Patient safety has long been a major concern for health care professionals and its signi?cance has been expanded with the increasing demand for hospital accreditation. Therefore. the research worker will make extra survey to happen out nurses’ sentiment of medicine mistake and their conducive factors on the ( wards at infirmary ) . A cross-sectional survey will be utilised and a sample of 20 ( 20 ) nurses. 10 ( 10 ) from each ward will be chosen. A convenience trying method will be used and informations will be collected with the usage of questionnaires and interviews. In this survey. the positions of the experient nurses refering medicine mistakes will be investigated. Information gathered will be kept confidential by seting watchword on the computing machine and hive awaying all collected informations in a locked draw. Data will farther be analyzed. In add-on. ethical considerations will be highlighted. At the terminal. it is expected that information gathered will be used to happen out nurses’ sentiment of medicine mistake and their conducive factors.
Keywords: medicine mistakes. nurses’ sentiment. lending factors Literature Review Action to better patient safety in wellness attention systems and. in peculiar. to cut down the frequence of serious medicine mistakes. is a major precedence in some member provinces. Mistakes may affect ordering. distributing or disposal of medical specialties. or failure to give proper advice. for illustration. about side effects or cautiousnesss. They occur in primary. secondary and third attention scenes. and frequently occur at the interface between infirmary and primary attention. Presently. the wellness services. particularly nursing services. are endeavoring to accomplish ever-higher degrees of service excellence. taking to supply attention that is free of hazard and injury to patients. Adverse events have been considered of import indexs of quality of wellness service and attention bringing. Although these are unwanted events. they are normally observed in attention pattern and those related to medicine mistakes are themselves frequent. Among patient safety issues such as patient identi?cation. transfusion mistake. falls and self-destruction. medicine safety has been considered as a major index of health-care quality ( Mrayyan. Shishani. and Al-Faouri. 2007 ) .
The literature on medicine mistakes lacks universally recognized definitions of medicine mistakes every bit good as different methods and standards. go forthing us with an uncomplete cognition of the existent rate of medicine mistakes. Medication mistake is defined as any preventable event that may do or take to inappropriate usage of medicines or patient injury ( Bates. 2007 ) . Therefore. as stated above. medicine mistakes can be prevented. Harmonizing to Institute of Medicine ( IOM ) . medicine mistakes injure at least 1. 5 million people and the medical costs of handling medicine mistakes related hurts happening in infirmaries entirely are about 3. 5 billion dollars per twelvemonth ( IOM 2007 ) . The rate of medicine mistakes varies from 2 to 14 % of hospitalized patients. Medication mistakes have been estimated to kill 7000 patients per annum and history for about one in 20 hospital admittances in the USA and the UK ( Tang. Sheu. Yu. Wei. and Chen. 2007 ) .
Sing that medicine mistakes are universally under-reported the incidence rate of medicine mistakes is speculated to be even higher. Harmonizing to ( Sanghera et al. 2007 ) . despite the broad assortment of health-care professionals involved in the full procedure of ordering. transcribing. dispensing and administrating medicine. nurses are more often involved in medicine mistakes than doctors. druggists or other health-care professionals. Administration mistakes are the most common followed by ordering mistakes. In add-on. the most common types of medicine mistakes are wrong medicine prescription. inappropriate medicine usage. incorrect disposal. and skip of disposal ( Pepper and Towsley 2007 ) . These ?ndings suggest that medicine mistakes normally occur during prescription and disposal. During medicine disposal. nurses play a important function in procuring patient safety. Furthermore. it is for merely these grounds that criterions for medicine disposal were developed.
Standards are those actions that guarantee safe nursing pattern. The criterions. in this instance. are called the “rights” of medicine disposal. All medicine mistakes can be linked. in some manner. to an incompatibility in adhering to these “rights” of medicine disposal. The “rights” are taught from early on in nursing instruction and preparation. they are reinforced in the workplace and the FDA. drug companies and healthcare organisations issue marks. postings and plaques that hang in every installation where medicines are given. reminding the suppliers to look into and recheck what they do. Nurses are responsible for look intoing whether a prescription is appropriate and administrating the right medicine. with right dosage. to the right patient through the right path at the right clip ( the five rights ) . Therefore. nursing-related bar schemes should be developed to cut down medicine mistakes ( Crespin. 2010 ) . Furthermore. coverage is of import to developing schemes to forestall and cut down medicine mistakes because the health-care community can larn from errors. Datas obtained from the coverage system provide utile information on the causes of medicine mistakes and of import mechanisms that can be modified.
