 ) Slikker, W. et Al, Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Neurohistological Effects of chronic Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Nonhuman Primate, pp219-74 in l. Murphy and A. Bartke ( explosive detection systems ) , Marijuana Neurobiology and Neurophysiology, Boca Raton: CRC imperativeness ( 1992 ) 2. Warrant: Change in hippocampal construction consequences in memory loss. 3. Backing: A survey reports Any change of the Hippo campus, a cortical encephalon part, consequences in negative effects for larning and memory in worlds. ( 3 ) Heath, B.C. et Al, Cannabis Sativa: Effectss on Brain Function and Ultra construction in Rhesus Monkeys, Biological Psychiatry 15:657 ( 1980 ) . B. Claim: Use of marihuana does non do cognitive damage. 1. Evidences: In a survey it is reported marijuana poisoning does non impair encephalon related cognitive maps ( 4 ) Weckowicz, T.E. et Al, Effect of Marijuana on Divergent and convergent Production Cognitive Tests, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 84: 386-98 ( 1975 ) 2. Warrant: Surveies have shown that marihuana does non consequence encephalon related cognitive maps. 3. Backing: Research workers have proved scientifically that marihuana does non impair cognitive encephalon working include ( 5 ) Hooker, W.D. and Jones, R.T. , Increased Susceptibility to Memory Intrusions and the Stroop Interference Effect During Acute Marijuana Intoxication, Psychopharmacology 91: 20-24 ( 1987 ) Claim C: Use of marihuana does non do troubles in larning. 1.Grounds: No grounds found that marihuana users suffer from encephalon damage. 2. Warrant: Since there is no grounds correlating marihuanas use to encephalon damage there can be no larning troubles associated specifically with the usage of marihuana. 3. Backing: A survey in 1988 shows In comparing chronic marihuana users with non-users, there are no important differences in acquisition, memory callback, and other attending maps. ( 6 ) Page, J.B. , Psychosociocultural Perspectives on Chronic Cannabis Use: The Costa Rican Follow Up, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 20: pp 57 ( 1988 ) Contention II: Marijuana does non impair immune system working. Claim A: Exploitation marihuana stimulates the immune system. 1. Evidences: In the last two old ages THC ( the active drug in Marijuana ) has been discovered as a Peripheral cannabinoid receptor associated with lymphatic tissue turn outing as a effectual immune system stimulation ( 7 ) Lynn, A.b. and Herkenham, M. , Localization of cannabinoid Receptors and Non saturable High Density Cannabinoid Binding Sites in Peripheral Tissues of the Rat: Deductions for Receptor- Mediated Immune Modulation by Cannabinoids, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 268:1612-23 ( 1994 ) 2. Warrant: The active drug in marihuana is THC, therefore marihuana is an immune stimulation. 3. Backing: In 1988, a survey showed an addition in reactivity when white blood cells from marihuana tobacco users were exposed to immunological activators. ( 8 ) Wallace, J.M. et Al, Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Sub populations and Mitogen Responsiveness in Tobacco and Marijuana Smokers, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 20: 9-14 ( 1988 ) Claim B: Use of marihuana does non increase bacterial, viral or parasitic infection. 1.Grounds: There has ne’er been any scientific information which proves marihuana additions bacterial, parasitic or viral infections among worlds. 2.Warrant: Since there is no grounds of an addition in viral, parasitic or bacterial infection when marihuana is used it can non be associated with an addition in these infections. 3. Backing: A survey performed in the 1970 s declares there is no difference in disease susceptibleness between marihuana users and matched controls. ( 9 ) Carter, W.E. ( erectile dysfunction ) , Cannabis in Costa Rica: A survey of Chronic Marijuana Use, Philadelphia: Institute for Study of Human Issues ( 1980 ) Claim C: The usage of marihuana does non increase the hazard of HIV infection. 1. Evidences: There have merely been myths, but no scientifical grounds turn outing usage of marihuana increases the rate of infecti

on for HIV.

