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Matrix of Learning Theories Essays

Matrix of Learning Theories

John B. Watson
Edwin Guthrie
Edward Thorndike
BF Skinner
(Schultz & Schultz, 2004)
Wolfgang Kohler & Kurt Koffka
Jean Piaget
Leon Festinger
(Schunk, 2004)
Jerome Bruner
Albert Bandura
Carl Rogers
Lev Vygotsky
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Laws of frequency & recency
Contiguity theory
Law of effect, satisfiers and annoyers
Operant conditioning
(Schultz & Schultz, 2004)
Perception and attention
Cognitive stages of development
Cognitive dissonance
(Schunk, 2004)
Constructivist theory
Social learning theory
Experiential learning
Socio-cultural development
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Key Principles
The study of human behavior should be limited to observable and measurable behavior.
Stimulus-response model of behavior
(Schultz & Schultz, 2004)
The focus of the study of psychology should be the mental events that occur in the individual during information processing.
Stimulus-mental processes-behavior model
(Schunk, 2004)
Meaning is internally constructed and is influenced by experience
Knowledge is situated in the mind and each person constructs his/her own mental representation of that knowledge
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Representations of the learning process
Learning is observed to occur and measured as a change in behavior
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Learning occurs when newly acquired information is related to previously learned information
Learning is the search for meaning
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Assumptions about learning
Learning is formed through a series of repetition and reinforcement
The learner has no control over the learning process, the teacher is the source of all knowledge
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Cognitive process shape learning
Knowledge is organized
Learning involves the formation of mental associations
Humans have the capacity for complex learning
(Schunk, 2004)
Learners can construct their own knowledge without much instruction from the teacher
Learning is facilitated by discovery, experience and modeling
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Factors that influence learning
Number of trials & repetitions
Punishment and rewards
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Previous learning
Prior experiences
Age or readiness
Cognitive processes
(Schunk, 2004)
Quality of learning environment
Social interaction
Intrinsic motivation
Quality of instructional materials
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Role of memory
Memory does not exist, since behavior is elicited as a response to a stimulus
(Schultz & Schultz, 2004)
New information is stored in short-term memory which is then re-encoded to be associated with previous knowledge and will be stored in long-term memory which will also be retrieved at will when the individual is faced with a similar task or problem.
(Schunk, 2004)
The memory is the storehouse of all that has been learned. The learner  uses his/her memory to construct meaning by comparing it to previous experiences.
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
How should instruction be structured
Programmed learning, modular
Structured activities
Provide positive and negative reinforcements
Rote learning
Teacher centered instruction
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Organized and structured learning activities but allow for learner initiative and creativity.
Must be cognitively appropriate
Must be related to real-life examples
(Schunk, 2004)
Unstructured learning activities
Group activities that emphasize social interaction
Hands-on learning
Encouraging discovery
Learner-centered instruction
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)
Learning outcomes
Behavior change
Mastery of overt skills
(Schultz & Schultz, 2004)
Problem solving
Analysis of learned materials
(Schunk, 2004)
Construction of knowledge
Application of learned material or knowledge to novel tasks
Problem solving
(Hergenhahn & Olson, 2004)

Hergenhahn, B. & Olson, M. (2004). An Introduction to Theories of Learning 7th ed. Upper Saddle River: NJ: Pearson, Merrill Prentice-Hall

Schultz, D. & Schultz, S. (2004). Behaviorism: After the founding. In A history of modern psychology  8th ed. (pp. 320-356). Belmont, CA:Wadsworth/Thomson Learning

Schunk, D. (2004). Cognitive learning processes. In Learning theories: An educational perspective 4th ed. (pp. 190-239). Upper Saddle River: NJ: Pearson, Merrill Prentice Hall.


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