Aims: the intent of the survey was to measure the factors impacting prevalence of self- medicine patterns utilizing commercial drugs of the Rural Filipino Family including its correlativity and who among them experienced non curative consequence. Methods: This survey was a descriptive cross- sectional inquiry based survey. The survey was conducted in 3 rural. agricultural lands. municipality in three different states wherein 2 municipalities were accomplished around the Region 2 while the staying one was conducted in Cordillera Administrative Region. The 300 respondents’ of the survey was household in a rural community which was indiscriminately selected. A questionnaire was approved by the research protocols and was given to the household and the medical-decision- giver completed the said questionnaire with the aid of the informations assemblage forces. The informations were analyzed utilizing Statistical Package for Social Sciences or SPSS version 13. 0.
Descriptive informations were expressed as per centum. frequence and mean. Pearson- R was utilized in measuring correlativity the factors. Consequences: Almost all of the respondents patterns self-medication 90. 3 % within the household. the respondent’s profile. wherein bulk of them who accomplished the semi- constructed and aided questionnaire were females. preponderantly were female parents. with a average age of 39 old ages. and chiefly of them were atomic type of household composing an mean household members of 5 people. most of them finished a college grade. and most of the household earned a scope of ?1001- ?P5000 with a mean of ?4. 476. and bulk was enrolled in a wellness insurance. the most normally used medicine were paracetamol which rank first followed by Ibuprofen. both commercial drugs falls under the categorization of anodynes and or antipyretic while the 3rd one was amoxicillin an antibiotics. On the facet of the truth of medicine use. paracetamol. Ibuprofen and loperamide were the topmost right used. On the other manus. most of the commercial medicines falsely used were antibiotics wherein Amoxil was the prima medicine that was wrongly used so cotrimoxazole and Keflex. Fever is the most common unwellnesss prompted the household to self- medicate. followed by concern and so cough and colds. The families’ apprehension and conformity to the commercial drugs utilized in self-medication was good. and bulk were cognizant to its indicant but non with the non- curative effects. About perceived their wellness as most of import and their current wellness position were in good term. Most of the household intervened thru self- medicine in times of illness happening instead than go toing wellness installations or utilizing herbal readyings. Majority did non see such non- curative effects. While the minority who experienced non- curative reactions. preponderantly both giddiness and epigastric hurting taking manifestation felt by the household so followed by the happening of roseola or itching and tintinnabulation of ears. Thesurvey revealed that there was a negative correlativity between the prevalence of self-medication with prevalence of inauspicious consequence. Decision: In this survey. the research workers concluded that self-medication is safe pattern of self- attention as the happening of inauspicious consequence is low and negatively correlated to the prevalence of self- medicine. However. the revealed figure of household experient inauspicious consequence as they practiced self- medicine must non be ignored for the public wellness safety will be at hazard and in hazard. Recommendation: There must be farther survey using a standardised assemblage tool to ease more efficient consequence. Then. there must be further survey to be conduct to further measure the community. to increase their cognition about the different inauspicious consequence of such medicine that they take without the counsel of the medical squad. Furthermore. Deductive community intercession turn toing the erroneous use of medicines to diminish the inappropriate use of medicine drugs in self- medicine patterns such as appropriate wellness consciousness. Furthermore. a jurisprudence or regulation must be established to steer the drug retail merchants protect the vulnerable people.
IntroductionBackground of the StudyIn 1960’s. Self-care and self- medicine was regarded as an unneeded and bad pattern while the traditional or paternalistic will be the entirely governing intervention of the patient unwellness and it was regarded as safe and responsible pattern. Furthermore. the paternalistic attack makes the patient unseeable towards his ain health for he will be dependent on his physicians. But. as medical promotion of the medical finds. including engineerings. and development including the sweetening of wellness professions. the paternalistic attack alterations into a patient centered and disease bar wellness theoretical account which self-care and self-medication of nonprescription besides known as over- the – counter drugs was included. approved and advocated ( The Story of Self-medication and Self Medication. 2006 ) . In add-on. self-medication was regarded as an of import pillar of primary wellness attention ( Pushpa. R. . et. Al. 2012 ) and a common health-seeking behaviour ( Yi Wen. F. . et. Al. . 2011 ) . which World Self Medication Industry ( WSMI ) a non-government organisation with World Health Organization ( WHO )affirms stating that self- medicine as a cardinal constituent of self- attention. William Osler one time said “a desire to take medical specialty is possibly the great characteristic which distinguishes adult male from animals” . The quoted word may warrant a individual to take medicine without any advice by appropriate wellness allied such as Doctor. Pharmacist and Nurses this pattern is called Self Medication ( Phalke V. D. . et. Al. . 2003 ) .