2. Warrant: Since there is no grounds, marihuana is non responsible for any addition in the hazard of infection from the HIV virus. 3. Backing: A survey taken in 1990, clearly provinces Marijuana usage does non increase the hazard of HIV infection. ( 10 ) Coates, R.A. et Al, Cofactors of Progression to Acquired Immunodefifiency Syndrome in a Cohort of Male Sexual Contacts of work forces with Immunodeficiency Virus Disease, American Journal of Epidemiology 132: pp717 ( 1990 ) Contention III: Marijuana does non harm 1s sexual ripening and reproduction. Claim A: Marijuana does non impair in anyhow male generative operation. 1. Evidences: The Jamaican field surveies proved There are no differences in endocrine degrees or generative operation between marihuana users and non-users ( 11 ) Knights, R. , Reproductive Test Results, p111 in V. Rubin and L. Comitas ( explosive detection systems ) , Ganja in Jamaica, The Hague: Mouton ( 1975 ) 2. Warrant: Since scientific discipline has proven there is no difference in male operation, marihuana does non consequence the male generative system in any manner. 3. Backing: In studies of marihuana users it has been reported no jobs with birthrate have emerged every bit of import as a consequence of marihuana usage ( 12 ) Hembree, W.C. et Al, Changes in Human Spermatozoa, pp429 in G.G. nahas and W.D. M. Paton ( explosive detection systems ) Oxford: Pergamon Press ( 1979 ) Claim B: Marijuana does non impair female reproduction in humans1. Grounds: there is no support in scientific literature tha is current coverage that marijuana impairs female generative operation. 2. Warrant: Without scientific fact, the claim that marijuana effects females reproduction is nil but a myth. 3. Backing: There have been no epidemiological surveies demoing any information that female users of marihuanas are effected reproductively. Claim C: Use of Marijuana does non retard striplings sexual development.1. Grounds: Besides of one person instance where a stripling didn T attain pubescence, ( 13 ) Copeland, K.C. et Al, Marijuana Smoking and Pubertal Arrest, Journal of Pediatrics 96:1079-80 ( 1980 ) . There has been no cogent evidence that sexual development of striplings who smoke marijuana exists. 2. Warrant: Without scientifical informations the claim that marihuana idiots an striplings sexual development is nil but a myth. 3. Backing: Scientific research shows There have been no epidemiological surveies bespeaking sexual deceleration has occurred in striplings ( 14 ) Block, R.I. et Al, Effectss of Marijuana usage on Testosterone, Luteinizing Hormone, and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in Humans Drug and Alcohol Dependence 28:121 ( 1991 ) Decision: Supporters of marijuana prohibition make claims about marihuanas without scientifically turn outing them. At the present twenty-four hours marihuana has been scientifically proven non to be damaging to the organic structure s encephalon, immune and generative systems. If we as a society can analyse scientific grounds, alternatively of being persuaded by some indefensible claims, possibly we can change over our ignorance into consciousness. Bibliography ( 1 ) . Carter, W.E. ( erectile dysfunction ) , Cannabis in Costa Rica: A Study of Chronic Marijuana Use, Philadelphia: institute fot survey of Human Issues ( 1980 ) : Rubin, V. and Comitas, L. , Ganja in Jamaica, The Hague: Mouton ( 1975 ) : Stefanis, C. et Al, Hashish: Surveies in Long Term Use, New York: Raven Press ( 1977 ) . ( 2 ) Slikker, W. et Al, Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Neurohistological Effects of chronic Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Nonhuman Primate, pp219-74 in l. Murphy and A. Bartke ( explosive detection systems ) , Marijuana Neurobiology and Neurophysiology, Boca Raton: CRC imperativeness ( 1992 ) ( 3 ) Heath, B.C. et Al, Cannabis Sativa: Effectss on Brain Function and Ultra construction in Rhesus Monkeys, Biological Psychiatry 15:657 ( 1980 ) . ( 4 ) Weckowicz, T.E. et Al, Effect of Marijuana on Divergent and convergent Production Cognitive Tests, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 84: 386-98 ( 1975 ) ( 5 ) Hooker, W.D. and Jones, R.T. , Increased Susceptibility to Memory Intrusions and the Stroop Interference Effect During Acute Marijuana Intoxication, Psychopharmacology 91: 20-24 ( 1987 ) ( 6 ) Page, J.B. , Psychosociocultural Perspectives on Chronic Cannabis Use: The Costa Rican Follow Up, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 20: pp 57 ( 1988 ) ( 7 ) Lynn, A.b. and Herkenham, M. , Localization of cannabinoid Receptors and Non saturable High Density Cannabinoid Binding Sites in Peripheral Tissues of the Rat: Deductions for Receptor- Mediated Immune Modulation by Cannabinoids, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 268:1612-23 ( 1994 ) ( 8 ) Wallace, J.M. et Al, Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Sub populations and Mitogen Responsiveness in Tobacco and Marijuana Smokers, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 20: 9-14 ( 1988 ) ( 9 ) Carter, W.E. ( erectile dysfunction ) , Cannabis in Costa Rica: A survey of Chronic Marijuana Use, Philadelphia: Institute for Study of Human Issues ( 1980 ) ( 10 ) Coates, R.A. et Al, Cofactors of Progression to Acquired Immunodefifiency Syndrome in a Cohort of Male Sexual Contacts of work forces with Immunodeficiency Virus Disease, American Journal of Epidemiology 132: pp717 ( 1990 ) ( 11 ) Knights, R. , Reproductive Test Results, p111 in V. Rubin and L. Comitas ( explosive detection systems ) , Ganja in Jamaica, The Hague: Mouton ( 1975 ) ( 12 ) Hembree, W.C. et Al, Changes in Human Spermatozoa, pp429 in G.G. nahas and W.D. M. Paton ( explosive detection systems ) Oxford: Pergamon Press ( 1979 ) ( 13 ) Copeland, K.C. et Al, Marijuana Smoking and Pubertal Arrest, Journal of Pediatrics 96:1079-80 ( 1980 ) . ( 14 ) Block, R.I. et Al, Effectss of Marijuana usage on Testosterone, Luteinizing Hormone, and Follicle Stimulating Hormone in Humans Drug and Alcohol Dependence 28:121 ( 1991 )

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