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Nutrition and Food Choices

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1. Know the principles of healthy eating for children and young people 1. 1 Outline the nutritional requirement of a healthy diet for children and young people Childhood and adolescence are periods of rapid physical, social, cognitive and behaviour change. Optimal nutrition during childhood and adolescence is essential for the maintenance of growth and good health. The dietary requirements of children and young people are different to those of adults and are constantly changing as individuals grow and develop. Establishing good nutrition and physical activity patterns in childhood contributes to good health throughout life.

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The values, habits and behaviours developed during this period often influence behaviours in adulthood. There is evidence that health during childhood and adolescence impacts on health during adulthood. Children should not exceed the recommended calorie intake per day; however, it is not always possible in a setting to maintain this as you do not know what children are eating at home, before or after they attend nursery. Guidelines for calorie intake Age (years)Calories per day BoysGirls 1-3 1,2301,165 4-6 1,7151,545 7-10 1,9701,740 11-14 2,2201,845 15-18 2,7552,110 Children also have recommended percentages of food types.

Oils and fats 6% High protein 11% Milk and dairy products 17% Fruit and vegetables 33% Potatoes and cereals 33% Maintaining a healthy diet for children is imperative. It has been proven that children’s concentration in school is affected should they skip breakfast and that a sugar high from too many sweet things can also cause a ‘crash’ leaving children lethargic. 1. 2 Describe examples of healthy meals and snacks for children and young people Breakfast Banana-Cinnamon French Toast Smoothie Banana-Nut Muffins Toasted Egg Smiles Cereal Muffin Egg Sandwich Whole Wheat Pancakes Apple Raisin French Toast

Breakfast Muffins Fruit Pizza Blueberry Crepes with Maple Cream Yoghurt Peanut Butter Banana Snacks: Vegetable-Based Snacks Carrot sticks and hummus Veggie tray with hummus or homemade ranch dressing Ants on a log – celery filled with peanut butter and topped with raisins Guacamole and corn chips or pita chips Fruit-Based Snacks Fruit eaten alone is one of the easiest snacks around! Apple Apple chips Dried fruit Fruit and cheese tray Bread, Tortillas, Muffins and Bars Granola bars High Protein Snacks Nuts (a handful of nuts is an excellent source of protein and healthy fat. Lightly toast them for added flavour).

Trail mix – toss your favourite fruits and nuts together for a tasty treat. Yoghurt Sweet Snacks Fruited yogurt Mini-Apple pies Oatmeal cookies Breakfast Cookies Lunch Tinned sardine bagel Tomato Kiwi Bottle of water Egg and tomato roll Two oatcakes and low-fat cheese Carrot sticks Dried apricots Semi-skimmed milk Potato and sausage salad (with spring onion, pine nuts and low-fat plain yogurt) Fruit and low-fat fromage frais Slices of fruit bread Pear Bottle of water Corned beef sandwich on wholemeal bread Low-fat soft cheese with vegetable dippers (cucumber sticks, red and green pepper strips) Banana Yoghurt drink

Wholemeal English muffin pizza (with cheese, cherry tomatoes and spinach) Nectarine Banana and blueberry smoothie (made with semi-skimmed milk) Tuna and crunch salad sandwich Chicken tomato and lettuce salad bagel Muffin pizza with green salad Dinner Chicken and pepper stir fry Roasted vegetable pasta Lamb chops with new potatoes and vegetables Spicy vegetarian curry Sweet potato shepherds pie Fish fillet with cherry tomatoes and veg Chicken, tomato and courgette kebabs Roast chicken and veg Salmon fishcakes with carrots and peas Sausage tomato and pumpkin bake Chicken and vegetable noodles Homemade fish fingers with beans and potato wedges

Sizzling beef and tasty greens 1. 3 Describe how culture, religion and health conditions impact on food choices Humans interact with each other through culture in socially constructed systems. Culture forms the medium through which these interactions are organized. Some communities consider it a taboo to consume certain foods not giving consideration to nutritional value though vital in the health of the individual. Research shows a very close link between cultural backgrounds and food choices. Food passes great importance in expressing the cultural values of certain groups of people or communities.