This happening of self- medicine patterns was due to assorted factors. These lending factors were perceived of marks and symptoms as minor or mild or it was the same with the old unwellnesss and treated by the same medicines. expensive wellness installation. handiness of Health Care Personnel. fright of the crowd in the clinic. readily handiness and s of medicine without prescription ( Adualem. T. . et. Al. . 2004 ; Verma. R. K. . et. Al. . 2010 ; Worku. S. . et. Al. 2006 ) . A survey showed that self- medicine patterns were wild increasing particularly to economically disadvantaged states wherein most episodes of unwellness are treated through the said pattern ( Geissier. P. W. . et. Al. 2000 ) . Based from the literatures the most common used medicine were runing from anodynes. anti-microbiasl. and anti-pyretics ( Shankar. P. R. . et. Al. . 2002 ; Verma. R. K. . et. Al. . 2010 ; Worku. S. . et. Al. 2006 ; Sweileh. W. M. . et. Al. 2004 ) . While. the most common unwellnesss that prompted to pattern self- medicine were fever. hurting. respiratory infections. GI unwellnesss and tegument diseases ( Worku. S. . et. Al. 2006 ) . Furthermore. a important grounds of blessing to WSMI protagonism in the Philippines is the constitution and development of Botika ng Barangay ( BnB ) in the different communities as a plan of the Department of Health ( DOH ) that sells Bureau of Foods and Drugs ( BFAD ) approved nonprescription medical specialties. Two well-known antibiotics viz. Amoxicillin and Cotrimoxazole. indispensable drugs ( vitamins and minerals ) . medicine for chronic disease such as high blood pressure. diabetes and asthma. doing medicines easy. readily accessible to widespread communities as self-medication is besides included as a primary wellness attention activity. This undertaking end to advance equal wellness services vouching the handiness and handiness of cost effectual and safe drugs particularly to those destitute components as a Presidential Mandate in twelvemonth 2001 of Pharma 50 ( Cuevas. F. . et. . Al. . Public Health Nursing in the Philippines 10th edition 2007. Publications Committee. National League of the Filipino Government Nurses. Incorporated ) . However. batch of surveies showed that a batch of people practising self- medicine were non cognizant to the other effects the drug may give aside from the curative consequence of the medicine. In add-on. a survey found out that people tend to blend two the same indicant of medicine without cognizing it was merely the same. ( Verma. R. . et. Al. . 2010 ) Although practising self- medicine had been advocated and has been reported to hold several benefits it has been associated with many hazards including the deficiency of appropriate direction from doctors. addition hazard of inauspicious drug interaction. drug opposition. misdiagnosed and most distressing is an inadvertent decease ( Al- Azzam. S. I. . et. Al. . 2007 ) . “Lahat ng gamot effectual pero buntis Ka. safe Ba? ” . “Lahat ng gamot effectual. eh walang laman ang tiyan minute. safe Ba? ” –from Paracetamol Commercial The quoted advertizement indicating out that every medicine has its due to self- medicine individual may bury that every medicine a individual takes in has a constituent that might interact with other constituent from other substances such as medicine or nutrients. aside from its curative effects. this drugs may do other effects which may bring forth side effects or even the damaging inauspicious effects which puts a individual at hazard when drugs taken unsuitably. Statement of the Problem
A batch of surveies were done in self- medicine nevertheless at that place no published surveies with respects to self- medicine patterns in a community which focused group or the beginning of informations is household and the factors lending to pattern self- medicine in utilizing commercial drugs of Rural Filipino Family. In general. the intent of the survey is to measure the prevalence of self- medicine in utilizing commercial drugs patterns of the Rural Filipino Family and household who experienced inauspicious consequence.
Specifically. it seeks to reply the undermentioned research inquiry: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in footings of:2. 1. Age2. 2. Sexual activity2. 3. Position in the household2. 4. Type of household2. 5. Number of household members2. 6. Educational attainment2. 7. Socio-economic position2. 8. 1. Estimated monthly gross household income2. 8. Health Insurance2. What is the prevalence of Rural Filipino Family practising self- medicine utilizing commercial drugs in footings of: 3. 9. 2. Normally used medical specialties3. 9. 3. Accuracy of medicine use3. 9. 4. Illnesss that prompted the household to pattern self-medication 3. What is the medicine cognition of the household who pattern self- medicine utilizing commercial drugs which includes the apprehension and conformity of the medicine instructions. consciousness of both drugs indicant and non- curative effects? 4. What is the wellness belief an the experient prior to illness? 5. What are the experient non- curative effects of the household as they pattern self- medicine utilizing commercial drugs taken without prescription? 6. What is the relationship of the conducive factors: 7. 9. 5. Respondents profile ;
7. 9. 6. medicine cognition ;7. 9. 7. wellness belief and experience of anterior unwellness ; 7. 9. 8. and prevalence of experient inauspicious consequence ;with the prevalence of Self- medicine patterns in utilizing commercial drugs of Rural Filipino Family? Significance of StudyThis survey hence will ensue to the sweetening of Nursing Profession sing with the self- medicine patterns of the rural Filipino households by measuring the incidence which will uncover the existent state of affairs of rural Filipino households practising self- medicine. In add-on. through this survey it will unwrap the happening of inauspicious effects experience by the household practising self- medicine which normally unreported. The current survey will non merely add to the current existing of cognition but farther progress the field by discoursing and cognizing the relationship of the factors that impacting the prevalence of self- medicine patterns of the household and understanding these lending factors will take wellness practicians to turn to the job consequently. forestalling the happening of inauspiciouseffects that can put on the line the wellness position of the community people through educational consciousness. Furthermore. research worker believe that trough the survey wellness practician will be cognizant of the weak points of inappropriate use of the over-the- counter drugs which they can set up intercessions to eliminate inappropriate used or rectify the incorrect pattern. Besides it will be used to measure the policies available to command medicine around the state. Related Literature
