Stephen Crane Research Paper Essay, Research Paper
Stephen Crane? s The Red Badge of Courage is a novel that reflects its clip period and the manner of its writer to a great extent. Besides, it was praised for its truth. Ironically, Crane lived after the civil war and ne’er served in the military. Stephen Crane? s life is portrayed on the web site www.underthesun.cc:
Crane, Stephen ( 1871-1900 ) , American novelist and poet, one of the first American advocates of the realistic manner of composing. Crane is known for his pessimistic and frequently barbarous portraitures of the human status, but his blunt pragmatism is relieved by poetic appeal and a sympathetic apprehension of character.
Born in Newark, New Jersey, Crane was educated at Lafayette College and Syracuse University. In 1891 he began work in New York City as a free-lance newsman in the slums. From his work and his ain penniless being in the Bowery he drew stuff for his first novel, Maggie, a Girl of the Streets ( 1893 ) , which he published at his ain disbursal under the pseudonym Johnston Smith. The work, the narrative of a immature cocotte who commits self-destruction, won congratulations from the American authors Hamlin Garland and William Dean Howells but was non a popular success. Crane’s following novel, The Red Badge of Courage ( 1895 ) , gained international acknowledgment as a penetrating and realistic psychological survey of a immature soldier in the American Civil War ( 1861-1865 ) .
Although Crane had ne’er experienced military service, the apprehension of the ordeals of combat that he revealed in this work compelled assorted American and foreign newspapers to engage him as a letter writer during the Greco-Turkish War ( 1897 ) and the Spanish-American War ( 1898 ) . Shipwrecked while attach toing an expedition from the United States to Cuba in 1896, Crane suffered wants that finally brought on TB. His experience was the footing for the title narrative of his aggregation The Open Boat and Other Narratives ( 1898 ) . Crane settled in England in 1897; his private life, which included several adulterous personal businesss, had caused chitchat in the United States. In England he was befriended by the authors Joseph Conrad and Henry James.
In add-on to being a novelist, journalist, and short-story author, Crane was besides an pioneer in poetry techniques. His two volumes of poesy, The Black Riders and Other Lines ( 1895 ) and War Is Kind and Other Poems ( 1899 ) , are of import early illustrations of experimental free poetry. His other Hagiographas include Active Service ( 1899 ) , Whilomville Stories ( 1900 ) , and Wounds in the Rain ( 1900 ) . Crane’s collected letters were published in 1954. [ ? About Stephen Crane? ]
The chief character in Crane? s Red Badge of Courage is Henry Fleming. Against his female parent? s wants, Henry enlists in the 304th Regiment of New York Volunteers, spends deadening months of preparation and restless waiting, and looks frontward to taking portion in a existent Civil War conflict. Henry frequently wonders how he will move his first conflict. He is diffident whether he will stand and contend or if he will run. The opposing ground forcess meet in several brushs, and Henry eventually experiences conflict. At this point, against the barbarous battle between the Union and the Confederacy, Crane sets another struggle: the internal battle within Henry. Feeling he is faced tungsten
ith the hazard of his live, Henry flees during the 2nd brush of the first twenty-four hours? s conflict. He becomes rather ashamed of himself. Following twenty-four hours Henry returns to the forepart. During this conflict, he distinguishes himself. He retrieves his ground forces? s colourss from the deceasing Union flag-bearer, urges his companions on, and is proclaimed a hero by officers and enlisted work forces.
Stephen Crane? s manner was naturalism, a school of literary idea in which the environment, instead than single, determines the result of characters’lives. Naturalists believe that the novelist should be like the scientist, analyzing dispassionately assorted phenomena in life and pulling incontestable decisions. The naturalists tended to concern themselves with the harsh, frequently seamy, facets of life. Naturalism was popular in the late 1800? s. Donald Pizer suggests specific alterations in capable affair and word picture, which help in specifying Naturalism as different from Realism:
1. The capable affair:
a. The capable affair trades with those natural and unpleasant experiences which cut down characters to “degrading” behavior in their battle to last. These characters are largely from the lower center or the lower categories – they are hapless, uneducated, and unworldly.
B. The surroundings is the platitude and the unheroic; life is normally the dull unit of ammunition of day-to-day being. But the naturalist discovers those qualities in such characters normally associated with the heroic or adventuresome – Acts of the Apostless of force and passion taking to desperate minutes and violent decease. The suggestion is that life on its lowest degrees is non so simple as it seems to be.
c. There is treatment of destiny and “hubris” that affect a character; by and large the commanding force is society and the surrounding environment.
2. The construct of a realistic character:
a. characters are conditioned and controlled by environment, heredity, opportunity, or inherent aptitude; but they have counterbalancing humanistic values which affirm their individualism and life – their battle for life becomes heroic and they maintain human self-respect.
b. the Naturalists attempt to stand for the intermingling in life of the controlling forces and single worth. They do non dehumanise their characters. [ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap6/6intro.html ]
The fresh tantrums Pizer? s categorization of Naturalism. Henry comes from a hapless background. He grew up on a farm. The unpleasant experiences that degrade H are what he sees on the battleground. He sees blood, he hears the calls of those who are wounded and deceasing, and, most significantly, he witnesses the decease of many of his friends. An illustration of the debasement caused by these experiences is when he deserts his friend Jimmie Rogers, who was mortally wounded. The narrative fits the characteristic that the surroundings is the platitude because the scene at the beginning of the novel is the military base and it is non really eventful. Henry is mostly influenced by his environment. The battleground makes him more aggressive and less compassionate. The realistic features of this fresh agree with the ideas of many philosophers of the late 19th century. Stephen Crane? s Red Badge of Courage really good reflects the clip period in which it was written.