Most of the discussions of food choices either organic, local or vegetarian as well food related diseases such as obesity, diabetes and various eating disorders give evidence of the complex relationship between food, physiological factors and social values. Cultural influences lead to the difference the habitual consumption of certain foods. These habits tend to be fully formed in an individual; however, some of them can be narrowed down to the eating habits of the ancestors that have being adapted from generation to generation. In some African communities, women are forbidden to eat some food type such as chicken.

Nevertheless these cultural influences are amenable to change. Such that, when moving to a new country, individuals often adapt particular food habits of the local culture. Religion prohibits eating of some foods either completely or partially and also regulates how certain foods are prepared. For example; Muslims are prohibited from eating pork or pig products as it is considered unclean. Other religions prohibit eating of any meat so that they do not kill or shed blood of any animal. Such religious regulations have serious consequences on the nutritional elements and the health of the followers.

There also religious observations like fasting where one goes without solid food or any fluid intake. Distinct religions have different ideology about diet. For instance many Buddhists are vegetarians, though some include fish in their diet, Hindus do not consume any food they believe might slow down spiritual or physical growth such as pork but they do not prohibit meat. Cultural beliefs can also affect the way food is cooked. For instance, the Rastafarianism members are permitted to eat any food that is it-al food, that is food that is cooked only slightly. . Know the benefits of healthy eating 2. 1 Describe the benefits of healthy eating for children and young people Healthy eating is the right choice for everyone. There are many benefits to the body when people eat healthy. The 3 benefits that point out are keeping a healthy weight, preventing health problems and acquiring more energy. Even though there are people who think there are no health risks when they avoid eating healthy, eating healthy helps them have a healthier body, and prevent diseases and other risks to the body.

Some reasons people may avoid healthy eating are that they are not financially able to buy the necessary items to have a healthy diet or that they just don’t know how to maintain a healthful diet. The basic components of a healthy diet include the right amount of: Protein (found in fish, meat, poultry, dairy products, eggs, nuts, and beans), Fat (found in animal and dairy products, nuts and oils), Carbohydrates (found in fruits, vegetables, pasta, rice, grains, beans, and other legumes and sweets), Vitamins (such as vitamins a, b, c, d, e, and k), Minerals (such as calcium, potassium, and iron.

The benefits of eating healthily are separated into 3 main categories, which include physical, social and emotional benefits. Some of the physical benefits of healthy eating include maintaining good body weight, supporting your body while you are growing so that you can reach your full physical potential and give you more energy to participate in physical activity. A balanced diet will ensure you have the essential nutrients you need for your brain to function efficiently. Some emotional health benefits include having more confidence and higher self esteem, people accept and like their body image and enjoy things more.

Being emotionally healthy and happy with your body and what you put into it can also reduce the number of people who suffer from eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia. Consuming too much or too little food can be because people are in very diverse situations. Not consuming enough food may lead to eating disorders, which can eventually lead to osteoporosis, major organs shutting down and death. An example of not eating enough is if a person’s energy use is greater than their food intake. 2. 2 Describe the possible consequences of an unhealthy diet

Without eating vegetables, along with the proper amounts of protein, dairy, carbohydrates, and good fats, children may face a number of problems, including stunted growth, poor academic performance, susceptibility to disease and disrupted sleep patterns. Severe deficiencies can even cause death. If a child is a picky eater, make sure that they make up for the lack of nutrients with vitamins or enriched juices, or you could be facing major problems in the future. Behaviour Nutrition certainly affects a child’s physical health, it can also affect your child’s behaviour as well.