Socio-Economic Status:Based from the survey made by Andualem. T. ( 2004 ) declaring that the self- medicine occurs in a broad scope of ages around the Earth. which includes pupils runing from high school to third degrees. non- medical or medical pupils. together with professionals. urban or rural community. even breastfeeding female parents and adolescence were seen that prevalence in self- medicine were high ( Almasdy. D. . et. Al. . 2011 ; Boateng. D. P. . et. Al. 2012 ; Banarfee. I. . et. Al. . 2012 ) . In add-on. older grownups ( more than 65 twelvemonth old ) who leaves entirely with low degree of instruction was found more likely to pattern self- medicine than those who were married and with secondary educational attainment or high school grades ( Lam. P. . 2011 ) . In add-on. a survey by Zagreb ( 2001 ) point out that self- medicine in family was a routinely pattern since 1977. Aside from that. adolescence was found that the beginning of drug information was their parents with respect to self- medicine as Allebeck. ( 2005 ) and Llyod ( 2005 ) revealed. Harmonizing a batch of literatures that economically depressed states associate to increase prevalence of self- medicine ( Abay. S. M. . et. Al. 2000 ; ) wherein ordinance of the dispensing of medicine without prescription were rampant. However. a survey says that the more developed the states the more prevalence of self- medicine patterns due to the easy handiness and handiness of medicines. With the cross- sectional survey by Puspa R. . et. Al. ( 2012 ) which aims to cognize the prevalence and forecasters of self- medicine in both rural and urban as sample finds out that rural community clings to such pattern due to unaffordability of the wellness installation but they have a positive blessing with proficient competency of the pharmaceutics staff. While the urban community have penchant that medical specialties should be sold outside the pharmaceutics doing it more accessible. Furthermore. Balamurugan.E. . et. Al. ( 2010 ) survey shows that females and urban people more likely to pattern self- medicine comparison to males and rural community. With the same survey. the most ground they cited was deficiency of clip. perceived minor unwellness and speedy alleviation. With the survey of Landers. T. F. . et. Al. 2010 shows that adult females were likely to self- medicate than the other gender. There was besides a survey stating that the higher the educational acquisition increases the similitude to pattern self- medicine ( Afolabi. O. . et. Al. . 2008 ) . Wherein a survey which compared the medical pupil in first twelvemonth with 3rd twelvemonth degree pupil affirms the above statement wherein they found out that 3rd twelvemonth pupil more likely to pattern self- medicine and this happening was consequence from the related cognition they acquired and go on to derive both in talks and literatures nevertheless the cognition they have was revealed to be inappropriate cognition about proper self- medicine and including the hazard of self- medicine ( Verma. R. K. . et. Al. . 2010 ) . There was besides a survey stating that non holding wellness insurance has a relationship to pattern self- medicine ( Widayati. A. . 20011 ) H1: there is a positive relationship between socio- economic position with the prevalence of self- medicine in the Rural Filipino Family. Medication Knowledge:
World Self Medication Industry ( WSMI ) a non-government organisation holding an official relationship with World Health Organization ( WHO ) says thru their official diary that people are cautious and careful when they use over-the- counter medicine ( OTC’s ) and non prompted to an complete trust as a consequence of advertisement in add-on they claimed that people read labels carefully before taking this non- prescribed medicine. Aside from that. the same organisation commended that the readily handiness and handiness of medicines even without prescription has helped to educate people to pattern self- attention. Therefore. independency towards personal health care develops and there is an increasing demand by consumers for dependable information. Self- medicine is included to the first degree of attention. under bar of unwellness and publicity of wellness. therefore. practising so will take a individual to an optimal health. However. with the survey made by Handu. H. ( 2006 ) showed that the cognition about appropriate self- medicine was hapless. and the survey of Verma. R. ( 2010 ) concludes that even professional pupil have inadequate cognition about the hazard or adverseconsequence the medicine they were taking. With the same consequence was reveled with the survey made by Balamurugan. E. ( 2011 ) wherein bulk of the respondent ( 93 % ) were non cognizant with other effects of self- medicine patterns. While the consequence was found out in the survey of Balbuena. F. . ( 2009 ) were clients diagnosed with high blood pressure were non cognizant to the drug interaction and contraindication of some OTC’s to their wellness position instance for illustration OTC’s like nasal decongestant was so contraindicated to hypertensive for it can do farther vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vass that can worsen high blood force per unit area. In add-on. 68 % of the respondent from the survey of Indermiitte. J. ( 2007 ) were exposed to possible drug interaction between the OTC’s medicine and their prescribed medicines. Aside from that. there was a survey reveals that parents was the beginning of medicine cognition B adolescence were their parents wherein the abuse and misconception of parents towards self- medicine were adopted b their kids ( Allebeck. 2005 ) . Another survey exposed that ( Andualem. T. 2004 ) . even breastfeeding or pregnant female parents pattern self- medicine without an advised of physician wherein their instance were delicate for there were a assorted medicine which can traverse the placenta or the chest milk which can do injury or toward consequence towards the foetal development or baby. A batch of survey unmaskings that. antibiotics used were rampant without an advised by doctors. inappropriate used and non- attachment to the specific dose. length and frequence of the medicine were done. wherein this can take to drug opposition and hazard for happening of inauspicious effects ( Haaijer. 2005 ; Awad. et. Al. . 2005 ; Widayati. 2011 ; Basco. 2004 ) . Sarahroodi ( 2000 ) . disclosed that there is an inappropriate information about analgetic use. H2: Low medicine cognition of rural Filipino household is more likely to pattern self-medication.
