Matrix of Learning Theories

Matrix of Learning Theories

Behaviorism
Cognitivism
Constructivism
Theorists
John B. Watson

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Edwin Guthrie

Edward Thorndike

BF Skinner

(Schultz & Schultz, 2004)
Wolfgang Kohler & Kurt Koffka

Jean Piaget

Leon Festinger

(Schunk, 2004)
Jerome Bruner

Albert Bandura

Carl Rogers

Lev Vygotsky

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Theories
Laws of frequency & recency

Contiguity theory

Law of effect, satisfiers and annoyers

Operant conditioning

(Schultz & Schultz, 2004)
Problem-solving

Perception and attention

Cognitive stages of development

Cognitive dissonance

(Schunk, 2004)
Constructivist theory

Social learning theory

Experiential learning

Socio-cultural development

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Key Principles
The study of human behavior should be limited to observable and measurable behavior.

Stimulus-response model of behavior

(Schultz & Schultz, 2004)
The focus of the study of psychology should be the mental events that occur in the individual during information processing.

Stimulus-mental processes-behavior model

(Schunk, 2004)
Meaning is internally constructed and is influenced by experience

Knowledge is situated in the mind and each person constructs his/her own mental representation of that knowledge

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Representations of the learning process
Learning is observed to occur and measured as a change in behavior

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Learning occurs when newly acquired information is related to previously learned information
Learning is the search for meaning

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Assumptions about learning
Learning is formed through a series of repetition and reinforcement

The learner has no control over the learning process, the teacher is the source of all knowledge

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Cognitive process shape learning

Knowledge is organized

Learning involves the formation of mental associations

Humans have the capacity for complex learning

(Schunk, 2004)
Learners can construct their own knowledge without much instruction from the teacher

Learning is facilitated by discovery, experience and modeling

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Factors that influence learning
Number of trials & repetitions

Punishment and rewards

Conditioning

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Previous learning

Prior experiences

Age or readiness

Cognitive processes

(Schunk, 2004)
Quality of learning environment

Social interaction

Intrinsic motivation

Quality of instructional materials

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Role of memory
Memory does not exist, since behavior is elicited as a response to a stimulus

(Schultz & Schultz, 2004)
New information is stored in short-term memory which is then re-encoded to be associated with previous knowledge and will be stored in long-term memory which will also be retrieved at will when the individual is faced with a similar task or problem.

(Schunk, 2004)
The memory is the storehouse of all that has been learned. The learner  uses his/her memory to construct meaning by comparing it to previous experiences.

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
How should instruction be structured
Programmed learning, modular

Structured activities

Provide positive and negative reinforcements

Rote learning

Teacher centered instruction

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Organized and structured learning activities but allow for learner initiative and creativity.

Must be cognitively appropriate

Must be related to real-life examples

(Schunk, 2004)
Unstructured learning activities

Group activities that emphasize social interaction

Hands-on learning

Encouraging discovery

Learner-centered instruction

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Learning outcomes
Behavior change

Mastery of overt skills

(Schultz & Schultz, 2004)
Problem solving

Creativity

Analysis of learned materials

(Schunk, 2004)
Construction of knowledge

Application of learned material or knowledge to novel tasks

Problem solving

(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
References

Hergenhahn, B. & Olson, M. (2004). An Introduction to Theories of Learning 7th ed. Upper Saddle River: NJ: Pearson, Merrill Prentice-Hall

Schultz, D. & Schultz, S. (2004). Behaviorism: After the founding. In A history of modern psychology  8th ed. (pp. 320-356). Belmont, CA:Wadsworth/Thomson Learning

Schunk, D. (2004). Cognitive learning processes. In Learning theories: An educational perspective 4th ed. (pp. 190-239). Upper Saddle River: NJ: Pearson, Merrill Prentice Hall.

 

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