However. nurses are unwilling to describe medicine mistakes because of the fright of penalty ( Crespin. 2010 ) . In add-on. most infirmaries are loath to uncover incident studies of medicine mistakes because of possible harm to the infirmaries repute. Therefore. it is really hard to obtain utile and accurate informations on medicine mistakes. Additionally. incident study analysis does non clearly indicate out nurses’ sentiments of medicine mistakes. It is besides still unsure as to why nurses defy the five rights and do errors while administrating medicines even though the rule of five rights is emphasized in assorted degrees of nursing instruction. Furthermore. based on the background information it can be understood that the side effects of chemotherapy was good researched. Therefore. a research will be conducted to place the types of medicine mistakes that occur in nursing pattern. the conducive factors for medicine mistakes and the nurses’ sentiments of medicine mistakes and coverage. Definition of Variables
* Independent VariablesMedication Mistake: is any preventable event that may do or take to inappropriate medicine usage or patient injury while the medicine is in the control of the wellness attention professional. patient. or consumer ( Bates. 2007 ) . * Dependent Variables
Nurses’ Opinion: nurses’ position. judgement. or assessment formed in the head about a peculiar affair ( The Free Dictionary. 2011 ) . Lending Factors: A group of state of affairss ( risky conditions and/or actions ) that were bing good before the accident and which were non corrected. Some of these state of affairss may be defects in the organisation. worker. undertaking. minute. topographic point or equipment ( The Free Dictionary. 2011 ) . Research Question
What are nurses’ sentiment of medicine mistake and their conducive factors on the ( wards at infirmary ) ? AimsWhile transporting out this research. the research worker seeks to:* Identify the types of medicine mistakes that occur in nursing pattern * Investigate the conducive factors for medicine mistakes * Find out nurses’ sentiments of medicine mistakes and describing Methodology
Research DesignIn this quantitative research. a cross-sectional design will be utilized. With a cross-sectional survey. it is experimental in nature and are known as descriptive research. Researchers record the information that is present in a population. but they do non pull strings variables. This type of research can be used to depict features that exist in a population. but non to find cause-and-effect relationships between different variables. Additionally. these methods are frequently used to do illations about possible relationships or to garner preliminary informations to back up farther research and experimentation ( Beck. 2009 ) . As such. this will supply equal and relevant information on medicine mistake and their conducive factors. Population and Puting
In transporting out this survey. 20 ( 20 ) nurses from ( infirmary ) . 10 ( 10 ) nurses from each of the undermentioned wards ; ( wards ) will be asked to take part in this research. These participants will be chosen merely from the ( infirmary ) and each participant will be given equal clip to finish the instruments that will be provided. Additionally. confidentiality will be maintained as files will be locked off and files will be kept in unknown booklets on the computing machine which will hold a security watchword. Additionally. the nurses will be interviewed in a room suited to keep privateness. Sample and Sampling Strategy
The sample size will be used in order to obtain sufficient information on the nature of the job under survey. In making so. a non-probability trying which involves convenience sampling will be utilized. Harmonizing to Beck ( 2009 ) . in convenience sampling. the questionnaire is given to whoever happens to be available. The advantage about this sampling technique is that it is convenient. The disadvantage is that perfectly no decisions about the population can be made. Data Collection Measures
Data will be collected with the usage of questionnaires. The questionnaires will be manus delivered to each participant who marks the consent signifier. and there will be ten ( 10 ) inquiries in the signifier of open-ended and closed-ended inquiries. Data Collection Procedures
During this period. participants will be given their questionnaires all at one time. The questionnaires will be manus delivered to the participants for them to finish after the consent signifier is signed. Please note. at the terminal. all informations will be collected by the research worker and non other nurses or wellness attention staff because confidentiality should be maintained. Data Analysis
Since informations will be collected and recorded. it is of import to analyse the information foremost. In making so. the research worker will look at the completed questionnaires so analyze the information utilizing descriptive statistics along with Microsoft Excel. With the usage of descriptive statistics which involve cardinal inclination ( the mean and manner ) . informations will be collected. form. interpret and pass on numeral information ( mean and per centum ) to depict and synthesise the information ( Beck. 2009 ) . Restrictions of the Study
Based on the fact that it is a cross-sectional survey. there can be restrictions because cross-sectional surveies can state that the two are related someway. but they can non positively find if one caused the other. Cross-sectional surveies besides fail on the portion of confusing factors. Extra variables may impact the relationship between the variables of involvement but non impact those variables themselves. Additionally. restrictions can ensue from participants replying. can non reply inquiries affecting past events with perfect truth. giving wrong replies on the instruments or neglecting to return the questionnaires ( Beck. 2009 ) . As such. sufficient informations may non be collected. This either magnifies or minimizes the effects of certain variables. impacting the consequences. Ethical Considerations
Ethical issues are critical in every survey. There are three primary ethical rules in the Belmont Report ; beneficence. regard for human self-respect. and justness. Beneficence refers to maximising to move for the benefit of others. assisting them to foster their of import and legitimate involvements. frequently by forestalling or taking possible injury. Harmonizing to Beck ( 2009 ) . the right to protection from development will reassure participants that information obtained will non be used against them. With the right to protection from injury and uncomfortableness will assist to avoid. and prevent injury to the participants. Respect of human self-respect speaks of the participant’s right to self-government and full revelation. Self-government speaks to participants non be coerced into take parting in research. This is particularly relevant where research workers rely on ‘captive audiences’ for their topics.
Whereas. with the right to full revelation it’s the research worker duty to guarantee that participants to the full understand the subject being studied before accepting to take part ( Beck. 2009 ) . Justice includes the participant’s right to fair intervention and privateness. These two elements are considered relevant since some of the inquiries require participants to show their feelings. Harmonizing to Beck ( 2009 ) . just intervention considers that the choice of survey participants should be based on the research and non on exposure ; while. the right of privateness should be apparent throughout the survey. Privacy. namelessness and assurance should be maintained every bit good. With confidentiality they are assured that placing information will non be made available to anyone who is non straight involved in the survey. The rigorous criterion is the rule of namelessness which basically means that the participant will stay anon. throughout the survey even to the research workers themselves. Clearly. the namelessness criterion is a stronger warrant of privateness.