Health belief and Experienced of anterior unwellness:Majority of the survey gathered were stating that the most cited common ground of adhering to self- medicine was the sensed marks and symptoms as minor and they experienced it before and were alleviation with the same medicine. However. the marks and symptoms such hurting. febrility. coughs and grippes likewise symptoms which prompted them to self- medicine can be misdiagnosed for these set of marks and symptoms were likewise to themanifestation of major diseases such as malignant neoplastic disease. But. if these marks and symptoms will non be controlled it may take to farther unwellnesss. The WSMI organisation besides says that individual consulted foremost to wellness attention giver when they experienced it for the first clip and if they self- medicated yet the symptoms persisted. H3: wellness belief and experienced anterior unwellness has a positive relationship with prevalence of self- medicine pattern of rural Filipino Family. Theoretical Model
The Self Care Deficit theory of Dorothea Orem includes the theory of ego – attention which “comprises the pattern of activities that fostering and mature individuals initials and performs with in clip frames. on their ain behalf of involvement of keeping life. healthful operation. go oning individual with development and well- being through run intoing known necessities for functional and developmental regulation” . Furthermore. one of her Universal Self Care Requisites says “prevention of jeopardies to human life. human operation and human well-being” . The theory advocates independency of individual to accomplish its ain well- being thru self- attention. Research Paradigm
Lending Factors:* Socio- economic Status* Medication cognition* Health belief and experienced of anterior unwellness* Prevalence of Adverse EffectPrevalence of Self MedicationLending Factors:* Socio- economic Status* Medication cognition* Health belief and experienced of anterior unwellness* Prevalence of Adverse EffectPrevalence of Self MedicationIndependent Variable
MethodsThis survey was a descriptive cross- sectional inquiry based survey. The survey was conducted in 3 rural agricultural lands. municipality of three different states wherein 2 municipalities were accomplished around the part while the staying one was conducted in Cordillera Administrative Region. The 300 respondents of the survey was household in a rural community was indiscriminately selected obtained thru systematic sampling. A semi-constructed questionnaire needed to garner necessary informations was approved by the research protocols. After a courtesy measures done and given permission from municipal city managers and to specific barangay captains to make the survey. the questionnaire was given to the household and their medical-decision- giver as representative of the household completed the said questionnaire with the aid of a research worker. Respondents were assured that all of the gathered informations were treated with extreme confidentiality. The semi-structured questionnaire was given to a member of the household. likely the medical- determination shaper of the household. The questionnaire measured the respondent’s profile which includes the respondents’ age. sex. place in the household. educational attainment. figure of members. estimated gross household monthly income and presence of wellness insurance was collected. The medicine cognition was measured assessed through a semi-structured questionnaire it involved the household cognition about the commercial medicines they used in practising self- medicines in which includes drugs indicant. curative consequence. side effects. inauspicious consequence. contraindication. if they easy understand when to take it including its suggested frequence. The Health belief and experienced prior unwellness was measured through a semi-structured questionnaire to find how the household perceives and manages their wellness. and to measure the conformity with current and past nursing and medical recommendation. Prevalence of Self- medicine Using Commercial Drugs was the per centum that the rural Filipino household practising self –medication utilizing commercial drugs. including the most normally used medicines and the common unwellnesss that prompted the household to pattern self- medicine and it besides assessed the per centum of commercial medicines used. and the medicine use of the household if they used commercial medicine indicant right or non. The informations were analyzed utilizing Statistical Package for Social Sciences or SPSS version 13. 0. Descriptive informations were expressed as per centum. frequence and mean. Pearson-R was utilized in measuring correlativity of the lending factors to the prevalence of self-medication utilizing commercial drugs. Consequences
Table 1: The Respondents ProfileProfile| Frequency| Percent|Age| | |18-27| 75| 25. 0|28- 37| 69| 23. 0|38-47| 65| 21. 7|48-57| 55| 18. 3|58-67| 26| 8. 7|68-77| 8| 2. 7|78-87| 2| . 7|Mean Age= 39 old ages old| | |Sex| | |Male| 83| 27. 7|Female| 217| 72. 3|Position in the family| | |Father| 61| 20. 3|Mother| 181| 60. 3|First Child| 20| 6. 7|Second Child| 13| 4. 3|Third Child| 7| 2. 3|Grandmother| 3| 1. 0|Grandfather| 2| . 7|4th Child| 6| 2. 0|5th Child| 2| . 7|6th Child| 1| . 3|7th Child| 1| . 3|Daughter In Law| 1| . 3|9th Child| 1| . 3|tenth Child| 1| . 3|Type Of Family| |Nuclear| 193| 64. 3|Extended| 106| 35. 3|Number Of Family Members| | |1 – 5| 185| 61. 7|6- 10| 114| 38. 0|11- 15| 1| . 3|Average No. in the Family= 5 ( 5. 14 ) | | |Educational Attainment| | |Elementary Level| 24| 8. 0|Elementary Graduate| 41| 13. 7|High School Level| 50| 16. 7|High School Graduate| 56| 18. 7|Vocational Graduate| 5| 1. 7|College Level| 40| 13. 3|College Graduate| 79| 26. 3|Masters Level| 3| 1. 0|Doctorate Level| 1| . 3|Estimated Gross Monthly Family Income| | |& lt ; ?1000| 55| 18. 3|?1001- ?P5000| 154| 51. 3|?5001- ?10. 000| 43| 14. 3|?10. 001- ?15. 000| 28| 9. 3|?15. 001- ?20. 000| 7| 2. 3|& gt ; ?20000| 13| 4. 3|Mean Gross Monthly Family Income = | ?4. 476. 11| |Member of Health Insurance| | |Member| 199| 66. 3|Non- member| 101| 33. 7|
Table 1 shows the respondent’s profile. wherein bulk of them who accomplished the semi- constructed and aided questionnaire were females. preponderantly were female parents. with a average age of 39 old ages. and chiefly of them were atomic type of household composing an mean household members of 5 people. In the facet of educational attainment. most of them finished a college grade. and most of the household earned a scope of ?1001- ?P5000 with a mean estimated gross monthly household income amounting of ?4. 476. 11. And bulk was enrolled in a wellness insurance. Table 2. Prevalence of RuralFilipino Family Practicing Self-Medication Using Commercial Drugs Prevalence| Frequency| Percentage|
