Hepatic synthesis of curdling factors II, VII, IX, and X, every bit good as proteins C and S, requires the presence of vitamin K. These coagulating factors are physiologically activated by the add-on of carboxyl groups to identify glutamic acid residues within the proteins ‘ construction. In the procedure, “ active ” vitamin K is oxidatively converted to an “ inactive ” signifier, which is so later re-activated by vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 ( VKORC1 ) . Warfarin competitively inhibits the fractional monetary unit 1 of the multi-unit VKOR composite, therefore consuming functional vitamin K militias and hence reduces synthesis of active curdling factors. However, the anticoagulant consequence of Coumadin is non established until the preexistent factors have been degraded through their natural rhythm. This procedure normally takes 5-7 days.In patients with thromboembolic upset ; warfarin can therefore protracting the clip it takes for blood to coagulum ( Prothrombin Time ) thereby cut downing episodes or hazard of thromboembolism.
How Pharmacokineticss and Pharmacodynamics of Warfarin are altered in different Disease provinces
Warfarin is a racemic mixture of two optically active isomers, the R and S signifiers in approximately equal proportion. The S isomer is five times more powerful than the R isomer. These two isomers are metabolised by different tracts in the liver. Whereas the S isomer is metabolised by the cytochrome P450 ( CYP ) 2C9 enzyme, the R isomer is metabolised by CYP 3A4. The soaking up of Coumadin from the GI piece of land is both rapid and complete ( Breckenridge, 1978 ) . The effectual riddance half life of Coumadin norms about 40 hours and shows considerable interindividual fluctuation ( scope: 20-60 hours ) . Warfarin in the blood is about 99 % edge to plasma proteins ( chiefly albumins ) , and accumulate in the liver where the two isomers are metabolised by the different tracts ( O’Reilly, 1986 ) . Different disease provinces may change warfarin pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic maps, thereby ordering dose accommodation in those conditions.
Thyroid disfunction has been reported to change the temperament of several drugs. [ 13 ] Frequently, the rate of riddance of medicines is depressed in hypothyroid provinces and increased during hyperthyroid provinces. However, the effects of thyroid disfunction on Coumadin pharmacokinetics do non follow this typical form. Stephens et al [ 23 ] reported a instance of a 45-year-old adult female taking Coumadin ( 10 milligram ) daily for a history of perennial deep vena thrombosis and pneumonic intercalation. Two old ages after intervention of thyrotoxicosis with 131I, the patient was admitted to the infirmary with hypothyroidism and a possible pneumonic intercalation. The dose of Coumadin required to accomplish a curative PTR increased to 27.5 milligrams daily. After accomplishing a euthyroid province with levothyroxine, the dose demand of Coumadin returned to 10 milligrams daily.
Vagenakis et al [ 16 ] were the first to depict increased response to warfarin, in a hyperthyroid patient with Grave ‘s disease. The patient showed increased sensitiveness to maintenance warfarin therapy during two episodes of thyrotoxicosis. Warfarin dosing demands returned to baseline when the patient was euthyroid. Self et al [ 17 ] besides described enhanced warfarin response in a patient with thyrotoxicosis.
The liver is the most of import organ for the synthesis of plasma proteins, including plasma curdling factors. Liver disease is well-documented as doing faulty hemostasis, including protraction of the factor II clip ( PT ) . [ 3-7 ] The PT is an first-class marker of liver disfunction. Gallus et Al [ 4 ] studied curdling in 104 hospitalized patients with acute infective hepatitis. Patients with or without liver failure were evaluated individually. A mild curdling defect ( drawn-out PT and decreased degrees of factors V, VII, and X and plasminogen ) was reported in 57 of the 78 patients without liver failure and was non associated with hemorrhage. A terrible curdling defect was reported in all 26 patients with liver failure, and shed blooding occurred in 15 patients ( 10 patients required intervention ) .
Congestive Heart Failure
While farther survey is needed, it appears that some patients with decompensated CHF have an increased reactivity to unwritten decoagulants. [ 6,8,24-33 ] One possible mechanism for this interaction is CHF-induced hepatic congestion. In 1949, Stats and Davison [ 24 ] evaluated the consequence of CHF on dicoumarol. The research workers studied 23 patients with right-sided CHF and 48 control patients. Prothrombin times were evaluated at baseline and on 3 consecutive yearss after a individual 150 milligram dosage of dicoumarol. Consequences of the survey showed a greater protraction of the PT in patients with moderate to severe right ventricular failure as compared with control patients and those with merely mild cardiac disease. Patients with more terrible cardiac disease besides had a more gradual diminution in PT. Liver congestion induced by CHF was mentioned as one likely mechanism for this consequence on dicoumarol. Similar consequences were reported by Killip and Payne [ 25 ] in a reappraisal of the effects of bosom disease on hepatic map.
The efficaciousness and safety of unwritten anticoagulation was evaluated in patients with malignant neoplastic disease ( n = 44 ) and compared with a control population ( n = 64 ) . [ 39 ] The proportion of clip in which INRs were in the mark scope ( 2.0 to 3.0 ) was significantly different ( 42.3 % of patients with malignant neoplastic disease vs 56.9 % controls ; P & lt ; .0001 ) . Among malignant neoplastic disease patients with INR values outside the curative scope, 42 % had high INRs, and 58 % had low INRs. [ 39 ] It was concluded that metastatic liver disease, malnutrition, usage of chemotherapy, or disobedience might be the possible grounds for the important difference. There was no important difference in hemorrhage and perennial thrombotic events between groups. In a retrospective rating of forecasters of major hemorrhage, Landefeld et al [ 11 ] reported that patients with two or more comorbid hazard factors had a about 20-fold increased hazard of shed blooding compared with patients with no comorbid conditions. Co-morbid conditions included malignant neoplastic disease, serious cardiac unwellness, liver disfunction, active nephritic disease, and terrible anaemia.
Although the undermentioned studies are of stray instances, we have included them for completeness. Dietary vitamin K is absorbed from the proximal little bowel. Malabsorption due to diarrhea could do a lack of vitamin K, ensuing in an enhanced response to warfarin. [ 49 ] In one instance, anticoagulation had been maintained within the curative scope ( INR 2.0 to 3.0 ) . After more than 1 hebdomad of diarrhoea due to giardiasis, an INR of 4.6 was reported. The elevated INR was accompanied by a big ecchymosis on the left calf. Further rating of the consequence of diarrhoea on response to warfarin is needed.
Note any important drug-drug and drug-food interactions that must be avoided and the mechanism ( s ) of these
The consequence of co-prescribed drugs on the activity of Coumadin depends on the peculiar enzymatic tract affected. Metronidazole may ensue in important rise in INR because of the suppression of the S isomer via CYP2C9 tract. Drugs interfering with the R isomer ( e.g. dilitazem ) may hold a modest consequence on INR. However, drugs that interfere with the clearance of both isomers like Cordarone ( almog, et al. , 1985 ) may deeply increase INR. If both drugs are administered at the same time, anticoagulant dose need to be adjust base on carefully monitored factor II activity. Hepatic inducers like diphenylhydantoin and some antiepileptic drugs may ensue in decrease in INR if co-prescribed