Studies show that a poor diet may be associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), due to the preservatives, sugars and lack of thiamine found in many junk foods. Lack of proper nutrients can also affect a child in the opposite way. Without enough carbohydrates, proteins and good fats, a child may become lethargic and irritable. Intelligence The link between nutrition and intelligence has been studied since the 1980s. In 1984, one study found that children who took a micronutrient supplement had increased IQ scores, and other studies later confirmed these findings.

In terms of cognitive ability, children who eat a healthy diet will be better able to concentrate during school, which means that they can take full advantage of their intelligence potential. Dental Children with poor diets typically have poor dental health when compared to children who eat healthy diets. The main problem with a poor diet in regards to teeth is the amount of refined sugar in junk food. Sugars feed the bacteria in the mouth that cause cavities. In addition, processed foods and soft drinks usually have a lot of dyes in them, which can lead to staining.

Vitamin Deficiency Problems Vitamin deficiency can especially be a problem in children, as lack of specific nutrients could cause serious and irreversible health problems in children. Remember, children are affected more quickly than adults because their bodies are smaller and they are still growing. Lack of B vitamins can cause health problems like leg pains, ulcers, nausea, breathing problems and weakness. Vitamin C is another important nutrient for children, though most can get the Vitamin C they need pretty easily through foods and exposure to unlight. Vitamin D deficiency is extremely dangerous for children, because it can cause bowed legs, spine deformities and other growth problems. With a picky eater, parents can use a multi-vitamin made for kids as a supplement to prevent problems. Obesity Obesity is not a good thing in children. With a poor diet, weight can be a problem, even if a child is fairly active. Replace bad fats and sugars, such as those found in soda, chips, sweets and other junk foods with good fats, such as those found in olive oil, fruit and potatoes.

Obesity can cause diabetes, trouble sleeping, high blood pressure and breathing problems, as well as problems that last into adulthood. Other Problems Depending on the eating problems your child has, you might see other health issues as well. For example, a child who does not get enough calcium will develop rickets and a child who lacks protein may be weak or have stunted growth. Consistency is important for children. Suddenly removing or adding foods in high amounts can cause digestive problems, sleep trouble and mood changes. Slowly introduce healthy foods into a child’s diet, replacing poor food choices. 2. Describe how to recognise and deal with allergenic reactions to food What is a food allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system makes a mistake. Normally, your immune system protects you from germs and disease. It does this by making antibodies that help you fight off bacteria, viruses, and other tiny organisms that can make you sick. But if you have a food allergy, your immune system mistakenly treats something in a certain food as if it’s really dangerous to you. The same sort of thing happens with any allergy, whether it’s a medicine (like penicillin), pollen in the air (from flowers and trees), or a food, like peanuts.

So the thing itself isn’t harmful, but the way your body reacts to it is. Common causes of allergy symptoms include food allergies, such as peanut allergy, and seasonal allergies resulting from grass, weed, tree pollen or various moulds. Pet allergies can also cause miserable symptoms such as itchy eyes, sneezing, nasal congestion and wheezing, while allergic skin conditions can cause a rash and itchy skin. How to recognise an allergy: An allergic reaction usually happens within minutes after being exposed to an allergen, but sometimes it can take place several hours after exposure.

A reaction can involve any of these symptoms, and a person could have one or more of these symptoms regardless of the allergen: Skin system: hives, swelling, itching, warmth, redness, rash Respiratory system (breathing): coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain/tightness, throat tightness, hoarse voice, nasal congestion or hay fever-like symptoms (runny itchy nose and watery eyes, sneezing), trouble swallowing Gastrointestinal system (stomach): nausea, pain/cramps, vomiting, diarrhea Cardiovascular system (heart): pale/blue colour, weak pulse, passing out, dizzy/lightheaded, shock.