Practicing Self- Medication| 271| 90. 3|Not practicing| 29| 9. 7|Total| 300| 100. 0|
Table 2 reveals the prevalence of rural Filipino household practising self-medication utilizing commercial drugs. And found out that about of them patterns Self- medicine utilizing commercial drugs due to it easy handiness and readily handiness in the community as grounds by Pharmaceutical constitution including the DOH plan instituted Botika ng Barangay to turn to equity of wellness service to its components were around the community.
Table 3. Frequency of Commonly Used Commercial Medications and Accuracy of Commercial Medication Usage Classification| Wrong Usage| Correct Usage| Total|Analgesics/antipyretic| f| % | Rank| f| % | Rank| f| % | Rank| Paracetamol| 34| 11. 3| 5| 235| 78. 3| 1| 269| 89. 7| 1| Aspirin| 1| . 3| 23| 7| 2. 3| 19| 8| 2. 7| 25|Mefenamic acid| 25| 8. 3| 8| 26| 8. 7| 11| 51| 17. 0| 13| Ibuprofen| 21| 7. 0| 9| 169| 56. 3| 2| 190| 63. 3| 2| Diclofenac| 29| 9. 7| 7| 114| 38. 0| 5| 143| 47. 7| 6| Naproxen| 9| 3. 0| 15| 52| 17. 3| 6| 61| 20. 3| 12|
Antacids/anti ulcers| |AlMg| 30| 10. 0| 6| 52| 17. 3| 6| 82| 27. 3| 9|Ranitidine| 2| . 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2| . 7| 27|Anti-asthma| |Salbutamol| 25| 8. 3| 8| 52| 17. 3| 12| 77| 25. 7| 10| Antibiotic| |Penicillin| 5| 1. 7| 19| 5| 1. 7| 21| 10| 3. 3| 23|Ampicillin| 2| . 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2| . 7| 27|Cloxacillin| 1| . 3| 23| 12| 4. 0| 16| 13| 4. 3| 22|Chloramphenicol| 1| . 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 28|Amoxicillin| 70| 23. 3| 1| 115| 38. 3| 4| 185| 61. 7| 3| Cotrimoxazole| 54| 18. 0| 2| 30| 10. 0| 10| 84| 28. 0| 8| Cefalexin| 40| 13. 3| 3| 51| 17. 0| 7| 91| 30. 3| 7| Metronidazole| 15| 5. 0| 12| 10| 3. 3| 17| 25| 8. 3| 19| Erythromycin| 8| 2. 7| 16| 13| 4. 3| 15| 21| 7. 0| 20| Antihistamine| |
Diphenhydramine| 7| 2. 3| 17| 32| 10. 7| 9| 39| 13. 0| 16| Chlorphenamine| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| | 1| . 3| 28|Anti-emetic| |Metoclopramide| 4| 1. 3| 20| 5| 1. 7| 21| 9| 3. 0| 24| Anti-hypertensive| |Metoprolol| 1| . 3| 23| 25| 8. 3| 22| 26| 8. 7| 18|Amlodipine| 0| 0| | 8| 2. 7| | 8| 2. 7| 26|Anti-malarial| |chloroquine| 1| . 3| 23| 0| 0| 22| 1| . 3| 28|Anti-motility| |Loperamide| 16| 5. 3| 11| 161| 53. 7| 3| 177| 59. 0| 4| Anti-spasmodic| |Dicycloverine| 19| 6. 3| 10| 13| 4. 3| 15| 32| 10. 7| 17| HNBB| 19| 6. 3| 10| 23| 7. 7| 13| 42| 14. 0| 15|Anti-vertigo| |Cinnarizine| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 22| 1| . 3| 28|Bonamine| 1| . 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 28|Corticosteroid| |Costicosteroids| 2| . 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2| . 7| 27|Prednisone| 6| 2| 18| 0| 0| | 6| 2| 26|Dexamethasone| 2| . 7| 22| 0| 0| | 2| . 7| 27|Cough and colds preparation| |PPA| 54| 18| 2| 30| 10| 10| 84| 72| 8|Decolgen| 1| . 3| 23| 1| . 3| 22| 2| . 7| 27|Bioflu| 11| 3. 7| 14| 7| 2. 3| 19| 18| 6. 0| 21|Tuseran | 1| . 3| 23| 1| . 3| 22| 2| . 7| 27|Robitussin G. | 1| . 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 28|Carbocisteine| 38| 12. 7| 4| 14| 38| 14| 152| 50. 7| 5| Ambroxol |1| . 3| 23| 1| . 3| 22| 2| . 7| 27|Laxatives| |Bisacodyl | 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 22| 1| . 3| 28|Dulcolax| 3| 1| 20| 6| 2| 20| 9| 3| 27|Others| |Contraceptive pills| 6| 2| 19| 39| 13| 8| 45| 15| 14| Kidney care| 1| . 3| 23| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 28|Chinese pills| 13| 4. 3| 13| 0| 0| | 13| 4. 3| 22|Salonpas| 0| 0| | 1| . 3| 22| 1| . 3| 28|
Table 3 represents the Frequency of Commonly Used Commercial Medications and the Accuracy of Commercial Medication Usage wherein the most normally used medicine were paracetamol which rank first followed by Ibuprofen. both commercial drugs falls under the categorization of anodynes and or antipyretic while the 3rd one was amoxicillin an antibiotics. On the facet of the truth of medicine use. paracetamol. Ibuprofen and loperamide were the topmost right used. On the other manus. most of the commercial medicines falsely used were antibiotics wherein Amoxil was the prima medicine that was wrongly used so cotrimoxazole and Keflex. The antipyretic/ anodynes categorization leads due to its indicants were for the common and simple symptoms aside from its rampant handiness in the community for this commercial drugs were enlisted to the approved over- the – counter drugs or besides preferred as non- prescription medicines. However. the most wrong usage medicine were antibiotics due to the fact that this category of drugs demands an advice and counsel of medical squad on its proper use. Table 4. Common Illnesses that prompted the household to pattern self-medication Illnesses| Frequency| Percent| Rank|
Fever| 244| 81. 3| 1|Stomach ache| 163| 54. 3| 6|Diarrhea| 177| 59. 0| 5|Cough and Colds| 213| 71. 0| 3|Toothache| 37| 12. 3| 14|Dysmenorrhea| 150| 16. 7| 12|Difficulty/painful urination| 52| 17. 3| 11|Blurring of vision| 81| 27. 0| 8|Vomiting | 40| 13. 3| 13|Headache| 220| 73. 3| 2|Body malaise| 189| 63. 0| 4|Dizziness| 57| 19. 0| 10|Skin Disease| 122| 40. 7| 7|Constipation| 22| 7. 3| 15|Trouble in sleeping| 11| 3. 7| 17|Nape pain| 21| 7. 0| 16|Wounds| 5| 1. 7| 18|Body pain| 80| 26. 7| 9|Joint pain| 1| . 3| 20|Malarial s/sx| 2| . 7| 19|
Table 4 indicates the common unwellnesss prompted the household to self- medicate. in which febrility was the chief unwellness. followed by concern and cough and colds. These unwellnesss were perceived by the household as a minor and common unwellness happening which primary attention as self-medications can relieve it consequently.
Table 5: Medicine Knowledge in Using Commercial Drugs in Practicing Self- Medication Understanding and Compliance to Medication Instructions| Frequency| Percentage| Excellent ( 5 ) | 24| 8. 9|
Very Good ( 4-4. 9 ) Good ( 3-3. 9 ) Fair ( 2-2. 9 ) Poor ( 1-1. 9 ) Entire Mean =3. 54| 76109567271| 2839. 920. 72. 5100. 0| Indication of Commercial Medications| | |AwareNot AwareTotal | 3268271| 1. 198. 9100. 0|Non- Therapeutic Effects of Commercial Medications| | |AwareNot AwareTotal | 105166271| 3961100. 0|
The tabular array 5 represents the household medicine cognition in utilizing commercial medicine it involves the apprehension of the medicine and conformity to the instructions in which bulk of them have a good apprehension andconformity. In facet of consciousness to the commercial drugs indication most of them knows about the usage of such commercial drugs in practising self- medicine on the contrary the non- consciousness of the no curative effects of commercial drugs were prevailing as the survey revealed.
Table 6: Health Belief and Experience Prior to IllnessImportance of Health | Frequency| Percentage|Most Important| 225| 75|Very importantImportantFairly importantNot important| 502311| 16. 77. 7. 3. 3| Total| 300| 100. 0|Perceived Status of their Health| | |Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor Total | 4610114490300| 15. 333. 748. 03. 00100. 0| Interventions done in instance of Illness occurrence| | |Immediate medical attentionPractices Self- medicationPrepare for Herbal decoctions| 7818636| 266212| Total| 300| 100|
Table 6 discloses the wellness belief and experience prior to illness. wherein bulk perceived wellness as the most of import in their household and for the most their wellness was is good facet. Furthermore. in times that a member in the household got badly most of them intervened thru self- medicine utilizing commercially drugs instead traveling in wellness installations or use of available herbal decoctions or other herbal readyings.
Table 7: Prevalence of Rural Family Experienced Non- Therapeutic Effects Prevalence| Frequency| Percentage|Experienced non- curative effects| 127| 42. 3|None| 173| 57. 7|Total| 300| 100. 0|
Table 7 nowadayss those childs who experienced non- curative reactions.
Table 8. Experienced Non- Therapeutic Effect Manifestations Manifestation| Frequency| Percent| Rank|Dizziness | 27| 9. 0| 1|Epigastric Pain| 27| 9. 0| 1|Rash Or Itchiness | 21| 7. 0| 2|Ringing Of Ears| 20| 6. 7| 3|Persistent Headache| 19| 6. 3| 4|Palpitation | 15| 5. 0| 5|Trouble Of Breathing| 14| 4. 7| 6|Nausea| 11| 3. 7| 7|Chest Tightness| 11| 3. 7| 7|Vomiting| 7| 2. 3| 8|Trouble Of Sleeping| 6| 2. 0| 9|Constipation| 4| 1. 3| 10|Throat Dryness| 4| 1. 3| 10|Diarrhea| 3| 1. 0| 11|Scanty Urination| 2| . 7| 12|Irritability| 2| . 7| 12|Nervousness| 1| . 3| 13|Body Weakness| 1| 3| 13|Vaginal Dryness| 1| 3| 13|
Table 8 shows the list of experient non- curative effects manifested by the childs who experience such happening. wherein both giddiness and epigastric hurting were experienced by the household. followed by the happening of roseola or itching and tintinnabulation of ears.
Table 9. Correlation of the Contributing Factors in the Prevalence of Self- Medication Practices of Rural Filipino Family Factors| Descriptive Value| Pearson r|Prevalence of inauspicious effect| Yes- 2No -1| – . 235**|Economic Status| & lt ; ?1000 – 1 |?1001- ?5000- 2|?5001- ?10. 000- 3|?10. 001- ?15000- 4|?15. 001- ?20. 000- 5|& gt ; ?20000- 6|| – . 055|Medication knowledge| & gt ; 21 – Always & lt ; 21-Never| – . 037| Value of health| 5- highest1- lowest| – . 069|Extent of Self medication| Always- 5Ofteb-4Sometimes- 3Rarely-2Never-1| – . 105|
Table 8 discloses the correlativity of the lending factors in the prevalence of self- medicine in a rural Filipino household. Wherein there was a negative correlativity between the prevalence of self-medication with prevalence of inauspicious consequence. This means that the more rural people pattern self-medication due to the lesser the prevalence of inauspicious consequence. This farther connotes that the self- medicine normally practiced by rural folks is effectual since there are less prevalence of inauspicious consequence they experience from self-medication.
Self- medicine patterns is an indispensable constituent primary wellness attention as the World Health Organization with World Self- medicine Industry revealed. Furthermore. the said pattern promotes self- finding or independency in pull offing ones’ wellness. Aside from that a qualitative survey about self- medicine in a community among sellers in China founds out that self- medicine is an of import and common seeking behaviour ( Wen. Y. 2011 ) . The same survey besides showed that the importance comprehending the manifestation felt will place the wellness seeking behaviour of a client. Which means the sensed badness or the expectedness of the felt manifestation will be the footing in how they will turn to such symptoms. In add-on. if the felt symptoms was experienced before the higher the incidence of practising self- medicine. However if they felt it for the first clip they tend to confer with wellness practician and be given to make the same if they confuse of what will be given as a redress or the manifestation is declining. Therefore. self- medicine was earned through a anterior experience of unwellness and after a audience to a physician ( Verma. 2010 ) . Aside from that. medicines used by self- medicine consumers were been utilised and expeditiously treated them.
In the survey of Hussain ( 2010 ) which aims to measure the prevalence of self- medicine in developing states in which he cited that a physician caters about a 1000 populations therefore diminishing its valuable clip to wellness educate clients. Therefore. self- medicine was regarded as cost effectual. clip salvaging and of import particularly to in exigency instances for wellness units may non available or within range for audience. Self-medication found to be clip salvaging. economical. convenient and supplying speedy alleviation in common unwellnesss ( Handu. H. S. et. Al 2006 ) . Furthermore. the WHO regards self- medicine as an effectual manner to spread out the wellness budget to a larger population due to the nest eggs they will stay if responsible self- medicine established Harmonizing to survey conducted by James. Henry et. Al ( Med Princ Pract 2006 ) and Harmonizing to a world-wide reappraisal of consumer studies in different states shows that mild unwellnesss. cognition. experienced with the drugs normally used and common pattern significantly increase the pattern of self-medication. It is besides supported by the survey of Abay. S. conducted in GCMHS ( Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences ) and Ethiop J. ( Health dev 2003 ) shows that anterior experience. non-seriousness of the unwellness and handiness of medicine to pharmaceutics or drug stores were associated to increase self-medication. Landers ( 2004 ) said that sociocultural belief greatly affects the behaviour of self- medicine patterns.
The survey illustrates a high prevalence of self- medicine alike to the old surveies done in different population in the community in either developing or developed states. As prospective survey of Andualem which assesses self- medicine patterns in Addis Ababa concluded that self- medicine is widely pattern by different population for broad spread of unwellnesss. A batch of surveies made by James. H. et. Al. Handu. H. . et. Al. . Abay. S. . et. Al. . Ethiop J. . et. Al. . Worku. S. et. Al. . revealed that the addition in self-medication was due to a figure of factors.