Other: anxiety, feeling of “impending doom”, headache, uterine cramps, metallic taste The most dangerous symptoms of an allergic reaction are: Trouble breathing caused by swelling of the airways (including a severe asthma attack for people who have asthma). A drop in blood pressure causing dizziness, light-headedness, feeling faint or weak, or passing out. Both can lead to death if untreated. The 5 Emergency Steps Give epinephrine (e. g. EpiPen) at the first signs of an allergic reaction. Call 999 and tell them that someone is having an anaphylactic reaction.

Give a second dose of epinephrine in 5-15 minutes IF the reaction continues or gets worse. Go to the nearest hospital right away (ideally by ambulance), even if symptoms are mild or have stopped. The reaction could get worse or come back after using epinephrine. You should stay in the hospital to be observed (generally about 4 hours). Call the emergency contact person (e. g. , parent, guardian, spouse). 2. 4 Describe where to get advice on dietary concerns The internet can be a good source of information, however, if however, there are underlying health issues then the doctor would be the better option.

Your doctor, may however, refer you to a nutrition expert at the local hospital. 3. Know how to encourage children and young people to make healthier food choices 3. 1 Describe the food policy of the setting * Menus are prepared quarterly, including the five food groups. (provided by Cambridgeshire County Council). * Portion sizes are reflected in the number and age of the children at each setting. * All food will be checked at the time of use to ensure that it is not past its use by (or best before) date. * That all menus will reflect the diversity and cultures of the children attending the setting. All food will be checked for a complete list of contents to identify any other ingredients that may be on our special dietary requirements/allergy list. * Vegans/vegetarians/those with special dietary requirements will be provided with similar looking meat-free alternative to pork, chicken etc. * Any other specific dietary requirements are a matter for agreement between the school and the parents. * All staff preparing food will have their food hygiene certificate. * Water is offered at all meal times as part of the menu.

The purpose of this policy is to ensure that adequate and nutritional meals and snacks are provided, as these are essential for a child’s well being. All parents/carers are requested to advise the school of any dietary requirements or allergies. This information will be transferred to the kitchen and to all staff caring for the child. 3. 2 Describe with examples ways of encouraging children and young people: A) To make healthier food choices B) To eat the food provided for them A/ There are five easy steps to encourage children and young people to make healthier food choices: 1. Start Early . Make It a Game 3. Be a Role Model 4. Use Consistency and Gentle Perseverance 5. Offer Non-Food Rewards Start Early The most important step to creating healthy food choices is starting early. It’s important to offer a wide variety of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables starting in infancy, perhaps even flavours and textures that are unfamiliar to the parent/carer. The earlier the exposure to a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, the more apt he will be to eat them later in life. Make It a Game Fresh fruits and vegetables come in a wide variety of colours and delicious flavours.

Instead of sneaking spinach into a dish, use food as a teaching tool encouraging children to eat foods that represent all the colours of the rainbow. This exercise encourages children to make healthy food choices while also providing a guideline for parents to ensure optimal nutrition. For example, a fun coloured chart could be used with pictures of food. When he/she has eaten that food let them mark off one green box in the vegetable category. Be a Role Model Children imitate their parents’ behaviour. If you yell and scream at your child, he/she will eventually yell and scream back at you. The same principles are true for food .

You can’t expect your child to happily eat his broccoli while you eat a plate full of french fries. As parents, we need to be role models who inspire healthy food choices. If your child sees you consistently making healthy food choices, he/she is more likely to do the same. Use Consistency and Gentle Perseverance Children can learn to eat healthy foods, but it can take eight to ten tries. The key is not to use force. Force will ensure in a child’s mind that healthy food must be bad . Let children help you with meal planning, grocery shopping, and even the food preparation if he/she is old enough.