These included socioeconomic factors. readily entree to drugs. and the increased potency to pull off certain unwellnesss through self-care. It was found in this survey that its prevalence is affected by common unwellnesss experienced. old experienced with the drugs. handiness of the drugs. acquired cognition about the medicines. cost of health care. socio-economic position andwidespread of self-medication patterns. Since most of the surveies conducted shows that these factors affects the prevalence of self-medication. Harmonizing to a world-wide reappraisal of consumer studies in different states ( 1995-2005 ) that self-medication patterns is associated with old experienced of the unwellnesss and the drugs. Like the survey of Abay. S. conducted in GCMHS and Ethiop J shows that anterior experience. non-seriousness of the unwellness and handiness of medicine to pharmaceutics or drug stores were associated to pattern self-medication and it is besides supported by the survey. Furthermore. this survey showed that the estimated household income per month was amounting ?4. 476. 11 which is comparatively little to supply a well life and non plenty particularly in times of unwellness to confer with for medical attending. therefore uses of otc’s which were wild available to the community wherein Botika ng Barangay sells lesser cost drugs to supply the fringy components of the state. On the other manus. the present survey is consistent to old surveies exposing the usual commercial medicines use to pattern self- medicine ( Hussain. S. . et. Al. . 2011 Balbuena. F. 2009. Dagan et. Al. . 2008 ; Kardas et. Al. . 2007 ; Larson. 2007 ; Handu. H. S. et. . Al. . 2006 ; Llyod. E. A. et. . Al. . 2005 ) . This current survey shows that antibiotics are included to the topmost drugs used in the self- medicine pattern of rural Filipino households fiting to the survey done by Berzanskyte ( 2006 ) which revealed that antibiotic usage was higher to the rural instead than the urban this was associated to the high handiness of the said drug around the community. However. even antibiotics are wild use in this survey. antibiotics rank foremost in medicine which are wrongly used for the misconception off the proper use of antibiotics wherein the thru this survey revealed that antibiotic was used to any sort of unwellness felt by the household. Furthermore. some of them utilizing unwritten antibiotics oppressing it and seting to the affected country as a topical intervention particularly in the incidence of lesions or allergic blisters. This happening go on due to the low degree of medicine designation of antibiotics wherein the right designation is an of import constituent to Medication Management Capacity ( MMC ) . MMC is the ability to self-administer the medicine regimen. and the low MMC was correlated to hapless attachment to the regimen or non- conformity on its indicated continuance of taking of such drug. this is harmonizing to analyze done by Landers. T. F. . et. . Al. . 2009 whichsupported by the survey made by Sweileh. W. ( 2004 ) that merely 1/3 of curative dosage is merely given increasing the happening of non- conformity. The same survey added that a high antibiotic use the lower they recognized non- antibiotic drugs for even diagnostic unwellness was aided with antibiotics instead than medicines that addresses the symptoms straight. presence of misconception between use of antibiotics to handle viral unwellnesss and the survey showed that the chief beginning of the antibiotics were the left overs of prescribed medicines.
Furthermore. this survey showed that the fresh antibiotics from their past unwellness were utilized. A survey says that there is deficiency of right information about appropriate usage of antibiotic including its side effects and sited that the failure of wellness practicians to supply wellness instruction has been associated to the high hazard of utilizing left over antibiotics. A batch of surveies done suggested wellness instruction to the population may diminish inappropriate use of antibiotics but a community intercession survey by Mainous. A. . et. . Al. . 2009 says that instruction is non plenty to forestall erroneous self- medicine of antibiotics while Landers. T. F. ( 2009 ) added that sociocultural must be considered to analyse antibiotic use form. Even though bulk of the respondents has a good apprehension to the medicine used in self- medicine an updated cognition must be given besides for alterations and new inventions occurs as promotion of engineering and legion evidenced researches were being published to rectify old cognition we have presents. On the other manus. this survey besides reveals that medicine usage to pattern self- medicine does non merely involved over- the counter or OTC’s but besides drugs necessitating of prescription before a individual can buy. Thus hapless ordinances of medicines occur around a rural community. Including those non approved medicine was present in the community in which the confidence of safety from this drug is in uncertainty. Furthermore. a batch of medicine that necessitating a counsel of wellness practicians are wild utilised wherein drugs such corticoids a hormonal drugs if usage inappropriately causes nephritic and liver disfunction wherein they mistaken it as vitamins for the side effects are increase appetency and H2O keeping so weight addition happen. These state of affairss were dismaying that necessitating to be address to guarantee public safety. The table 4 of the present survey complement to the normally used medicines as presented to the tabular array 3. this besidesaffirms the surveies made by Ali. A. N. ( 2012 ) ; Alsmasdy. D. ( 2011 ) . Hussain. S. ( 2011 ) . Balbuena. F. R. ( 2009 ) . Berzanskyte. A. ( 2006 ) and many more. This means that the topmost symptoms are really common and it is the initial manifestation of unwellnesss. Wherein the qualitative survey of Wen. Y. et. . Al. . ( 2011 ) it’s a usual activity to execute symptom- based self – rating. it’s the sensed apprehension of the disease they sing so the consequence of it will be the determiners of whether to self- medicate or non. A survey by Tenaw. A. . et. . Al. . 2004 aims to measure self- medicine patterns tells that aside from stating specific trade name or generic name in geting drugs for self- medicine they described their symptoms to the individual who accommodate as they buy medicines.
Alike with the old surveies done. this survey agrees that bulk practising self- medicine utilizing the commercial drugs can non recognized of aware of the non- curative effects of medicine being used. The happening of such non- curative effects may due to the inappropriate use of medicines and strangeness of the other effects instead than the curative consequence of medicines taken. Furthermore the low ability of to self- administer the medicine regimen besides called Medication direction Capacity ( MMC ) as the survey of Landers. T. F. . et. . Al. . 2009 explained. Aside from that. a self- medicine consumers request drugs for self- medicine by depicting its physical visual aspect or characteristic as the survey of Tenaw. A. . et. . Al. . ( 2004 ) declared.
This may lend the hazard of medicine confusion and a mark of wrongness that can take to mistakes. This tabular array exposes that there are household who experienced non- curative effects nevertheless non significantly high but the presence of it is still need to turn to for public safe. These manifestations can take a individual to lasting harm and at hazard to injury such as hear loss. bleeding and anaphylactic daze or else decease ( Davis. F. A. 2008. Drugs Guide. ) In add-on the experience inauspicious effects may change from a individual to other.