This allows a choice in the matter, and he/she will be more likely to eat the foods that included his/her input. If your child is still refuses, be persistent and encourage him/her to eat only as many bites as he is old. For example, ask a three year old to eat only three bites of broccoli. If a child still refuses, let them go hungry. This sounds harsh, but they won’t starve. If the healthy food is replaced with something they will quickly learn that persistent refusal ends in their favour. Don’t give in. It will only harm them in the long run. Offer non-food rewards

It’s important not to provide sweet rewards for healthy eating. Bribing children is not an effective way to teach healthy food choices, as they will eventually assume the bribe is superior to the healthy food because it is used as a reward. Instead of sweet treats, offer physically active rewards – such as extra playtime with mummy or friends, a fun day at the park, or a new CD so they can dance to the music. Get creative and implement a child’s unique personality into their rewards. A child will eventually learn to have an appreciation for all foods. B) To eat the food provided for them

Let them participate in making their lunch, if they do, they are more apt to pick foods that they will eat. Experiment with different foods. For example, if peanut butter sandwiches feature prominently in the lunch box, find ways to vary them with assorted jams and fruits, or a sprinkling of sunflower seeds, or coconut. And remember that kids outgrow certain tastes. If the lunch hasn’t been eaten (or has been given away), try to find out why. Ask what didn’t taste good or what wasn’t appealing. Consider adding an occasional special treat or non edible surprise, like a funny note hidden in the bag to keep a child looking forward to lunch. . Be able to support hygiene during snack and meals 4. 1 Explain the importance of personal hygiene at meal and snack times Personal hygiene means the cleaning and grooming of the external body to make sure the skin, nails and hair are in a good condition. This is done to keep the body and hair clean and free from infections. Through eating, drinking, coughing, sneezing, sweating and elimination of urine and excrement the body needs cleaning to prevent infection, discomfort and odours. From maintaining a high standard of personal hygiene an individual feels clean, presentable and comfortable.

Through looking presentable and feeling clean an individual’s self esteem and self respect rises. There is less chance of infections developing and therefore the external body is healthier. Children should be encouraged to wash their hands before meals and snacks, and should be discouraged from eating off the floor; this is especially important if there are pets in the house. Using cutlery allows the child to learn table manners and will lessen the chance of the transfer of germs from the hands to the mouth. Teaching the correct principles of hygiene should begin at as early an age as possible.

It will help to prevent the spread of infections and diseases that can damage the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and the external features of the body. Children will follow the example set to them by their carers, so adults should lead by example. Less incidence of illness means fewer absences from school and less time needed to be taken off work. Maintaining correct hygiene will allow the child to be independent and will lessen the likelihood of bullying if they are kept clean and tidy and do not suffer from associated complaints. 4. Demonstrate good hygiene practice in relation to own role in food handling and waste disposal Observation 4. 3 Demonstrate ways of encouraging children and young people’s personal hygiene at meal and/or snack times Observation 5. Be able to support the code of conduct and policies for meal and snack times 5. 1 Describe the setting’s code of conduct and policies for meal and snack times When it is snack or lunchtime, the children is asked to visit the toilet as well as to wash their hands, before coming to the table for their meals, in an orderly fashion.

The school use meal and snack times to encourage the children to develop independence through making choices, serving food and drink and feeding themselves. To protect children with food allergies, sharing or swapping of food between children are discourage. Staff occasionally join the children during lunch, and try to make the occasion an enjoyable and sociable time for everyone and at the same time ensure there is not any rowdiness. The children are encouraged either by words or action by the staff how good table manners are. For example, not talking when our mouths are full or stretching across the table to get something.

When packed lunches are brought into the setting for lunch, parents are informed about our policy on healthy eating and are encouraged to put healthy items in their lunch boxes. The setting reserve the right to return food considered unsuitable, to the parent as a last resort. 5. 2 Apply skills and techniques for supporting and encouraging children and young people’s positive behaviour in the dining area including table manners Observation 5. 3 Apply skills and techniques for dealing with inappropriate behaviour in the dining area Observation

Cite this Nutrition and Food Choices

Nutrition and Food Choices. (2016, Oct 14). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/nutrition-and-food-choices/

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