In the survey conducted by R. Verma. L. Mohan. and M. Pandey. it is stated that the old experience and with mild unwellness were more likely topattern self- medicine. It implies that self-medication is predominating in connexion to their past experience of such unwellness with a lesser inauspicious effects from the drugs they took. Haider and Thaver stated that good yesteryear experience with the medical specialty was the chief ground for self-medication. Furthermore. consumer information is an utmost of import constituent of responsible self-medication hence consumer information and function of proper labeling was officially approved and released. Role of labeling provides all the information for an person without medical preparation to utilize the medical specialty suitably ( WSMI. 2010 the Story of Self Mediation ) .
Harmonizing to International Pharmaceutical Federation ( FIP ) . safe medicine is safe with corresponding demands that medical specialties used are of proved safety. quality and efficaciousness and medical specialties used are those indicated for conditions that are self-recognizable and for some chronic or perennial conditions. As the World self- medicine Industry revealed that such medical specialties should be supported by information which includes the method of use. its effects and possible side-effects. how to supervise the effects. possible interactions. safeguards and warnings. continuance of usage. and when to seek professional advice. Self-medication is safe since it empowers patients to handle or forestall short term or chronic unwellnesss as affirmed by the Communication of the European Commission. this suggests that with self-medication patients tend to go more responsible with their wellness conditions therefore familiarising more their symptoms and its corresponding medicines. It was reported that self-medication is safely used with the findings that people suffer common wellness jobs and their symptoms at approximately the same frequence. people tend to read the label wholly before taking a nonprescription medical specialty the first clip. and people are overpoweringly satisfied with self-medication or taking over-the-counter medical specialties believing that it is merely effectual as prescribed medical specialties.
As stated. responsible self-medication with nonprescription medical specialties is progressively being recognized as the first line of intervention and as a foundation of public wellness and health care systems therefore actuating people to set about other positive wellness attention behaviours thereby forestalling future diseases. Over-the-counter drugs are proven safe and effectual with medicalintercession supported by legion and still uninterrupted researches and monitored by drug ordinance.
In this survey. the research workers concluded that self-medication is still a safe pattern of self- attention as the happening of non- curative effects are low and negatively correlated to the prevalence of self- medicine. May be due to the fact that households tend to utilize over the counter medicines they normally use and uses the common medicines for the common unwellnesss they felt. However. the revealed figure of household experient inauspicious consequence as they practiced self- medicine must non be ignored for the public wellness safety will be at hazard and in hazard. Particularly that the medicine used without prescription scopes from non merely to approved nonprescription drugs ( otc’s ) but the survey had showed legion drug which need doctors order before taking such medicines. This can farther put on the line vulnerable people of the community to happening of non- curative effects in which can be a damaging if non attended consequently. Use of antibiotics should be with prescription to avoid bacterial opposition. and so with corticoids that affects kidney and liver if taken unsuitably ( David Drug Guide. 2008 ) . Furthermore. the survey presented the ingestion of Chinese pills bought in the non- pharmaceutical country in which these pills incorporating creosote. a constituent in which is possible carcinogenic and it may harm our organic structure ( Mediscape ) . Furthermore. the said pills was non included to the sanctioned medicine of the state therefore its safety is non guaranteed.
The researchers’ suggest the followers:1. There must be farther survey using a standardised assemblage tool to ease more efficient consequence. 2. There must be further survey to be conduct to further measure the community. to increase their cognition about the different inauspicious consequence of such medicine that they take without the counsel of the medical squad. 3. Deductive community intercession turn toing the erroneous use of medicines to diminish the inappropriate use ofmedicine drugs in self- medicine patterns such as an appropriate wellness consciousness. 4. An regulation should be available to steer or modulate pharmaceutical or Botika ng Barangay. There should be rigorous checking of the Sari-sari shop who’s selling antibiotics without licensed. Appropriate action should be imposed to those who violate such jurisprudence.
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Appendix A: Related Literature MatrixBIBLIOGRAPHY| MAJOR OBJECTIVES| VARIABLES| METHODS| MAJOR FINDINGS| Abahussain. E. . et. . Al. . 2005. : Self-Reported Medication Use amongAdolescents in Kuwait. Medicine Principles and PracticeMed. Princ Pract 2005 ; 14:161–164 DOI: 10. 1159/000084633| The aims of this survey were to depict and analyze the form of medicine usage. including age and gender differences among striplings in Kuwait. and to set up the beginnings of information on medical specialties in this age group. | Age GenderNationalityEducation level| Method specified in the survey: Cross sectional surveyParticipants/ topic: Secondary school pupils in 10 authorities schools in Kuwait. Venue: KuwaitData Gathering Tool: questionnaire Data Analysis: Chi-squared test| The prevalence of self-medication among the high school pupils was 92 % . The prevalence increased by age from 87 % among 14-yearolds to 95 % among 18-year-olds. Sixty-fi ve per centum of medical specialties used were for hurting alleviation. 54 % for respiratory conditions. 39 % for allergic conditions. and 37 % for dermatological conditions. Twenty-two per centum of medicineswere nutritionary addendums and vitamins. 21 % GI merchandises. 17 % antidandruff merchandises. 15 % hair merchandises. 13 % for megrim while 8 % were for athlete’s pes. Pain alleviation. respiratory. dermatologic and hair merchandises were more prevailing in female striplings than in male while antidandruff and athlete’s pes readyings were used more by male striplings. The most common beginnings of information on medical specialties were parents. The prevalence of self-medication among striplings in Kuwait has been shown to be high. Self-medication usage tended to increase with age and differed between maleand female pupils. Few striplings consult druggists on drug information. This issue needs to be addressed by the responsible governments in Kuwait. | Afolabi. O. . 2008. Factors Influencing the Pattern of self-medication in an grownup Nigerian population. Annalss of African Medicine Vol. 7. 120-127. | To find the major factors that influences the form of self-medication in a population of market adult females in Ifako-Ijaiye country of Lagos. Nigeria. | Self-medicationNigerian populationMarket women| Method specified in the survey: Pretested semi-structured questionnaireLocale: Pen Cinema country of Agege. Lagos StateParticipants/Subjects: Market adult females within the local authorities. 205 market womenData Gathering used: Multi-stage sampling techniqueData Analysis used: Statistical bundle for societal scientific disciplines ( SPSS version 12